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Apple A/UX 
PC Input Devices 
Three 20-MHz 80386s 

AUGUST 1988 


Script-Driven Communications 

The First of 
the 25-MHz 

Computing moves up 
another notch 


The C Language 

with Kernighan and Ritchie, 
Stroustrup, and others 


, Norton on OS/2 
Four New Columns 
Short Takes: 

Dell System 220 


Grammatik III 

Paradox OS/2 

q Deskpro 386/25 

Netpro 386/2S 


\T$t ' 

Intel SYP302 


Everex Step 386/25 

o 440235" o 

$3.50 U.S.A./S4.50IN CANADA 



./•*■-' .*" 


t — — 

oi 3 

rclStCSt and most approachable 
implementation of that language" 

-Darryl Rubin, AI Expert, on Turbo Prolog 


"Most powerful 

version of Basic ever" 

—Ethan Winer, PC Magazine, on Turbo Basic 

And able to leap 

onto "new ground in the 
price/performance arena 

— John H. Mayer, Computer Design, 
on Turbo C 














r / 



See the technological 
excellence of Turbo C, 
Turbo Pascal and 
Turbo Basic! 

Meet Turbo Prolog 2.0: 
Artificial Intelligence like 
you've never seen it! 

The Critics Agree: Borland's 

"Turbo C . . . will stun you with in-RAM 
compilations that operate at warp speed." 

"Turbo Pascal 4.0 flies 
4.0 is ballistic!" 

Turbo C's 8 sleek 
compiler is so fast 
and powerful, we 
used it to write our 
equation solver, 
Eureka.'" Even better, 
all that muscle is 
wrapped in a smooth, 
integrated environment with every- 
thing you need to make writing, 
editing and compiling your programs 
a snap: 

• Compiles 10,000 lines per minute* 

• Online, context-sensitive help 

• ANSI compatible 

• Six memory models— tiny to huge 

• 450 library functions 

• Utilities: Librarian, Make, GREP 

• Source code for MicroCalc 

• Command-line version of the compiler 

• Inline assembly that lets you mix 
C and assembler 

System Requirements Fur the IBM PS/2'" and the IBM 8 family of 
personal computers and all 100% compatibles. PC-DOS (MS-DOS) 2.0 or 
later. 384KRSM. 

—Richard Hale Shaw, PC Magazine 

• Professional-quality graphics library 
supporting VGA, CGA, EGA, Hercules, 
and IBM 8514 

• Interfaces with Turbo Pascal 4.0 
and Turbo Prolog 

Just $99.95 

H A lightning fast, fully featured C 
compiler suitable for almost every- 
thing . . . Borland's Turbo C compiler 
is flexible, fast and friendly. 

—Peter Feldman, PC Week JJ 

Heap Sort 

Turbo C 1.5 | Microsoft C 5.0 

Compile time 

4.7 sec. 16.3 sec. 

Compiles link 

7.4 sec. 

19.5 sec. 

Execute time 

10.5 sec. 

15.5 sec. 

Object code size 



Execution size 



Sort benchmark run on an It MHz IBM AT using Turbo C version 1.5 and 
the Turbo Linker version I.I; Microsoft C version 5.0 and the MS overlay 
linker version 3.61. 

-Tom Swan, 

Almost from 
its introduction, 
Turbo Pascal® has 
been the world- 
wide Pascal stan- 
dard. It's fast. It's 
flexible. It's affor- 
dable. And it 
gives you full control. 

Compile more than 27,000 lines 
of code per minute*. And work in a 
complete, integrated programming 
environment with pull-down menus 
and a full-featured editor. 

You don't have to swap code in 
and out to beat the 64K barrier; it's 
designed for large programs. Break 
your code into convenient modules 
and work with them swiftly and 
separately. If there's an error in 
one, you can see it and fix it. 

System Requirements For the IBM PS/2'" and the IBM® family of 

personal computers and all 100% compatibles. PC-DOS (MS-DOS) 2.0 or 
later. 3B4K RAM. 

t Customer satisfaction is oor main concern; if within 00 days of purchase 
this product does not perform In accordance wlih our claims, call our 
customer service department, and we will arrange a refund. 

All Borland products are trademarks or registered trademarks of Borland Inter- 
national. Inc. Other brand and product names are trademarks of their respecuve 
holders. Copyright °1988 Borland International. Inc. Bl I230A 

Turbo Languages are Super ! 

like a rocket . . . 

/ 987 Programmer's Journal 

Powerful features include: 

• Producing EXE files 

• Separate compilation 

• Built-in project management 

• Graph unit including support 
for IBM CGA, EGA, VGA, and 
3270, Hercules and ATT 6300 

• Online, context-sensitive help 
*Runonan8MHzIBM PC AT. 

Add expertise: 

The Turbo Pascal Toolboxes 

Start with Turbo Pascal Tutor for 
just $69.95 and add the others as 
your interests and expertise grow: 

• Database Toolbox 

• Editor Toolbox 

• Graphix Toolbox 

• Numerical Methods Toolbox 

• GameWorks 

Toolboxes require Turbo Pascal 4.0 
Just $99.95 each 

U Each new Turbo Pascal 4.0 Tool- 
box is a virtual treasure of program- 
ming methods and tips. 

—Giovanni Perrone, PC Week JJ 

Circle 26 on Reader .Service Card 
(DEALERS: 27) 

"Turbo Basic compiles faster than 
anything I have seen." -Ethmwmer,pcMa S ame 

Turbo Basic® is 
the lightning-fast 
Basic compiler 
with a total devel- 
opment environ- 
ment that puts you 
in full control. 
Even novices can 
write professional programs with 
Turbo Basic's full-screen windowed 
editor, pull-down menus, and trace 
debugging system. You also get a long 
list of innovative Borland features 
like binary disk files, true recursion, 
and increased compilation control. 
Plus the ability to create programs as 
large as your system's memory can 
hold— not just a cramped 64 K. 
The choice is basic: Turbo Basic! 

Just $99.95! 

44 Turbo Basic, simply put, is an 
incredibly good product ... Not only 
is this the most advanced BASIC 
ever, but Borland has lived up to 
its Turbo tradition. 

— William Zachmann, Computerworld }} 

Add another Basic advantage: 
The Turbo Basic Toolboxes 

• The Database Toolbox 

• The Editor Toolbox 

Toolboxes require Turbo Basic 1.1 
Just $99.95 each. 

System Requirements For the IBM PS/2" and the IBM® family d 
personal computers and all 11)0% compatibles. PC-DOS (MS-DOS) 2.0 or 
later. 3S4K RAM. 640K to compile toolboxes, 

Compare the BASIC differences 

Turbo Basic 1. 1 

QuickBASIC 4.0 Compiler QuickBASIC 4.0 Interpreter 

Compile & Link to 
stand-alone EXE 

3 sec. 

7 sec. 




Execution time 

O.I 6 sec. 

16.5 sec. 

21.5 sec. 

Execution time 
w/o 80287 

0. 16 sec. 

286.3 sec. 

292.3 sec. 

The Klkins Optimization Benchmark program Trum March 1988 issue of Computer language was used. The Program was run on an IBM 
PS/2 Model 60 with 80287. The benchmark tests compiler's ability to optimize loop-invariant code, unused code, expression and condi- 
tional evaluation. 

Turbo Prolog 2.0: Powerful Artificial 
Intelligence for your real- world applications! 

New Turbo Prolog 8 2.0 lets you 
harness powerful AI techniques. 
And you don't have to be an expert 
programmer or artificial intelli- 
gence genius! 

You get an all-new Prolog 
compiler that's been optimized to 
produce smaller and more efficient 
programs than ever before. An 
improved full-screen, completely 
customizable editor with easy pull- 
down menus. All-new documenta- 
tion, including a tutorial rich with 
examples and instructions to take 
you all the way from basic program- 
ming to advanced techniques. Even 
online help! 

System Requirements For the IBM PS/2" ana ihc IBM® family of 

personal computers and all H)0% compalibles. PC-DOS (MS-DOS) 2.0 or 
lau-.r. 384K RAM. 

More new features! 
An external database system 
for developing large databases. 
Supports B+ trees and EMS 
Source code for a fully-featured 
Prolog interpreter written 
entirely in Turbo Prolog. Plus 
step-by-step instructions to adapt 
it or include it as is in your own 

Support for the Borland 
Graphics Interface, the same 
professional-quality graphics 
in Turbo Pascal, Turbo C, 
and Quattro 
Improved windowing 
Powerful exception handling 
and error trapping features 
Full compatibility with Turbo C 
so the two languages can call 
each other freely 
Supports multiple internal 
High-resolution video support 

Turbo Prolog Toolbox is 
6 toolboxes in one! 

More than 80 tools and 8,000 
lines of source code help you build 
your own Turbo Prolog applications. 
Includes toolboxes for menus, 
screen and report layouts, business 
graphics, communications, file- 
transfer capabilities, parser 
generators, and more! 

Toolbox requires Turbo Prolog 2.0 

Just $99.95 

ii If I had to pick one single 
recommendation for people who 
want to try to keep up with the 
computer revolution. I'd say, 
'Get and learn Turbo Prolog.' 

—Jerry Pournelle, Byte 1/88 

An affordable, fast, and easy-to-use 

—Dairy I Rubin, AI Expert JJ 

Just $149.95! 

60-Day Money-back Guarantee t 

For the dealer nearest you 
Gall (800) 543-7543 

Circle 28 on Reader Service Card (Dealers: 29) 






67 What's New 

89 Short Takes 

Dell System 220, a small but 
powerful desktop system 
T-DebugPLUS 4.0, symbolic 
debugging for Turbo Pascal 4. 
Cambridge Computer Z88, small 
is beautiful 

Grammatik III, comprehensive 
grammar checking 
Watcom C 6.0, a class act 
Paradox OS/2, a solid entree 
into OS/2 applications 


101 Computing at Chaos Manor: 
A Fond Farewell 

by Jerry Pournelle 
Is Jerry's old friend Zeke 
II retiring to greener 

115 Applications Plus: 
New Directions 
by Ezra Shapiro 
The column's horizons are 
expanded, and GrandView 
defines a new class of software. 

121 Down to Business: 

Staking Out the Territory 

by Wayne Rash Jr. 
What trends are most important to 
business users? This new column 
starts with some thoughts on 
networking and database servers. 

125 Macinations: 

What's Up with Apple? 

by Don Crabb 
New columnist Don Crabb 
discusses Macintosh products 
and issues. 

131 OS/2 and You: 
Why OS/2? 

by Mark Minasi 
The debut of this column 
covers some of OS/2' s 
attractive features. 

Cover Story: 
25-MHz 80386 Machines/140 

Communications Packages/148 


135 COM1: 

The Wired Society 

by Brock N. Meeks 
Noted telecommunicator 
Brock N. Meeks surveys 
the communications landscape. 


140 25-MHz Computing 

by Rick Grehan 
From Compaq, Everex, Intel, 
and SimpleNet, here they come: 
the first of the 25-MHz 
80386-based AT clones. 


148 Product Focus: 
According to Script 

by Steve Apiki and Stan Diehl 
Stand-alone communications 
packages that can handle 
a communications session 

162 Variations on the 20-MHz 

by Ed McNierney 
The Tatung TCS-8000, Proteus 
386A, and Everex Step 386/20 
offer a range of performance 
and capabilities. 

173 Four Surrogate Mice 

by JeffHoltzman 
PC-Trac, FastTRAP, Trackball 
Plus, and Felix offer the 
functionality of a mouse 
without the hassle. 

185 Unix for the Mac II 

by David Betz and Eva M. White 
Transform the Mac II into a Unix 
workstation with A/UX. 

195 VersaCAD on a Mac 

by Paul Tuten 

The MS-DOS-based drafting 

tool is now available 

in a Macintosh edition. 

200 Review Update 

2 BYTE' AUGUST 1988 



202 Introduction: The C Language 

205 The State of C 

by Brian W. Kernighan 
and Dennis M. Ritchie 
Originally designed for systems 
programming, C has become one 
of the most widely used languages 
in the world. 



Editorial: Touching All the Bases 






Chaos Manor Mail 





Book Reviews 


Coming Up in BYTE 

215 A Better C? 

by Bjarne Stroustrup 

The C + + language is a superset 

of C that supports data abstraction 

and object-oriented 


219 It's an Attitude 

by Jonathan S. Linowes 
A mechanism for doing 
object-oriented programming 
in conventional C. 

226 Resource Guide 


229 Making the Move to OS/2 
by Robert E. Shostak, John 
Socha, Linda Dudinyak, 
and David P. Reed 
Top programmers from Borland, 
Norton, and Lotus talk about 
what it took to port their 
programs to OS/2. 


239 Ciarcia's Circuit Cellar: 

Why Microcontrollers?, Part 1 

by Steve Ciarcia 
A tutorial perspective 
of the Intel 8031/8051 
microcontroller family. 

249 Some Assembly Required: 

The Pitfalls of Porting, Part 2 

by Rick Grehan 

Porting an MS-DOS application 

to the Mac is discussed. 

The C Language/202 

Circuit Cellar/239 


290 Editorial Index by Company 
292 Alphabetical Index to Advertisers 
294 Index to Advertisers by Product 


Inquiry Reply Cards: after 296 


From BIX: see 182 
From BYTEnet: 
call (617) 861-9764 
On disk or in print: 
see card after 248 

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4 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 

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EDITORIAL m Fred Langa 

Touching All 
the Bases 

Hybrid speed demons, 
a new 80386 chip, four 
new monthly columns, 
and an In Depth section 
on the C language 

Tust 90 days ago, a handful of rela- 
tively new 20-MHz 80386-based 
machines sat comfortably at the 
top of the heap: the fastest desktop 
computers. Today, they have been rele- 
gated to second-tier status by a veritable 
explosion of 25-MHz computers. 

Their reign, in turn, also may be brief: 
We know of at least one manufacturer 
who is preparing 30-MHz motherboards 
using "goosed" 25-MHz chips. (If it 
turns into a working product, you'll read 
about it in a future BYTE.) 

But, at least for now, 25 MHz is as fast 
as it gets for real, desktop machines 
using more-or-less conventional archi- 
tectures. The enhancements usually in- 
clude fast RAM accessed by a propri- 
etary 32-bit-wide memory bus and built- 
in disk caching. The rest of such a 
machine tends to be built from stock 
IBM PC AT-class parts. Our cover story 
gives you an early look at preproduction 
models of four examples of this new wave 
of hybrid speed demons. 

Speaking of hybrids, the cover story 
also discusses the Compaq 386S, a very- 
small-footprint machine that uses a new 
kind of 16-MHz 80386 chip: It's 32 bits 
wide internally, but it communicates 
with the outside world through an IBM 
PC AT-style 16-bit bus. (No, at this 
time, you can't use the chip as a plug- 
and-play replacement for an 80286. To 
date, the only such replacement we know 
of is the Cheetah Adapter/386, which we 
covered in April 1987.) 

This new chip, which is called the 
80386SX, may produce a whole new 

kind of IBM PC AT-class machine based 
on the 80386. (The 80286 could be 
pushed downward into entry-level ma- 
chines.) In theory, this would simplify 
things, because everyone above the entry 
level could standardize on 80386-spe- 
cific software and thus circumvent some 
of the current hoop jumping required to 
cope with the limitations of the 80286. 
(An entry-level user isn't likely to bump 
up against the 80286's shortcomings.) 
It's a development that bears close 

While enhancements abound on the 
IBM PC side, the machines based on the 
68000 family haven't exactly been dead 
in the water, either— witness the steady 
stream of new products for the Mac- 

In fact, there's so much interesting 
Macintosh material, that we've placed a 
special Macintosh supplement between 
this month's Products in Perspective and 
In Depth sections. Be sure to take a look. 

With all this activity, it's getting more 
difficult to stay abreast of all the impor- 
tant developments in microcomputing- 
harder to touch all the bases. That's why 
we've added four new monthly columns 
starting with this issue. They'll help en- 
sure that you get the information you 
need— when you need it— in these criti- 
cal areas: 

OS/2: You've read about the theory, 
you've seen some sample code, and you 
may have seen an actual OS/2 application 
in action. But chances are, you don't own 
a copy of OS/2 yet. Noted OS/2 consul- 
tant Mark Minasi's "OS/2 and You" col- 
umn offers some welcome perspective on 
making the move to OS/2 by combining 
technical insights, practical tips, and 
plain old common sense. 
Communications: Brock Meeks, an 
award-winning author, writes about his 
passion: telecommunications. Each 
month, Brock's "COM1:" column will 
offer a mix of "hard" and "soft" tele- 
communications topics, examining the 

technology and issues relating to point- 
to-point and area computer communi- 

Business: Wayne Rash's name is familiar 
to longtime BYTE readers: He's a regu- 
lar and popular contributor. When he 
isn't writing for BYTE, Wayne makes his 
living as a computer consultant to gov- 
ernment and business. His specialty is 
solving the distinctive problems encoun- 
tered by those who deal with large instal- 
lations of microcomputers— networking, 
security, operational issues. . .the list of 
possible bottlenecks is almost infinite. 
Proven solutions to those myriad prob- 
lems are the focus of his "Down to Busi- 
ness" column. 

Macintosh: Don Crabb is another famil- 
iar name. Don has been a regular re- 
viewer of Mac products for us. He's a 
participant in Apple's educational con- 
sortium and a frequent beta tester of new 
Mac products. The "Macinations" col- 
umn is Don's forum to share his experi- 
ences with us. 

This month's In Depth section also de- 
serves special attention: It focuses on the 
top language for serious software devel- 
opment today. Virtually every major 
software package available today was 
coded in C: The C language is quite liter- 
ally the foundation of today's software 

For our In Depth, we went to the folks 
who literally wrote the book: We have 
excellent articles by Kernighan and Rit- 
chie, Bjarne Stroustrup, and others. 
(Dennis Ritchie is the designer of the C 
language; he and Brian Kernighan are 
the authors of the standard "K&R" refer- 
ence on C. Bjarne Stroustrup is the cre- 
ator of the general-purpose, object- 
oriented superset of C called C+ + .) 
This In Depth also features an unusually 
rich two-page Resource Guide. It's defi- 
nitely a keeper. 

— Fred Langa 

Editor in Chief 

(BIX name "f langa") 

6 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 



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First Looks 
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r i 

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une, 1988 


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8 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 

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Staff-written highlights of developments 
in technology and the microcomputer industry 

Experimental Adder Circuit Could Speed Up Clock Cycles 

Probably the most fun- 
damental operation in 
computing is the use of 
logic gates to add two register 
values. The speed of regis- 
ter-to-register addition plays 
a large role in determining 
a computer's clock cycle 
speed. A typical 16-MHz 
machine would have an add 
time of 62 nanoseconds 
(this figure does not include 
register-to-register times, 
which would increase the 
number somewhat); high- 

performance machines like 
the VAX typically have an 
add time of 45 ns. 

Researchers at Stanford 
University have developed a 
new adder circuit that they 
hope will speed up addition 
times to about 1 ns for full 
32-bit addition. The "sub- 
nanosecond arithmetic 
project," directed by profes- 
sor Michael Flynn, is spon- 
sored by the Center for Inte- 
grated Systems, a very 
large scale integration (VLSI) 

ParcPlace Hopes Smalltalk 
Makes It Big 

Although BYTE devoted 
almost an entire issue to 
Smalltalk in August 1981, 
the object-oriented program- 
ming environment has re- 
mained relegated to academic 
and research institutions. In 
that issue 7 years ago, Dr. 
Adele Goldberg wrote that 
the "Smalltalk system is tak- 
ing flight into the main- 
stream of the computer pro- 
gramming community." As 
president of ParcPlace Sys- 
tems (Palo Alto, CA), a 
new company dedicated to 
promoting and enhancing 
Smalltalk, Goldberg hopes to 
make good on that claim, 
although somewhat 

ParcPlace is working on 
new features for the environ- 
ment, including expanded 
libraries of "reusable parts" 
and "reusable frameworks" 
(a series of interacting re- 
usable parts). These librar- 
ies will enable designers of 
user interfaces to select 
graphical objects or a se- 
quence of activities involv- 
ing objects for use in their 
designs, similar to how a 

conventional programmer 
might call an existing func- 
tion from a library for use in 
a program. "We're trying 
to provide tools for develop- 
ment of new interfaces, but 
we're dedicated to the stan- 
dards of the vendors," 
Goldberg said. Objects con- 
sistent with AT&T's new 
Open Look version of Unix, 
for example, would be in- 
cluded in the Smalltalk reus- 
able-parts libraries. "Our 
objective is to provide a mal- 
leable information environ- 
ment where you can specify 
the user interface you want 
and find parts in libraries. 
Not everyone is a graphic 
artist or human factors ex- 
pert," Goldberg said. 

Other projects that Parc- 
Place is working on include 
graphical interfaces for 
Structured Query Language 
(SQL) database systems, 
and interfaces to object-ori- 
ented databases with exten- 
sible data types and "active 
objects" stored in the data- 
base. An active object can 
actually interact with the 


research center funded by 
several major electronics 

The adder circuit is 
based on a new addition algo- 
rithm that combines the 
best features of three com- 
monly used addition algo- 
rithms: Ling's algorithm, the 
carry look-ahead algo- 
rithm, and the conditional 
sum algorithm. The adder 
circuit requires only three 
gate delays (the time span 
between the input and the 
output of the final sum), 
while current adder circuits 
generally require about 
eight gate delays. 

"Ultimately," Flynn 
said, "we're trying to create 
a technology to achieve 1- 
ns cycle times." He sees the 
adder circuit as the first 
step in that direction. How- 
ever, the speed of the new 
circuit won't have much im- 
pact until other major pro- 
cessing bottlenecks, such as 
memory and cache access 
speeds, are also accelerated. 
The entire design of micro- 
processors will have to 
change in order to realize 
1-ns processing speeds, 
Flynn said. 

The first prototype is 
currently being fabricated 
using emitter coupled logic 
(ECL) gates. Flynn said he 
hopes the first chip will 
yield an addition speed of 
about 1.5 ns. The research 
group is also working on a 
CMOS version. The next 
phase of the project will in- 
clude the development of a 
bipolar ECL floating-point 
multiplier circuit. 

The "subnanosecond" 
project is futuristic, but 
Flynn sees more immediate 
potential for application of 
the adder and multiplier 
circuits in floating-point 


<■ The current shortage 
of 1 -megabit single in- 
line memory modules 

(SIMMs)— chips that are 
widely used in Apple 
Computer's Macintosh 
and LaserWriter— is 
likely to continue for an- 
other year, an Apple ex- 
ecutive says. Apple chief 
operating officer Del 
Yocam said it will take 
until the "middle of next 
year" for supply of the 
chips to reach acceptable 
levels for manufacturers. 
This could mean, 
sources said, that Apple 
will have to delay intro- 
duction of new machines, 
such as an enhanced 
Mac SE. Yocam said the 
scarcity of 1 -megabit 
chips is due to Japanese 
failure to foresee the 
growth in demand for 1- 
megabit chips and the 
Reagan administration's 
trade embargoes. The 
memory chips Apple al- 
ready has under contract 
will have to be used in 
units already in produc- 
tion. You can go into cer- 
tain computer shops and 
buy the SIMMs, but 
you'll pay a pretty price 
for them. 

e Only 2 percent of the 
computer software sold in 
the Arab Middle East is 
legitimate, according to 
Oliver Smoot, executive 
vice president of the Com- 
puter and Business 
Equipment Manufacturers 
Association. Smoot said 
the 98 percent piracy 
rate is largely among 
users working for govern- 
ments and state-owned 

s Many users didn't like 

AUGUST 1988 'BYTE 11 



it, but one software indus- 
try executive thinks it's 
time to bring back copy 
protection for certain 
types of programs. "I 
think copy protection for 
business software went 
away prematurely," said 
Ken Wasch, executive di- 
rector of the Software 
Publishers Association. 
Wasch told a group of 
Amiga developers in 
Washington, DC that 
software companies gave 
in to user demands too 
easily. "All we have to 
protect ourselves is 
moral persuasion," he 
said. Wasch added that 
the SPA uses litigation as a 
second line of defense. 

• In the future, laser 
printer engines with very 
high resolution may not 
be required, says presi- 
dent Luis Villalobos of 
Conographic (Irvine, 
CA), which makes Post- 
Script-compatible printer 
controller cards that go 

in IBM PCs and compat- 
ibles. Villalobos said he 
has seen 300- to 600-dot- 
per-inch monochrome 
and color print engines, 
beyond the prototyping 
stage, that can vary dot 
size and/or intensity to 
produce apparent resolu- 
tions of 1000 to 3000 
dpi. Color images pro- 
duced on these systems 
can rival conventional op- 
tical-based printing 
techniques, Villalobos 

• Meanwhile, CSS Labs 
(Irvine, CA) is coming 
out with a laser printer 
controller card that has 
its own INMOS Trans- 
puter and could, the com- 
pany says, crank out 45 
pages per minute. The 
GRIP board for IBM 
PCs and compatibles will 
work with several laser 
engines, the company 
said. When not working 
on printing tasks, the 


user when selected. For ex- 
ample, active objects could 
be used to monitor the data- 
base system to keep track of 
who's using it and for what 
purposes, or for more mun- 
dane tasks such as automati- 
cally sending electronic 
mail to other users of the 
database network. Parc- 
Place is also working on de- 
velopment tools for C + + 
(an object-oriented language 
based on C), which Gold- 
berg said "complements 
Smalltalk-80 and gives C 

programmers the chance to 
look at extensible data 

In the last year, Parc- 
Place has made available a 
version of Smalltalk-80 for 
the Macintosh, and the com- 
pany expects to have an 
MS-DOS version in beta test- 
ing this summer. Priced be- 
tween $695 and $1295, the 
Smalltalk versions for the 
Macintosh and MS-DOS are 
fully compatible with the 
versions of Smalltalk run- 
ning on Sun, Apollo, and 

Hewlett-Packard work- 

In any case, Goldberg 
has high hopes for Smalltalk. 
She points to software de- 
velopers, such as Borland's 
Philippe Kahn, talking 
about incorporating "Small- 
talk-like features" in their 
products. And she sees the 
move in the microcomputer 
world toward graphical inter- 
faces and the need for por- 
tability across operating sys- 
tems as golden oppor- 
tunities for Smalltalk. 

Synchronous SCSI Seen as Coming Standard 
for Peripherals 

As CPU performance 
keeps increasing, the 
I/O speed of disks and 
other peripherals is becom- 
ing the major bottleneck in 
system performance. The 
best solution to the I/O 
bottleneck is the synchronous 
small computer system in- 
terface (SCSI), according to 
some product designers. 
Adaptec (Milpitas, CA), a 
major manufacturer of disk 
controllers, sees increasing 
use of embedded SCSI con- 
nections in hard disk and tape 
drives, as well as in other 
peripherals such as printers, 
said product manager 
Danial Faizullabhoy. "In a 
year or so," he said, "SCSI 

will be the de facto periph- 
eral interface. " 

Synchronous SCSI is at- 
tractive because it is about 40 
percent faster than asyn- 
chronous SCSI and also out- 
performs "native bus inter- 
faces" such as the IBM PC 
AT bus and IBM's Micro 
Channel, proponents say. 
While the standard AT bus 
has a maximum data transfer 
rate of 1 megabyte per sec- 
ond and the Micro Channel 
transfers at about 3 mega- 
bytes per second, synchro- 
nous SCSI clocks in at 
about 5 megabytes per sec- 
ond. Although Faizullab- 
hoy does not see SCSI replac- 
ing native bus interfaces, he 

said that Adaptec expects 
most major computer 
manufacturers, including 
IBM, to have built-in syn- 
chronous SCSI ports in the 
next product cycle, if they 
don't have them already. 

Adaptec will soon be an- 
nouncing new controller 
products using synchronous 
SCSI. According to Faizul- 
labhoy, the next phase in 
the development of SCSI will 
be moving up to 16-bit 
bandwidths. In the 1990s, he 
said, we'll see 32-bit-band- 
width SCSI interfaces. Mean- 
while, ESDI will drop off, 
leaving primarily SCSI and 
native bus interfaces domi- 
nating the market, he said. 

AMD's Database Manager Chip Replaces 
Software Routines 

Anew microprocessor 
peripheral that could 
speed up database manage- 
ment tasks by replacing soft- 
ware with hardware has 
been developed by Advanced 
Micro Devices (Sunnyvale, 
CA). The Am95C85 Content 
Addressable Data Manager 
(CADM) coprocessor is de- 
signed to take over from the 
CPU such data-manipulation 
tasks as sorting, searching, 
inserting, and deleting 

records. It could be used in 
networking and communica- 
tions, file serving, high- 
speed graphics systems, and 
other areas that require fast 
data manipulation. 

The Am95C85 uses 1.6- 
micron CMOS technology 
and contains IK byte of 
RAM and a control unit. The 
control unit enables a single 
command to access the 
CADM's memory without 
having to provide physical 

addresses. According to the 
company, the chip can pro- 
vide content-addressable 
searches for 8-byte fields in 
less than 10 microseconds. 
The chip's architecture en- 
ables cascading up to 16 of 
the devices for large database 

AMD has been working 
on the processor for 4 years, 
said Dave Horton, a devel- 
opment manager for the chip. 

12 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 


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AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 13 



on printing tasks, the 
board could be used as a 
high-speed coprocessor. 

• In a move seen as a 
crucial step in U.S. ef- 
forts to overtake Japan's 
leadership in the semicon- 
ductor industry, the De- 
partment of Defense will 
boost its funding of 
Sematech (Austin, TX), 
the chip-research con- 
sortium, by $100 million 
a year through 1992. 
Sematech chairman 
Sandy Kane responded 

to criticism that the Penta- 
gon will pull the group's 
research into defense- 
oriented projects. "Our 
work is not going to be de- 
fense-related," he said. 
According to Kane, the 
Pentagon recognizes that 
"a healthy U.S. semicon- 
ductor industry will ulti- 
mately be good for the 
national defense." 

• "Ifyouaskmewhat 
the future of the micro- 
computer is, it is in 
multitasking and parallel 
processing," says Henri 
Rubin, chief operating of- 
ficer of Commodore In- 
ternational (West Chester, 
PA). In an interview 
with BYTE, Rubin said 
that Commodore's use 

of coprocessor communi- 
cations is an indication 
of where the company is 
going technologically. 
The Amiga maker has 
been a leader in support- 
ing both Motorola and 
Intel processors within 
the same computer, he 
said. "Some people say 
we just have two com- 
puters in a box," he 
said, "but that's not true. 
It's more than that. " 

• Our trend signaler 
isn't blinking brightly yet, 
but we could be seeing a 
drop in prices of galli- 
um-arsenide chips. 
GigaBit Logic (Newbury 
Park, CA) has cut prices 
of its high-speed GaAs 


"We saw the need to off- 
load some tasks from the sys- 
tem CPU," he said. "One 
of the problems we faced, 
though, was like the chick- 
en and the egg: The hardware 
people didn't want to build 
boards when there was no 
software to access the chip, 
and the software folks didn't 
want to port their code 
when there was no hardware 
to use it." 

The chip uses a new 
memory cell that's "sort of a 
cross between RAM and 

FIFO," Horton said. "The 
cells enable us to split 
memory at a certain point, 
holding all memory above 
the split constant while let- 
ting us shift the remaining 
memory up or down, adding 
or deleting records. " Hor- 
ton theorized that the first 
PC application board prob- 
ably would have one or two 
chips on-board, with sock- 
ets for a total of up to 16. 
Currently, AMD has a 
demonstration board and 
software available. The 

The Electric Cadaver 

Two doctors at Stanford 
Medical Center have de- 
veloped an electronic text- 
book for anatomy students 
that clearly demonstrates 
the potential power of hyper- 
text and multimedia con- 
cepts in electronic publish- 
ing. The Electric Cadaver 
was developed by Dr. Robert 
Chase, a specialist in anat- 
omy, and Dr. Steven Freed- 
man, a physician with a 
long-standing interest in elec- 
tronic publications for med- 
ical practice and training. 

Built on a Macintosh II 
with Apple's HyperCard, the 
Electric Cadaver is a dy- 
namic cross-referencing sys- 
tem that describes the 
structure and function of 
each part of the human 
anatomy. (Freedman built 
the first version 4 years ago 
on an IBM PC AT using Ash- 
tonTate's Framework). 
Images are displayed in digi- 
tized form on the computer 
screen and simultaneously in 
analog form on a videodisk 
player. The user can click on 
any part of the human body 
and then select from an index 
of topics on the screen. 

Most parts of the anat- 
omy are presented both in 
x-ray and bone structure 
form; many parts are shown 
from different angles and 
magnifications. In addition, 
results of physical injuries 
can be visually described. 
For example, clicking on 

the facial nervous system dis- 
plays a normal human face 
on the screen. By then click- 
ing on indicated "injury 
zones" on the map of facial 
nerves, you can see the re- 
sulting types of paralysis in 
the face on the screen. 

The HyperCard applica- 
tion includes an indexing sys- 
tem that can select any 
image on the videodisk play- 
er via serial communica- 
tion. The Electric Cadaver 
has a "Frame Editor" that 
lets users customize the elec- 
tronic textbook by adding 
or editing frames, adding 
text, and creating animated 
sequences. The system dem- 
onstrated to Microbytes in- 
cluded video movies, devel- 
oped by Chase, of various 
anatomical functions, as well 
as still-frame images. 

The still-frame images 
are derived primarily from a 
database of 1600 anatomi- 
cal images (which was devel- 
oped with the help of the 
man who invented the View- 
Master). The images were 
converted in two-dimensional 
format to a videodisk by 
photographing each frame on 
a high-quality video cam- 
era, adding captions with a 
character generator, and 
converting the videotape to 

According to Chase and 
Freedman, the Electric 
Cadaver is a tremendous 
timesaver as a teaching and 

first commercial product that 
will use the chips will be a 
network bridge, from a Euro- 
pean company, that will de- 
tect packet-address informa- 
tion in real time and direct 
it along the correct path in 
the network. In such an ap- 
plication, there is no time for 
the conventional lookup 
table approach. 

CADM prices are $49.20 
for the 12-MHz version and 
$66.50 for the 16-MHz ver- 
sion in quantities of 100. The 
chips are available now. 

reference tool for medical 
students. "Traditionally," 
Freedman said, "students 
develop their own 'meta- 
books' by excerpting, com- 
piling, and cross-referencing 
source material from multi- 
ple text books and other ref- 
erences. This is an incredi- 
ble waste of time." 

The electronic textbook 
eliminates the need for this 
kind of tedium and provides 
a much more visual and in- 
structive presentation of the 
information to be learned, 
Freedman said. The system 
is also useful as a reference 
for physicians and sur- 
geons; for example, a doctor 
could use the system to 
compare a CAT scan or x-ray 
of an unhealthy patient with 
a corresponding image of a 
normal anatomy in the 
Electric Cadaver. 

Chase and Freedman 
hope to digitize the 
Cadaver's images in three 
dimensions, using a system 
like Digital Video Interac- 
tive, which would allow the 
graphics to be dynamic and 
adjustable so that students 
could change parameters 
(such as bone density). The 
doctors plan to add images 
from microscopic anatomy 
and are also exploring the 
use of bar code readers and 
other pointing mechanisms 
so that the system could be 
connected to a real cadaver. 

14 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 

Insist on a 

Sysgen 5 Vi" 

drive for 

your PS/2. 

Here's why: 

A Sysgen™ Bridge-File"' gives a PS/2™ full access 
to your current data and software, with unparalleled 
5Va" disk drive performance and reliability. You get: 
A larger capacity drive. Two modes — a 360Kb and a 
powerful 1 . 2 Mb — assure you comprehensive transfer cap- 
abilities and convenience for total office needs. Others, 
like IBM®'s, offer only 360Kb. Proven reliability. In 
fact, Sysgen is the choice of over 100,000 satisfied Bridge- 
File and tape back-up 
users. No slot loss. 
The Sysgen 5Va" 
drive adapter card 
doesn't take any 
additional slot space. 
IBM's does. Built- 
in flexibility of an 
external connector. 
You can add another 
Bridge-File drive or 

Sysgen 's high-performance tape back-up system, 
Bridge-Tape™ (As a Bridge-File owner, you receive a 
total savings of $135 on Bridge-Tape!) What's more, 

Sysgen's footprint is smaller. A full 50% smaller than 
IBM's. For the best PS/2 access to 5W disks, and the 
best value at only $325 , insist on Sysgen Bridge-File. 

Sysgen offers the only complete family of data 
transfer products: Including the 3W Bridge-File 
floppy disk drive, for transferring information from any 
PS/2 to any PC. And the Bridge-Tape subsystem that's 

PC and PS/2 com- 
patible, giving you 
total tape back-up 
and data transfer 

Call for Sysgen 
literature or for 
the location of the 
Sysgen dealer 
nearest you. 

INFO HOTLINE 1-800 -821-2151 



Circle 229 on Reader Service Card 

Sysgen Incorporated, 556 Gibraltar Drive, Milpitas, CA 95035, (408) 263-4411. © Copyright Sysgen. Inc., 1988. 
Trademarks: PS/2 — IBM Corporation, Sysgen, Bridge-Tape, Bridge-File — Sysgen, Inc. Registered trademarks: IBM — IBM Corporation. 



percent. GBL cut its 
16G040 2-gigabit-per- 
second Clock and Data 
Recovery chip from 
$180 to $75, and its 
12G014 lK-byte static 
RAM chip (2.5-ns cycle 
time) from $92.80 to 

• MIDI Expo West is 
set for September 10-11 
at the Anaheim (CA) 
Marriott Convention Cen- 
ter. Last year's New 
York version attracted 
3500 musicians, com- 
posers, software writers, 
and equipment design- 
ers. This year, the pro- 
gram's educational track 
will cover such topics as 
MIDI basics, computer 
music, and sampling tech- 
niques. For more infor- 
mation, contact Tc.iy 


YARC Claims 50-MHz Operation for Mac II Booster Board 

YARC Systems (West- 
lake Village, CA) has 
developed a coprocessor 
board for the Mac II that the 
company says can cause ap- 
plications to run about 10 
times faster than on a stan- 
dard Mac II. The McCray 
board is based on Advanced 
Micro Devices' 32-bit 
Am 29000 processor and 
Am29027 floating-point pro- 
cessor. YARC claims that a 
Mac II equipped with one of 
the $4295 boards can out- 
perform many expensive 

The McCray takes ad- 
vantage of the NuBus multi- 
ple-master capability that 
enables boards to access the 
bus directly, put addresses 
on the bus, and communicate 
with other boards to facili- 
tate parallel processing, said 
YARC president Trevor 
Marshall. The standard Mac- 

intosh interface remains in- 
tact, he said. 

Marshall noted that the 
McCray 's 50-MHz operation 
is beginning to strain the 
current printed-circuit-board 
technology. "While the 
board is only about 12 inches 
long, propagation delays at 
50 MHz along the signal 
paths had to be accounted 
for when we were adjusting 
timing," said Marshall. 
When asked about potential 
radio-frequency interfer- 
ence from the McCray, Mar- 
shall said that because the 
board has no link to the out- 
side, such as a serial con- 
nector, radiation would not 
be a problem. 

The McCray has 2 mega- 
bytes of instruction RAM in 
a "mostly zero-wait-state" 
configuration and 512K 
bytes of one-wait-state data 
memory; a daughterboard 

slated to be available soon 
will increase data memory to 
2.5 megabytes. 

The McCray requires a 
Mac II with 1 megabyte of 
memory, a hard disk drive, 
a color or monochrome 
display, the Apple 32-bit 
ROM upgrade (for early ma- 
chines), and an average of 
10 watts of power. The stan- 
dard operating system is the 
Macintosh Finder. An as- 
sembler, linker, and debug- 
ger are also available. 

You can load up all the 
available slots in the Mac II 
and expansion chassis with 
McCray boards and let the 
Mac's MultiFinder and 
68020 assign parallel pro- 
cessing tasks. 

YARC, which spells 
Cray backward, stands for 
Yet Another Ruddy Copro- 
cessor, the firm says. 




Checks Printed 
& Signed 

Price, Qty, Part# 

Invni'-* stamped 










TOO 1 




•'■- 81 Great Oaks Blvd., San Jose, CA 95119 
1-800-525-0082, Outside California 
408-629-5376, California/International 
"plus shipping. In California add tax. 

Excellence in ct 

16 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 

Circle 170 on Reader Service Card 

)nte%gS e Mp il ER 

The Intelligent Tool for Intelligent Application 
Development: So Powerful, Yet so Easy to Use. 


An Ounce of Innovation is Worth 
a Pound of Code. 

As well as being an expert system tool, 
Intelligence/Compiler is a very high level 
language. Programs written in it are 20 to 50 
times shorter than typical database or 
programming languages, and a lot more 

k k product. Its unique and advanceo 

Sf-Shore Technology 

UThe IntelUgence/Compiler's 
combination of ruleW 

editing and debugging faciUties J J 

are a bonus. 

Review in Al Expert Magazine, 
February 1988. 

amSs of time otherwise spent }} 

I 0nd SSco m pu t e r Un g ua g e Marine, 

Expert Systems as High Level 
Programming Tools. 

Intelligence/Compiler gives you unprecedented 
power, flexibility and ease of use for building 
intelligent applications. 

It is the first and only intelligent database 
system to uniformly combine logic 
programming, object oriented programming 
and intelligent interfaces. 

• Intelligent Interface 

• Dynamic Mentis 

• Popup Screens 

• Logical Reasoning 

• Links to Microsoft C 

• Fortran and Pasca 

Frames and Objects 
Multiple Inheritance 
Attached Procedures 

• Direct Link to dBASE™ 

• Lotus D1F™ and Ascii Files 

• SQL Queries 

An Open Architecture for Open Minds 



Rush me copies of 

The underlying technology 
of Intelligence/Compiler is so 
outstanding, we have written a book 
about it. It is being used in many 
leading universities as the standard 
text book. Ask for the book "Expert 
Systems for Experts" by K. Parsaye 
and M. Chignell, published by John 
Wiley, at your local book store. 

Painless Application Development 

Don't look any further. Intelligence/Compiler is the tool 

you need to build royalty free applications. Find out how easy 

and painless it is to build intelligent applications, now! 

Intelligence Ware, Inc. 

Leading in Artificial Intelligence Applications™ 

Intelligence/Compiler at $490 each. 





□ Check or Money order is enclosed. 

□ Visa □ Mastercard □ AMX 


Expiration Date: 

Shipping and handling; US: $9.00, Canada/ 
Hawaii Air: $20.00, Overseas Air: $50.00. 
California residents please add 6.5% tax. 

System Requirements: IBM PC, PC/XT, 
PC/AT or PS2 with 640K memory. 

Please send coupon to: 
IntelligenceWare, Inc. 

9800 S. Sepulveda Blvd. Suite 730, 
Los Angeles, CA 90045. 
FAX: (213) 417-8897. 
[Telephone: (213)417-8896. I 

Circle 108 on Reader Service Card 

AUGUST 1988 • BYTE 17 



mation, contact Tony 
Scalisi at Expocon, 3695 
PostRd.,Southport, CT 
06490, (203) 259-5734. 

• Discovery Systems 
(Dublin, OH) has cut the 
price of mastering CD- 
ROM disks to $1500 and 
the cost of duplication to 
$2 per platter. The optical 
disk manufacturer says 
the CD-ROM business is 
gaining momentum, 
what with Apple's CD- 
ROM drive and Tandy's 
decision to sell such 
drives in its retail stores. 

• Understanding Neural 
Networks: A Primer is 
now available from 
Graeme Publishing (Am- 
herst, NH). The publish- 
er says the $95 report is 
an "easy-to-read over- 
view of scientific and 
commercial develop- 

Mac II Operating System Will Interface with NuBus 

Apple Computer (Cu- 
pertino, CA) is readying 
a new operating system for 
the Mac II. Multitasking 
Realtime DOS (MR DOS) 
is a message-based operating 
system that can interface 
with the NuBus used in the 
Mac II. Apple is trying to 
avoid unnecessary NuBus in- 
terface work on the part of 
card makers by giving them a 
standard set of communica- 
tion services to applications. 

Apple first used MR 
DOS internally on the Mac- 

APPC card, which per- 
forms LU 6.2 gateways to 
IBM machines. Diagnostics 
such as code downloaders 
and dumpers are included, 
as are the schematics for the 
board's hardware (which 
has its own 68000 processor 
and local memory). The 
card has 24 square inches of 
prototyping surface. 

"We've taken the hard 
part of making a NuBus mas- 
ter and encapsulated it, pro- 
viding an area where devel- 
opers can add their value," 

TECHNOLOGY NEWS WANTED. The news staff at BYTE is 
always interested in hearing about new technological and 
scientific developments that might have an impact on micro- 
computers and the people who use them. We also want to keep 
track of innovative uses of that technology. If you know of ad- 
vances or projects relevant to microcomputing and want to 
share that information, please contact the Microbytes staff at 
(603) 924-9281, send mail on BIX to Microbytes, or write to us 
at One Phoenix Mill Lane, Peterborough, NH 03458. 

said an Apple representative. 
"The more mundane things 
are done, so you now have a 
standardized platform. The 
operating system was re- 
leased to help this standard- 
ization. It also allows us to 
move various products 
across different types of 
[Apple] cards. Communica- 
tions stacks for different pro- 
tocols can be ported easily 
now. We are committed to 
having intelligent cards. 
That may not be the only way 
to go, but that's the way we 
are going in the communica- 
tions and networking envi- 
ronment at Apple. " 

Since source code to the 
operating system will not be 
released, developers will 
have to depend on Apple to 
maintain the operating 
system for them as the Mac 
hardware platform 

Computers For The Blind 

Talking computers give blind and visually impaired people access to 
electronic information. The question is how and how much? 

The answers can be found in 'The Second Beginner's Guide to Personal 
Computers for the Blind and Visually Impaired" published by the National 
Braille Press. This comprehensive book contains a Buyer's Guide to talking 
microcomputers and large print display processors. More importantly it 
includes reviews, written by blind users, of software that works with speech. 

This invaluable resource book offers details on training programs in 
computer applications for the blind, and other useful information on how to 
buy and use special equipment. 

Send orders to: 

National Braille Press Inc. 

88 St. Stephen Street 

Boston, MA 02115 

(617) 266-6160 

$12.95 for braille or cassette, $14.95 for print. ($3 extra for UPS shipping) 
NBP is a nonprofit braille printing and publishing house. 

18 BYTE* AUGUST 1988 












Invoices: Create Review Print Exit 



Invoice No.: B88784 Date: 

Search for customer record? (¥/N): N 

Enter customer information? (V/N): N 

Enter billing address? (V/N): N 

Enter marketing information? (V/N): N 

Time: lb: 43: IS 







OA° { 




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exits choice menu 


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• Forward product comparison articles to 

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Dump any 
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into Agenda, and 
it'll help you turn 
that information into 
a stream of structured, 
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program at sales conference. 

Tom will have his report in by a week 
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Decision needed on research budget by 
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Items. Dump information in manually, import it or use 
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dump random facts , thoughts , 
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Agenda 's filing system is a more sophisticated version of this filing system. You can 
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Efficient Recursion 

In his article on benchmarks ("Problems 
and Pitfalls," June 1988, page 217), Al- 
fred Aburto Jr. remarks on the signifi- 
cant performance difference between a 
simple loop to compute Fibonacci num- 
bers and the recursive algorithm used in 
the benchmark. The inference he draws 
from this, that "Apparently, recursive 
function calls are highly inefficient, " is 
a common misapprehension of such data. 
Instead, it is recursive algorithms that 
are often laughably inefficient and non- 
linear. A loop for the 24th number re- 
quires only 24 iterations, whereas a re- 
cursive algorithm for the same number 
involves 92,735 procedure calls, typi- 
cally extravagant for recursive state- 
ments of simple problems. (Why are Lisp 
programs slow?) It seems that his func- 
tion calls are in fact quite efficient if 
something done nearly 3900 times as 
often takes only 4500 times as long. 

Greg Bailey 
Santa Barbara, CA 

Bit-Map Assistance 

I have found "Better Bit-Mapped Lines" 
(March) very helpful in implementing an 
extremely fast line-drawing routine. 
While coding the Pascal into assembly 
language, however, I noticed that the 
dx_diag and dy_diag increments in oc- 
tant 4 should be interchanged (see figure 
4 on page 253). 

This could have introduced a subtle 
bug, and I thought maybe others could 
avoid problems, especially when coding 
in assembly language, where it is tempt- 
ing to turn these dx and dy increments 
into INCs and DECs. 

David Miller 
Cedar Falls, IA 

Test Facilities 

I was delighted to hear about your new 
testing facilities (Editorial, April). 
Benchmark comparisons and manufac- 
turers' statements of Mean Time Be- 
tween Failures are fine for choosing 
among a group of similar machines, but 
what an ever-increasing number of peo- 
ple in science and industry really need to 

know about their potential purchase is, 
"Just how much abuse can this machine 
take?" Computers originally intended 
for home and the office are turning up in 
ever more exotic environments, with 
ever-decreasing margins between opera- 
tion and failure. The big concern then be- 
comes what kind of safety margin is left 
to work with. 

double-space your letter on one side of the 
paper and include your name and address. 
We can print listings and tables along with a 
letter if they are short and legible. Address 
correspondence to Letters Editor, BYTE, 
One Phoenix Mill Lane, Peterborough, 
NH 03458. 

Because of space limitations, we reserve 
the right to edit letters. Generally, it takes 
four months from the time we receive a letter 
until we publish it. 

A lab of the type you describe could 
supply people with some much-needed 
information. The thought of running ex- 
pensive computer equipment into the 
ground may seem a little drastic, but the 
savings in time, money, and equipment 
might well be worth it. I hope you aren't 
reluctant to push your tests to the limit. It 
could be of value to many of us. 

Eric J. Pilger 
Honolulu, HI 

Clearly Fuzzy 

The idea of "fuzzifying" Prolog as pre- 
sented in "When Facts Get Fuzzy" by 
Bradley L. Richards (April) is certainly 
appealing. Unfortunately, the author's 
Prolog code lacks clarity and precision; 
rather than adding separate predicates 
such as fuzzyy(TruthValue) and 
threshold(ThresholdValue) , it is sim- 
pler to add an extra argument to each 
fuzzy fact. 
For instance, rather than 

scary(king_kong) :-fuzzy(0.5) 

it is simpler to write 

scary (king_kong, 0.5) 

and then pass the truth value as an argu- 
ment, rather than performing obscure 
manipulations of the database with "as- 
sert" and "retract." 

Stewart Rosenberg 
Trouy, France 

Corrected Attribution 

In Pete Wilson's otherwise interesting 
comparison of processor architectures 
("The CPU Wars," May), there is an 

The 6502 was not "originally de- 
signed by Mostek. " It was designed by 
M.O.S. Technology, which did not later 
contract its name or otherwise become 
Mostek. As early as 1977, M.O.S. Tech- 
nology had already been purchased by 
Commodore (copyright page and intro- 
duction to The First Book of KIM.) Mos- 
tek is still a separate company. The 6502 
has been made by several companies, in- 
cluding Rockwell. 

It is my understanding that the 6502 
and M.O.S. Technology were created by 
a team that broke off from Motorola, I as- 
sume after losing some design arguments 
over the 6800. The team created a ma- 
chine with one accumulator rather than 
two, but— far more important in the real 
world— two index registers, including 
one with the powerful capability of in- 
dexing indirectly from page zero for 
rapid (if not automatic) movement of 
gstrings and blocks. The first model 
(6500) was plug-compatible with the 
6800 but priced at about one-fifth the 
6800. The second model, the 6502, was 
much better because it had a built-in 
clock, reducing the chip count. 

Perhaps most important, while Motor- 
ola was uptight and bureaucratic about 
samples of its $90 chips, M.O.S. Tech- 
nology gave away samples of the 6502 
($20 each, list), including to two guys 
named Steve who put it in the Apple. It 
was also put in a lot of video games and 
controllers. (So maybe the comment on 
page 239 about 6502s being in closets is 
correct. I'm writing this letter on an 


22 BYTE* AUGUST 1988 

Who Says FoxBASE+ 
is Better than dBASE ? 



The Experts! 

"E n=S h Pow ?r ul - aBASE compatible 
Relational Database Management system 
™r The Apple Macintosh! 

The Best Just Got Better— Now Shipping New FoxBASE+ Version 2.10! 


Nicholas Petreley, InfoWorld Review Board: 
"FoxBASE + has outdone itself. Once again, FoxBASE+ earns 
an "excellent" in performance, with kudos for responding to 
user suggestions. For sheer productivity, there is no other 

P.L. Olympia, Founder & President, National Dbase Users 
Group I Government Computer News : 
"FoxBASE+ is a supercharged dBASE, with all the features 
Ashton-Tate forgot. If you're into serious dBASE development 
and have not tried FoxBASE+, you are living in the dark ages 
and wasting your company's money." 
George F. Goley IV, Cont. Editor, Data Based Advisor : 
"The product is fast, very compatible, fast, easy to use, fast, 
relatively inexpensive, and very fast. In every test, FoxBASE+ 
outperformed the other products. And people who answer the 
phone at Fox know what they are talking about." 
David Irwin, Former President/CEO, Data Based Advisor : 
"From the dBASE compatibility standpoint, FoxBASE+ is flaw- 
less. From the speed standpoint, FoxBASE+ is unbelievable. 
From the "lazy factor" standpoint, FoxBASE+ is perfect." 
Glenn Hart, Contributing Editor, PC Magazine : 
"Initial tests of FoxBASE+ were simply stunning. In many 
ways, FoxBASE+ gives you the best of both worlds: all the ben- 
efits of interactive development and debugging, plus the speed 
and code protection of a compiler." 

Circle 91 on Reader Service Card 

FoxBASE and FoxBASE+ are trademarks of Fox Software. 
dBASE and dBASE III PLUS are trademarks of Ashton-Tate. 
Macintosh is a trademark of Apple Computers, Inc. 

Adam Green, Contributing Editor, Data Based Advisor, 
dBASE Author: 

"For the PC, FoxBASE + has consistently set the performance 
standard for dBASE compatible languages. For the Macintosh, 
FoxBASE + /Mac will set standards for innovation and leader- 
ship in a new dBASE implementation." 

Don Crabb, Contributing Editor, InfoWorld : 
"You can expect blazing speed on the Mac. FoxBASE+/Mac 
breezes past tests that have proven stumbling blocks for 
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complete dBASE compatibility with a genuine Macintosh 
user interface." 

This is what they said about Version 2.00 of FoxBASE + . 
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Circle 41 on Reader Service Card 



Your IBM PC/XT/AT or 
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Guidelines announces its port of version 1.2 of AT&T's C++ translator. As an 
object-oriented language C++ includes: classes, inheritance, member functions, 
constructors and destructors, data hiding, and data abstraction. "Object-oriented" 
means that C++ code is more readable, more reliable and more reusable. And that 
means faster development, easier maintenance, and the ability to handle more 
complex projects. C++ is Bell Labs' answer to Ada and Modula 2. C++ will more 
than pay for itself in saved development time on your next project. 


from GUIDELINES for the IBM PC: $295 

Requires IBM PC/XT/AT or compatible with 640K and a hard disk. 
Note: C++ is a translator, and requires the use of Microsoft C 3.0 or later. 

Here is what you get for $295: 

• The full AT&T vl.2 C++ translator. 

• Libraries for stream I/O and complex math. 

• The C++ Programming Language, the 

definitive 327-page tutorial and description 
by Bjarne Stroustrup, designer of C++ . 

• Sample programs written in C++. 

• Improved installation guide and 

• 30-day money-back guarantee. 

To Order: 

send check or money order to: 

P.O. Box 749, Dept. BT 
Orinda, CA 94563 

To order with VISA or MC, 
phone (415) 254-9183. 
(CA residents add 6% tax.) 

C++ is ported to the PC by Guidelines under license from AT&T. 
Call or write for a free C++ information package. 

Apple He with 192K bytes of memory, 
and AppleWorks with a bunch of mem- 
ory is a wonderful tool: fast and easy to 
use. It's a pity Scully doesn't agree.) 

Mike Firth 
Dallas, TX 

WORM Standards 

I welcomed "A Quintet of WORMs" by 
Wayne Rash Jr. (February), but I was 
surprised that it said nothing about stan- 
dards—or the lack of them. It seems to 
me that WORMs will not take off as a 
form of data storage until there is an 
agreed standard format, as has happened 
with the High Sierra format for CD- 
ROM. There has been a massive develop- 
ment of CD-ROM since the adoption of 
this standard, such that it could easily be- 
come a standard feature of PCs in the 
next few years. 

I work in a social research unit, and in 
the near future I expect we'll be using 
desktop machines to analyze large data 
sets for which we currently use main- 
frames. For example, data from the next 
census in both the U.S. and the U.K. is 
likely to be distributed on CD-ROM. 
However, the initial mastering costs will 
probably make it prohibitively expensive 
to produce some of the smaller, less 
widely used data sets on CD-ROM, such 
as the U.K. General Household Survey 
or the U.S. Health Interview Survey. 
WORMs would be a convenient and rela- 
tively low-cost way of distributing such 
data sets. Yet this is unlikely to be attrac- 
tive to either the users or the distributors 
of such datasets when there is no stan- 
dard format. With no agreement on a 
standard, presumably IBM's own format 
will become a default standard, even 
though IBM produces only a one-sided 
WORM drive while others are producing 
double-sided drives. 

The other drawback, from the user's 
point of view, is the proliferating number 
of drives that seem to be required— flop- 
py disk drives, CD-ROM drives, and 
WORM drives— not all of which are 
likely to fit into one box. I have noticed 
that WORM cartridges look quite differ- 
ent from CD-ROM disks. Is it at all like- 
ly that there will be a single drive that 
will read both CD-ROMs and WORMs? 
Charlie Owen 
London, England 

Hartley's Limitations 

Before you discard the Fourier transform 
in favor of the Hartley, be aware of some 
serious limitations ("Faster Than Fast 
Fourier" by Mark A. O'Neill, April). 
The trivial nature of the so-called oas 


24 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 

Circle 99 on Reader Service Card 

It's A 
Matter Of 

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Everex is a trademark and Ever for Excellence is a registered 
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All rights reserved. 

Circle 86 on Reader Service Card (DEALERS: 87) 

EVER for Excellence"' 

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AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 25 

Circle 147 on Reader Service Card 



For IBM PC's and Compatibles 




Small Quantities 


00 PER 

For Ten or More 

Satisfaction Guaranteed or Money Back! 

□ BUSINESS 1— EZ-FORMS business form 
generation, completion and printing program. 

n CAD 3— The PC-Flow 1 .0 computer aided flow- 
chart generation program. Color graphics required. 

[6j COMM 4a,b,C,d,e— (5 disks) Join the world of 
sysopswith RBBS Bulletin Board System 14.1 D. 

[2] DATABASE 1a,b— (2 disks) File Express 3.8 
menu driven general purpose database manager. 

n EDUCATION 1— Interactive DOS tutorial for new 
PC users. Makes learning DOS painless. 

U] FINANCE 1 a,b— (2 disks) PC Accountant 2.0 
personal bookkeeping and finance management. 

I I GAMES 1— 3-D Pacman, Kong, Spacewar, Janit- 
Joe, futuristic Flightmare and more. Color required. 

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[ I SIMULATION 1— Maze making program, MIT's 
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[3 UTILITIES 1— A collection of invaluable general 
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function (cosine x + sine x) should give 
rise to some suspicion: It is no more than 
a "colorized" sine function, with 45 de- 
grees added to the angle and an ampli- 
tude equal to the square root of 2. The 
plain sine function would serve just as 

The Fourier transform uses cos x + j 
sin x, which preserves all the original 
signal information in two orthogonal 
functions— but which the Hartley simply 
lumps together. Consequently, any at- 
tempt to take the inverse transform is 
fraught with hazard— the original infor- 
mation has been lost. (The sum of two 
numbers is 7— what are the numbers?) 

Anyone considering using this trans- 
form should be aware of its limitations. 
John C. Polasek 
Orlando, FL 

Bigram vs. N-Gram 

I read Roy E. Kimbrell's "Searching for 
Text? Send an N-Gram!" (May) with 

I wonder whether the developers con- 
sidered using a "least-common bigram" 
(LCB) approach similar to that described 
by E. Onderisin {Proceedings of the ACM 
Annual Meeting, 1971) and implemented 
at IITRI (LARC Reports, 7 (1), 1974). 
The LCB method yielded improvements 
over traditional methods. Perhaps an 
LCB or a "least-common trigram" ap- 
proach would be simpler and less re- 
source-intensive here, too. 

Peter Halpin 
Great Falls, VA 

You Call That Fast? 

Mark O'Neill ("Faster Than Fast Fou- 
rier," April) claims that the fast Hartley 

transform (FHT) is twice as fast as the 
fast Fourier transform (FFT). The tim- 
ings in table 1 compare O'Neill's algo- 
rithm with a simple (complex number) 
FFT for one forward and one reverse 

These timings show that there's more 
to speed than a smaller number of arith- 
metic operations. In particular, speed of 
array access is often crucial in "real" nu- 
merical applications. 

In a comment on Bracewell's work, 
Bold {Proceedings of the IEEE, 73 (12), 
1863-4) points out that a real FFT can be 
performed by a complex FFT on nil 
points, considerably faster than the times 
above. If speed really is crucial, FFT al- 
gorithms can be tuned to the architecture 
of the machine in use. 

B. D. Ripley 
Glasgow, Scotland 

Elusive Shareware 

I have been given a copy of a very good 
backup program called Hardsave 1.0a. 
It has a message saying "Shareware from 
Andrew P. Wimple, Donations $20 

I would like to send Mr. Wimple a do- 
nation, but he has not left his address 
anywhere in the software. Do you or any 
of your readers know where he can be 

Jeremy Brown 
Leichhardt, Australia 

Data Liberation 

I am writing this letter to request a new 
Freedom of Information Act. I am refer- 
ring to the availability of data structures 
for software. 


Table 1: Timings comparing O'Neill's algorithm with a simple (complex 
number) FFT for one forward and one reverse transform. 


= 256 

n = 






IBM PS/2 60 
Turbo Pascal 4.0 
+ 80287 





RM Nimbus VX 
16-MHz 80386 
+ 80387 






Atari ST 

Prospero Pascal 2.12 





Sun 3/160 + 68881 
+ 1164/5 





VAX 8650 





26 BYTE* AUGUST 1988 

The change 
to a pure language 

Now, C programmers can move 
over to C++ with Zortech C++ 
- the world's first 'true' C++ 
compiler for MS-DOS machines. 

Zortech C++ is a 'true' 
compiler and fully conforms to 
Bjarne Stroustrup's specification 
as outlined in his book 'The C++ 
Programming Language'. 

Previous implementations of 
C++ were actually 'translators' - 
only able to translate C++ source 
code into C. Of course, this was 
unacceptable due to the long trans- 
lating and compiling times. 

Now, C++ comes of age with 
the introduction of the world's first 
true C++ compiler- from Zortech! 

■ Object Oriented Programming 

C++ is to C whatModula 2 
is to Pascal. C++ brings 'classes' 
to C, so you can create separate 
modules that contain their own 
data and data-related operations. 
These 'classes' then become new 
types that can in turn be used to 
create further modules - this 
allows you to practically create 
your own language. 

M ANSI C Superset 

You don't have to throw away 
your existing C programs - C++ 
is a superset of ANSI C. Now, you 
can take your Microsoft C or Turbo 
C compatible programs and easily 
migrate to C++ to take full advan- 
tage of the new C++ features. 

Jf YES! ^V 
..▼ Rush me ^^ A 


Circle 258 on Reader Service Card 

^r C++ as shown ^^ 
f below: ^^ 

f U Zortech C++ □ C++ Book V 
jT $99.93 $29.95 Tk 


f Name ^^ 

f Address ^^ 

f Phone •- ^. 

/rVISAorMC Exp. Date 3^ 

■ 'Codeview' Compatible 

Zortech C++ is compatible 
with 'Codeview' - Microsoft's 
industry standard source code 

■ Improved Program Structure 

As stated in 'The C++ 
Programming Language', by using 
C++ "It would not be unreason- 
able for a single person to cope 
with 25,000 lines of code" 

■ Other benefits 

Here's just a few: Operator 
overloading, overloading function 
names, default arguments to 
functions and better type checking. 

This 325 page book 'The C++ 
Programming Language' by Bjarne 
Stroustrup contains the original 
definition of C++. All the examples 
shown in this book have been suc- 
cessfully compiled and executed 
with the Zortech C++ Compiler. 

To: ZORTECH INC. 361 Massachusetts Ave., Arlington, MA 02174. 
Tel: 617-646-6703. Fax: 617-648-0603. 

/ CALL THE ORDER HOTLINE 1-800-848-8408 

A Number of Reasons A Number 

1 Designed 
• for the 80386 There's a 

revolution taking place in desktop computing. A revolution 
that's been launched by a square wafer of silicon known as the 
80386 microprocessor chip. It puts minicomputer potential at 
PC users' fingertips. It's a fact that virtually every leading PC 
manufacturer has built a "box" around this chip. And it's a fact 
that the "New Operating System" will, supposedly, even run 
on it. But, it's also a fact that their system wasn't designed for 
the 80386. Ours is. And it's, j called PC-MOS/386™ 


4 Thousands of DOS Programs PC-MOS/386™ 
§ gives you the best of the past, and the best for your 
future. Which means that while PC-MOS/386™ totally replaces 
your old DOS, you won't have to replace the programs you've 
spent a lot of time learning. 

And it all happens so effortlessly. You'll continue 
to reap the benefits of your favorite DOS programs, 
while entering a new arena of power. 

Think of it! Programs like dBASE III, 
WordPerfect, Lotus 1-2-3 and Sym- 
phony, WordStar, MultiMate... literally 
thousands of DOS programs-all com- 
patible and multi-user available. 


compatible with the millions of 
PC-compatibles. Power without 
nothing less from the new standard bearer. 

PC and PS/2 

In designing PC-MOS, we 
knew our first priority was 
to exploit the minicomputer 
capabilities of 80386-based 
further, and developed a 
system which would be fully 
existing PCs, PC ATs, and 
sacrifice. You'd expect 

Like DIR and COPY 

Just as you don't have to 

learn a whole new array of 

software to take advantage of PC-MOS/386™ neither do you 

have to learn an entirely new set of commands. 

Instead, the system builds on the knowledge you already 
have. "COPY" still copies files, and "DIR" still gives you a 
directory listing. As you might expect, we didn't stop there. 
There's a wealth of features that have strengthened the com- 
mands you know, making them more powerful and easier to use. 

3 One, Five, Up to Twenty-five Users 
• From the beginning, PC-MOS/386™ was 
designed as a versatile operating system which 
could support twenty-five users as easily 
as it supports one. The system comes in 
single, five, and 25-user modules, so 
you're able to start with what you need 
and expand when you're ready. 

In a multi-user setting, PC-MOS/386™ uses the 
computing power of the host PC to drive workstations 
linked to standard RS-232 ports. 

You can choose from a variety of work- 
stations. Mix and match dumb terminals 
costing under $500 each with PCs and 
PS/2s running our terminal emulation 

All of the host's resources can be 
shared. Programs, data, hard disks, 
tape backup units & printers (including 
^ high speed laser printers) are suddenly available to all 
users. An 80386-PC has minicomputer potential. 
With PC-MOS/386™ you can "mini" your micro. 

28 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 

of Users Wffl Choose PC-MOS/386. 


Concurrently Supports Virtual 8086 and 
• 80386 32-Bit Mode 

80386-based PCs & PS/2s are dual-personality computers. To 
run DOS programs, they act as PCs with a 640K memory limit. 
But to take advantage of their minicomputer capacity, they operate 
in true 80386 mode which lets them address up to four gigabytes 
of memory. PC-MOS enables the 80386-host and its workstations 
to independently switch between these modes-making DOS 
compatibility and 80386 power simultaneously possible. 


*J Multi-Tasking 

I • While it's true you could look else- 
where for multi-tasking, why would you 
want to? The other multi-tasking operating 
system is not now, nor is it planned to be, 
multi-user. It won't even run multiple DOS appli- 
cations in multi-tasking mode. 

Now consider PC-MOS/386™ At the touch of a key, J 

you can switch between up to 25 different tasks. And if you have 
workstations connected to a host, they get multi-tasking, too. 
Finally.. .a system that won't hold you back. 


File/Record Locking and 

U Security When you decide to 
implement either a network or a multi- 
user system, there's a two-fold problem 
which must be solved: protecting 
your work from accidental misuse 
and securing it from intentional theft. 
PC-MOS/386™ solves both aspects of this problem. Password 
protected security allows you to assign file, directory, and task 
access to each user Plus, files and records are locked using either 
PC-MOS' proprietary system or NETBIOS emulation. 

9 Remote 
• Access 

It's been said that information is 
power... which makes PC-MOS/386™ a deadly weapon to your 
competition. Imagine on-the-road salespeople being able to file 
call reports and access your latest inventory data. Picture execu- 
tives being able to access your corporate database from across 
the country, or around the world-giving them the information 
they need, when they need it. 

Visualize branch offices tapping time-critical data with 
nothing more than a modem and a workstation. Working at a 
home office in the evening or over the weekend suddenly gets 
awfully productive. And that makes good business sense. The 
kind of sense you can't afford to be without. 




The Price... As you 

r§ evaluate operating systems, 
ask yourself if it's reasons you're consider- 
ing... or rhyme. Ask if you're getting a 
system for tomorrow, or one that was made 
for yesterday. See if you're being forced to buy 
new hardware because of their software. 
'And consider this. 

Only one operating system in the world can 
give you the raw power, features, and functionality that you 
demand. Its name is PC-MOS/386™" n >-^~j^= — : ^ - -^ 
And it's immediately available in ^pC^J fc JQ /. _'~"-\ 
one, five and 25-user versions starting fc"^!^^ 

at $195. " \ 

PC-MOS/386'" is a trademark of The Software Link, Inc. PS/2, PC AT, NETBIOS, dBASE III, 
MultiMate, WordPerfect, Lotus 1-2-3 & Symphony, & WordStar are trademarks of IBM Corp., AshtonTate, 
WordPerfect Corp., Lotus Development Corp., & MicroPro, respectively. Prices and technical specifications 
subject to change. Copyright ©1987. All Rights Reserved. 

For the dealer nearest you, In Georgia: International/OEM Sales: Resellers/VARs: 
CALL: 800/451-LINK 404/441-2580 404/263-1006 404/448-5465 

3577 Parkway Lane, Atlanta, GA 30092 Telex 4996147 SWLINK FAX 404/263-6474 


The Software Link/Canada CALL: 800/387-0453 




Circle 222 on Reader Service Card (DEALERS: 223) 

AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 29 


As a software developer and consul- 
tant, I am often called upon to aid indi- 
viduals converting from one software 
package to another. The only problem is, 
very often it's difficult or impossible to 
obtain the data structure of the existing 
software package. 

Recently I was asked to help a physi- 
cian convert from one medical billing 
and insurance program, sold by one of 
the largest companies in the U.S., to a 
different package from a different ven- 

dor. This physician had used the original 
program for several years and had accu- 
mulated several thousand patient ac- 
counts in the system. 

Both a colleague and I contacted the 
vendor and requested a map of the pro- 
gram's data structure. We did not re- 
quest source code or any proprietary in- 
formation, and we were willing to pay 
any necessary costs. Our request was 
firmly refused, and no amount of plead- 
ing, cajoling, or threatening could pry 

If you think you can buy a 
better C compiler, don't. 
Well buy it for you. 

Buy Let's C with csd" 
for just $75. If you're 
not satisfied, get 
Turbo C or QuickC. Free.* 

Why are we making this incredible offer? Because we're absolutely cer- 
tain Let's C and csd C Source Debugger are the best C programming tools 
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Rest assured that, like its competition. Let's C features incredibly fast 
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The differences lie in how much faster you can perform other programming 

Our debugger, for example, can cut development time in half. But that's 
not all: 

"csd is close to the ideal debugging environment . . . a definite aid to 
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And comparatively speaking: "Wo debugger is included in the Turbo C 
package ... a serious shortcoming. " 

-Michael Abrash, Programmer's Journal 

Unlike our competition, Let's C includes its own full-featured assembler, 
features documentation with complete examples and technical support with 
complete answers— the/irst time you call. 




• Now compiles twice as last 

• Full UNIX compatibility and complete 

• Debug in C source code, not assembler 

■ Integrated edit-compile cycle: editor 


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automatically points to errors 

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So if you're thinking about buying any other C compiler, think again. 
But this offer is only available for a limited time. So think fast. And see your 
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lb exchange Let's C and csd for TUrbo C or QuickC, return registration card within 15 days of purchase 
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on telephone orders. 

' I Mark 
] Williams 

1430 West Wrightwood, Chicago, Illinois 60614, 312-472-6659 
) 1988 Mark Williams Company 

the data structure from this prestigious 
vendor. Needless to say, the resulting 
data conversion was difficult and expen- 
sive, and it involved a great deal of man- 
ually reentering data. 

I honestly do not know why this com- 
pany refused our request, but I have run 
across this response countless times with 
numerous software houses. Could it be 
that paranoia has become so widespread 
that it totally obscures the judgment of 
major software developers, or are they 
simply so petty that they will hold their 
existing users as unwilling captives so 
they can continue to milk them for up- 
grade and maintenance fees? 

Whatever the reason is, it has no justi- 
fication. It is inconceivable to me that 
any software vendor could refuse to fur- 
nish a data map, particularly when the 
data is as vitally important as accounts 

Furnishing the data structure of a pro- 
gram is not at all comparable to furnish- 
ing source code. The data structure tells 
little, if anything, about how the pro- 
gram works— it merely shows the owner 
of the data just where and how it is 
stored. Furthermore, a map of the data 
structure is useful only to individuals 
who already own the program. In no way 
could furnishing data structures ad- 
versely affect the sales or proprietary 
rights of any software vendor. Quite the 
contrary: In my opinion, the failure to 
furnish data structures should serve as a 
strong deterrent to buying the program in 
the first place. 

I think the time has come for all soft- 
ware vendors to furnish data structures 
with their programs. As more and more 
people become increasingly dependent 
upon computers for storing their vital 
data, they should have free access to that 
data. Even the most wonderful program 
might be obsolete next year, and even the 
largest vendor may be in Chapter 1 1 next 

I strongly advise individuals consider- 
ing the purchase of any software that may 
have a major impact on their lives to de- 
mand that the data structure of the pro- 
gram be furnished at the time of pur- 
chase. Whether they are programmers or 
not, if they need to convert to a different 
program in the future, they'll have to pay 
a programmer far less if the data struc- 
ture is already available. 

Evan P. Provisor 
Sharon, CT 

Quattro and Benchmarks 

Your comparison review of Quattro and 
Surpass ("Double Threats to Lotus 


30 BYTE' AUGUST 1988 

Circle 137 on Reader Service Card 

Circle 14 on Reader Service Card 



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1-2-3" by Diana Gabaldon, June) re- 
quires some amplification. 

First, you didn't mention the two add- 
ins that are bundled with Quattro at no 
extra charge: Menu Builder and Tran- 
script. Menu Builder lets users create 
menu trees that are customized to their 
specific needs. Quattro is shipped with 
both its own menu tree and one that emu- 
lates Lotus 1-2-3. 

If your readers have ever lost valuable 
data, they'll appreciate Transcript. It 

provides a log file of keystrokes and com- 
mands selected throughout the spread- 
sheet session. Errors can be handled eas- 
ily with the undo command. Transcript 
also protects against power failure or sys- 
tem crashes and audits changes made to a 

Second, Quattro provides a macro 
record and debugging environment. The 
macro record is an excellent way to 
create macros quickly and easily. It sim- 
ply records the user's actions as they are 




When you buy any Fortran 286 and 386-based IBM-compatible, 
one full year of service at your site is part of the package. Just call 
the service hotline, and we'll take care of you from a network of 
300 service locations throughout the country. 
Because we design and build our systems right here, ourselves, 
you always know exactly who to call for any kind of support you 
need. And you'll get it. Fast. 

Call toll-free for more information, and for the name of your 
nearest Fortran dealer: 800-821-9771. In California, (408) 432-1191. 

Small Footprint 80286 

80386, 16 MHz or 20 MHz 


2380 Qume Drive, Ste. F 
San Jose, CA 95131 

80286 12, 16, or 20 MHz 

performed. With the Quattro debugger, 
users can execute macros in slow motion 
(step by step), pausing as they go along, 
and set breakpoints that "freeze" a 
macro when it reaches a cell or satisfies a 
given condition. Users can execute a 
macro at full speed until it reaches a 
breakpoint, then continue either in slow 
motion or at full speed until the next 

Your benchmark appears to be a his- 
torical "all cells dependent on one cell" 
model and is not representative of a real- 
world spreadsheet. 

Lastly, your review summed up Quat- 
tro as being the first-time user's 
choice. On the contrary, our research 
shows that more than 50 percent of cur- 
rent Quattro users are previous Lotus 
1-2-3 users. 

Becky Jones 

Product Manager 

Borland International 

Scotts Valley, CA 

We 're glad you mentioned the bench- 
marks: Our traditional spreadsheet 
benchmarks are deliberately not opti- 
mized for any one kind of operation — 
historically, we've made no assump- 
tions about how a spreadsheet will be 
used. While this approach has the ad- 
vantage of being open-ended and allows 
head-to-head comparisons of spread- 
sheets over time, these benchmarks cer- 
tainly aren't perfect. For one thing, they 
lack fine detail that might allow readers 
to, for example, differentiate between 
performance in routine business mat- 
ters versus performance in statistical 
number crunching. 

We're changing our benchmarks: In 
our June issue, we rolled out BYTE's new 
system benchmarks for hardware. These, 
the first second-generation micro- 
computer benchmarks, produce results 
(from the most general to the most de- 
tailed levels) that are valid indicators of 
real-world performance in a variety of 

We 're now in the process of doing the 
same thing for our suite of software 
benchmarks. Watch for our new, second- 
generation software benchmarks later 
this year. — Eds. 


Sorry, Wrong Number 

In the June What's New on page 88, we 
printed the wrong telephone number for 
Plu*Perfect Systems. The correct num- 
ber is (213) 395-4584. 

32 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 

Circle 90 on Reader Service Card 

Compaq presents 
high-performance computing 
for everyone. 

Introducing the 


New technology delivers affordable 80386 

performance for anyone considering 

80286 PC's. 

fast start 

Now, breakthrough technology from Compaq brings the 
power and potential of 80386-based personal computing 
to millions of business PC users. 

Introducing the COMPAQ DESKPRO 386 S. It's the 
first personal computer powered by the revolutionary 
new Intel® 386SX* microprocessor. It's also the first 
designed specifically as an affordable, high-performance 
alternative to 80286-based PC's. 

The COMPAQ DESKPRO 386 S will run the software 
you have today— such as MS-DOS s and Microsoft ® Oper- 
ating System/2 from Compaq— up to 60% faster than 
most 10-MHz 80286 PC's. It will also run the 32-bit 
software that 80286 PC's won't run at all. Microsoft 
Windows/386, for example. 

You can tailor the COMPAQ DESKPRO 386 S to your 
exact needs. Choose high-performance storage options 
such as 20-, 40-, or 110-Megabyte Fixed Disk Drives. 
Tape backup options. Even diskette drives in 5V4-inch and 
3V2-inch sizes. 

VGA graphics are built in. So is one megabyte of high- 
speed memory expandable to 13 megabytes without 
using a single expansion slot. You can also add a mouse, 
printers and more without using additional slots. 

All these features and more are packed into a sleek 
new design that fits places the competition can't. 

So get into the PC passing lane, and head for all the 
80386 power and performance you really want, with the 
revolutionary new COMPAQ DESKPRO 386 S. 


v \ \ \ 

\ \ 


Introducing the 
The most powerful 
PC available. 

Never bok 

Once again, Compaq introduces a PC that leaves every 
other in the dust. With its new Intel 25-MHz 386* micropro- 
cessor and exclusive 32-bit COMPAQ Flexible Advanced 
Systems Architecture, the new COMPAQ DESKPRO 386/25 
runs up to 60% faster than most 20-MHz 80386 PC's. 

FLEX Architecture uses separate memory and 
peripheral buses operating in concert to maximize system 
performance, while maintaining compatibility with 
industry-standard hardware and software. The 25-MHz 
cache memory controller keeps data instantly accessible, 
so the processor works at wait states 95% of the time. 

With the addition of a 25-MHz Intel 387* or Weitek™ 
coprocessor, you can match the numeric processing of a 
dedicated workstation, at a fraction of the cost. 

You can go from one standard megabyte of high-speed 
RAM to 16 megabytes. And, for storage-hungry applica- 
tions such as most networks and multiuser systems, you 
can get up to a massive 1.2 gigabytes of storaget Internal 
tape backup options are also available. 

For CAD/CAE, as a file server and for multiuser 
systems, the new COMPAQ DESKPRO 386/25 is the ulti- 
mate solution. And, for intense PC users who don't have a 
millisecond to spare, nothing less will do! 


It simply works better. 

Now there's room 

for everyone 
on the fast track. 


When Compaq 
pioneered high- 
performance personal 
computing and introduced 
the industry's first 80386- 
based PC's, we gave 
performance-hungry busi- 
ness users, engineers, 
analysts and software 
developers the tools they 
needed to perform intense 
applications faster and better. 

Now, with the new 
we're not just pushing 
80386 technology forward; 
we're widening it. So 
that PC users at every 
level can take advantage 
of the industry's highest 
performance— Compaq 
80386 performance. 

The new COMPAQ 
DESKPRO 386 S lets anyone 
considering 80286 PC's 
head straight for 80386 per- 

formance. The 
original COMPAQ 
DESKPRO 386 and 
deliver even higher per- 
formance for more de- 
manding applications. 
And now, at the top of our 
line is the new COMPAQ 
DESKPRO 386/25. The 
most powerful personal 
computer available. 

Together, they create 
the highest-performing PC 
line available. In each one, 
our exclusive design lets 
every component run at 
optimum speed. This pro- 
vides a substantial per- 
formance edge, while 
maintaining compatibility 
and connectivity with your 
current hardware and 

Now, you'll run your 
current MS-DOS 81 applica- 
tions at top speed. Plus new 
80386 software, such as 
Microsoft Windows/386. 
With MS 8 OS/2, UNIX 8 or 
XENIX? you'll simultane- 
ously run multiple programs, 

between them 

instantly. And, with a 
COMPAQ 80386 PC, you'll 
do it all faster. 

Now, with legendary 
Compaq performance and 
quality available to every- 
one, the fast track is wider 
than ever. So accelerate. Call 
1-800-231-0900, Operator 
64. In Canada, call 1-800- 
263-5868, Operator 64. 
We'll give you the location 
of your nearest Authorized 
COMPAQ Computer Dealer 
and a free brochure for any 
COMPAQ 80386-based 

trademarks of Compaq Computer Corporation. 
Microsoft? MS-DOS? XENIX' and MS* are 
trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. MS'' OS/2 
and MS* Windows/386 are products of Microsoft 
Corporation. Product names mentioned herein 
may be trademarks and/or registered trademarks 
of their respective companies. "Registered U.S. 
Patent and Trademark Office. COMPAQ 
DESKPRO 386/25 graphics ©1988 Accent Soft- 
ware, Inc. ©1988 Compaq Computer Corpora- 
tion. All rights reserved. 

•Hereafter referred to as 80386SX, 80386 and 
80387 respectively. 

tUsing two optional COMPAQ 300-/600- 
Megabyte Fixed Disk Drive Expansion Units. 


It simply works better. 

Circle 25 on Reader Service Card 

Chaos Manor 

Jerry Pournelle answers questions about his column 
and related computer topics 

BIX in Europe? 

Dear Jerry, 

I'm a student of economics and com- 
puter science, studying at the University 
of Karlsruhe. 

There are three reasons why I'm writ- 
ing to you. First, I really enjoy reading 
BYTE, because it's one of the best (if not 
the best) available computer magazines. 

My second reason for writing is be- 
cause I'd love to take part on BIX, but as 
you know, the German Bundespost 
("post" is the "abbreviation" for Public 
Organization for the Suppression of 
Technology) is very restrictive concern- 
ing computer communications and, of 
course, is charging fairly high fees for 
any long-distance call. 

Perhaps BYTE or McGraw-Hill could 
encourage activities to bring BIX to Eu- 
rope. I'm thinking of a BIX bulletin 
board somewhere in Europe, whose con- 
tents would be sent to America once or 
twice a day and vice versa. This would 
already be a big leap forward, although it 
would not be as interactive as the original 

Perhaps— and now I might just be day- 
dreaming— BIX could advance to be- 
come IBIX (International BYTE Infor- 
mation Exchange), bringing together 
computer users from all over the world. 

My third reason to write to you is that 
I've recently bought an inexpensive add- 
on board for my IBM PC AT. To find out 
what kind of board I'd bought, I went 
through all my issues of BYTE to locate 
any reference to Definicon Systems, the 
name on the board. I was lucky to find a 
pointer to an older BYTE in which the 
DSI-32 coprocessor board had been re- 
viewed. I was very glad to realize that I 
now own a "tiny VAX" to plug into my 
computer (a DSI-32 board running at 10 
MHz, complete with memory manage- 
ment unit and 2 megabytes of RAM) . 

I've already written to Definicon Sys- 
tems for further information and soft- 
ware, and I hope to get enough to help get 
the board running. Since BYTE tried to 
encourage buying this board by having 
arranged special prices for Green Hills 
software, I believe there still may be 

many people who use the DSI-32 board. 
Perhaps some of them would be willing 
to exchange information or programs 
with me. Readers can get in contact with 
me at the address below. 

Axel Mock 

Dahlienweg 8E 

7513 Stutensee 1 

Federal Republic of Germany 

Thanks for the suggestions. I find De- 
finicon stuff blazingly fast. 

I passed your comments on to George 
Bond, executive editor of BIX, who had 
this to say; 

"We're interested in worldwide partic- 
ipation in BIX, too. Already BIX has 
members from North and South America, 
Europe, Africa, Asia, and Australia. We 
do recognize the high costs of BlXing 
from outside the U. S. , and we are contin- 
ually looking for ways to help users re- 
duce them. 

"Incidentally, although BIX is not 
available directly in Europe, another 
BYTE service— BYTEnet Listings— is. 
BYTEnet Listings is a BBS with code de- 
scribed in BYTE articles in its download 
areas. There currently are BYTEnet List- 
ings boards in more than 30 nations 
worldwide. "—Jerry 

Solving Problems with ASK 

Dear Jerry, 

Last year, you wrote about having 
troubles with your resident software and 
gave an example of a batch file that re- 
writes the AUTOEXEC.BAT file. That's one 
solution, but I think I've got a better one. 

The advanced edition of the Norton 
Utilities includes the program ASK, 
which is very useful for solving such 
problems in a tidy way. With ASK, you 
can build menus in a batch file, input into 
the batch file, and set the errorlevel 


Jerry Pournelle holds a doctorate in psy- 
chology and is a science fiction writer 
who also earns a comfortable living writ- 
ing about computers present and future. 
He can be reached do BYTE, One Phoe- 
nix Mill Lane, Peterborough, NH 03458. 


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AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 33 


according to your input. (For a better ex- 
planation, just look it up in the Norton 
Integrator.) A better solution to your 
problem could look like this: 

ECHO 1. Ready! , SuperKey, SideKick 

ECHO 2. Lightning, SideKick 

ECH0 3-DESQview 

ECHO 4. Windows 

ASK "What shall I load, "1234 

if errorlevel 1 then goto 

if errorlevel 2 then goto 

If you want to stick to your method, 
you could write a little program that re- 
boots the system via interrupt 25. 

When you're using DOS 3.3, you can 
write better code using call instead of 
goto. This way your code will be much 
more readable. 

Now to your discussion about word 
processors. I do almost all my editing 
with the Norton Editor (yes, I'm a Peter 
Norton fan), which can do all I need and 
is very small. It also supports a mouse if 

connected. Just press the left mouse but- 
ton, and you can move the cursor around; 
press the mouse button again, and you 
drop the cursor at the new location. I find 
that very useful. When it comes to out- 
put, I use TeX. My second-choice editor 
is MicroStar from the Turbo Editor 
Toolbox because it cooperates with 
Lightning so nicely. 

P.S. Just in case you are interested, I 
am 14 years old. 

Konrad Neuwirth 
Vienna, Austria 

Actually, I find that DESQview does 
pretty well on an 80386 for nearly every 
normal operation; when I want to run 
without DESQview, I generally want to 
change the CONFIG.SYS file as well, and 
ASK won 't do that. 

I'm a Peter Norton fan also. —Jerry 

XyWrite's the One 

Dear Jerry, 

With rising frustration, I have read all 
the columns in your series on your search 
for a word processor that is transparent to 
you as a writer and yet has all the features 
that you as a hacker might want. 

I am a practicing attorney, and as such 
I need to create nonstandard documents 
from scratch with reasonable regularity. 
I also lecture and have to prepare appro- 
priate outlines in varying detail, tailored 
to the particular course. 

Six or so years ago, I was introduced 
to Xy Write by the head of our word-pro- 
cessing department, in which we ran 
Atex at the time. I switched over from my 
then-beloved WordStar, and I've stuck 
with it ever since. 

The key to XyWrite, which I don't be- 
lieve you have yet had an opportunity to 
appreciate, is the ability to configure the 
program in just about any way you 

Do you want a keyboard that gives you 
all the editing functions without remov- 
ing your hands from the keyboard? 
That's what I have. The keyboard driver 
for XyWrite is an ASCII file that loads 
when the program boots and can be re- 
written to put all the editing functions 
under whatever mnemonic or ergonomic 
design you choose. 

Suffice it to say that I have assigned to 
the Control key (or, in a few cases, Con- 
trol-Alt or Alt-Shift) combinations of my 
choice all the following functions: 

• Cursor movement: one space up, 
down, forward, or back; one word for- 
ward or back; one sentence forward or 
back; one paragraph forward or back; top 

continued on page 201 

34 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 

Circle 218 on Reader Service Card 

11 Important Reasons 
C Programmers Use 

Our File Manager 

1 . It's written in C. 

Clearly the growing language of 
choice for applications that are fast, 
portable and efficient. All of 
db_VISTA's source code is written in C. 

2 . It's fast - almost 3 times faster 
than a leading competitor. 

Fast access that comes from the 
unique combination of the B-tree 
indexing method and the "network" or 
direct "set" relationships between 
records. A winning combination for 
fast performance. 

3. It's flexible. 

Because of db_VISTA's combination 
of access methods, you can program 
to your application needs with ultimate 
design flexibility. Use db_VISTA as an 
ISAM file manager or to design 
database applications. You decide 
how to optimize run-time 
performance. No other tool gives you 
this flexibility without sacrificing 

db_VISTA is also well behaved to 
work with most any other C libraries! 

4. It's portable. 

db_VISTA operates on most popular 
computers and operating systems like 
UNIX, MS-DOS and VMS. You can 
write applications for micros, minis, or 
even mainframes. 

5. Complete Source Code 

We make our entire C Source Code 
available so you can optimize 
performance or port to new 
environments yourself. 

6. It uses space efficiently. 

db_VISTA lets you precisely define 
relationships to minimize redundant 
data. It is non-RAM resident; only 
those functions necessary for opera- 
tion become part of the run-time 

7. Royalty free run-time. 

Whether you're developing applications 
for yourself or for thousands, you pay 
for db_VISTA or db_QUERY only 
once. If you currently pay royalties to 
someone else for your hard work, isn't 
it time you switched to royalty-free 
db VISTA? 



♦ Multi-user support allows flexibility to run on 
local area networks 

♦ File structure is based on the B-tree indexing 

♦ Transaction processing assures multi-user 

♦ File locking support provides read and write 

♦ SQL-based db_QUERY is linkable 

♦ File transfer utilities included for ASCII, 
dBASE optional 

♦ Royalty-free run-time distribution 

♦ Source Code available 

♦ Data Definition Language for specifying the 
content and organization of your files 

♦ Interactive database access utility 

♦ Database consistency check utility 

File Management Record 
and File Sizes 

♦ Maximum record length limited only by acces- 
sible RAM 

♦ Maximum records per file is 16,777,215 

♦ Maximum file size limited only by available disk 

♦ Maximum of 256 index and data files 

♦ Key length maximum 246 bytes 

♦ No limit on number of key fields per record 

♦ No limit on maximum number of fields per 

Operating System 
& Compiler Support 
♦Operating systems: MS-DOS, UNIX, 

XENIX, ULTRIX, Microport, VMS, 

♦ C compilers: Lattice, Microsoft. IBM, 
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and LightspeedC 

8. SQLbased db_QUERY 

is the query and report writing 
program that provides a relational 
view of db_VISTA databases. 
Use ad hoc or link into your C 
applications. Royalty-free. Source 
code available. 

9. Free tech support. 

60 days of free technical and application 
development support for every Raima 
product. Of course, extended support 
and training classes are also available 
at your place or ours. 

10. Upward database 

Start out with file management in a 
single-user PC environment— then 
move up to a multi-user LAN or a VAX 
database application with millions of 
records. You'll still be using db_VISTA. 
That's why so many C programmers 
are choosing db_VISTA. 


and BASIC programmers to interface 
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Lotus 1-2-3 $ 195 

Call Today! 

Ordering is easy — simply call 
toll-free. We'll answer your technical 
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1 (800) db_RAIMA 

(800) 327-2462 or 
(206) 828-4636 


For international orders: 

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In Belgium call 
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FAX: (206) 828-3131 Telex: 6503018237 MCIUW 

© 1988 Raima Corporation 



When you want to talk computers 


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Mac Snap 2SE 359.00 


Turboscan 1,349.00 


730 Flatbed Scanner 1,199.00 

Ast Premium 286 & 386 Call 

Compaq Deskpro and Portbls. . . .Call 

IBM PS/2 25, 30, 50, 60, 80 Call 

Leading Edge 899.00 


NEC APC-IV Powermate . . . .2,399.00 
PC-TOO 80286 1.2MB, 51 2K. .899.00 

Toshiba T-1000 Laptop 799.00 

Zenith Laptops Call 







6-Pak Plus 576 Board 149.00 

Hot Shot 286 Accelerator 349.00 


Color Card 169.00 

Graphics Card Plus 199.00 


Inboard 386 Board 799.00 

5th Generation 

Logical Connection 256K 339.00 


Quad386XT 80386 PC-Upgr. . .799.00 

Video 7 

Vega V.G.A. Adapter 299.00 


Color Card w/ Parallel Port 89.99 


d-Base III+ 389.00 


Quattro 129.00 

5th Generation 

Fastback Plus 84.99 

Fox Software 

Fox Base & Development . . . .219.00 


Optimouse w/dr. Halo 89.99 


Hi-Res Buss Mouse 99.00 


Lotus 1.2.3 299.00 

Software Publishing 

First Choice 99.99 

Word Perfect Corp. 

Word Perfect 5.0 NEW 


WE SHIP 90% 


OVER 3000 


36 BYTE* AUGUST 1988 

When you want to talk price. 



Video 210A 12" Amber 89.00 

Video 410 12"A/G/W (ea.) 139.00 


7BM623 12" TTL Amber 99.00 

CM8505 14" RGB/Composite .189.00 
CM8515 14" RGB/Composite .269.00 

9CM053 14" EGA 379.00 

9CM082 14" VGA Display. . . .459.00 


GS-1400 14" Monochr. TTL . .219.00 

JC-1402 Multisync-ll 599.00 

Packard Bell 

PB-1418F 14" Flat TTL A/GA/V 

(ea.) 119.00 

PB-1420CG 14" Mid-Res CGA 269.00 
PB-1422EG 14" Hi-Res EGA. .369.00 
PB-8426-MJ Uniscan Monitor .399.00 
Princeton Graphics 

Max-12 12" TTL Amber 149.00 


CM-1430 14"VGA Display . . . .649.00 

Magnavox CM 8762 
14" RGB/Comp. 




AA314 DS/DD ST Disk 219.00 

SHD204 20MB ST Hard Drive .619.00 
C.LTD (For Amiga) 

C.LTD 20MB (A2000) 769.00 

C.LTD 33MB (A2000) 879.00 

C.LTD 44MB (A2000) 1099.00 

C.LTD 50MB (A2000) 1139.00 

C.LTD A500 SCSI Controller . .179.00 

GT Disk Drive Atari XL/XE 199.00 

GTS-100 ST Drive 219.00 


Jr. Expansion Chassis 299.00 

Seagate Technologies 

ST-225 20MB Drive 249.00 


Atari ST 20MB Hard Drive . . . .589.00 

Amiga 2000 20MB Hard/Drive .629.00 



6480 C64/128 1200 Baud 99.99 

520 ST520/1 040 1200 Baud ..129.00 
1200E 1200 Baud External . . .129.00 

XMM301 XL/XE 300 Baud 44.99 

SX-212 St Modem 99.99 


1200 He External 99.99 

2400 External 189.00 

Best Products 

2400 Baud Vz Card w/software 149.00 


Evercom 2400 Baud External . 209.00 

Practical Peripherals 
2400 Stand Alone $189 


Smartmodem 300 Ext 159.00 

Smartmodem 1200 Int 279.00 

Packard Bell 

1200 External 89.99 

2400 External 169.00 

Practical Peripherals 

1 200 Baud External 11 9.00 

1200 Baud Internal 79.99 


2400AT 2400 Baud Atari 169.00 

U.S. Robotics 

Direct 1200 Baud External 109.00 

Direct 2400 Baud External 199.00 



MD1-M SS/DD 5V4" 8.49 

MD2-DM DS/DD 5 1 /4" 9.49 

MF1-DDM SS/DD 3V 2 " 12.49 

MF2-DDM DS/DD 3 1 /2" 18.49 

MC-6000 DC-600 Tape 23.99 


MD1D SS/DD 5 1 / 2 " 6.99 

MD2D DS/DD 5 1 /2*' 7.99 

MFD-1DD SS/DD 3V 2 " 11.99 

MFD-2DD DS/DD 3V2" 16.99 



XDM-121 Letter Quality XL-XE 209.00 
XM-M801 XL-XE Dot Matrix . . .199.00 

XM-M804 ST Dot Matrix 199.00 


M-1109 100cps Dot Matrix. . . .169.00 

M-1509 180cps 132col 389.00 

HR-20 22cps Daisywheel 379.00 


120D 120cps Dot Matrix 159.00 

Premier-35 35cps Daisywheel .479.00 

LX-800 150cps, 80 col 179.00 

FX-86e 240cps, 80 col Call 

FX-286E 240 cps, 132 col Call 

LQ-500 180 cps, 24-wire Call 

LQ-850 330 cps, 80 col Call 

LQ-1050 330 cps, 24-wire Call 

FX-850, FX-1050 New 


2225A Thinkjet 369.00 


P2200 Pinwriter 24-wire 379.00 

P660 Pinwriter 24-wire 459.00 

P760 Pinwriter 132 col 679.00 


Okimate 20 color printer 129.00 

ML-182 180 cps, 80 col 249.00 

ML-320 300 cps, 80 col 379.00 

ML-390 24 wire, 270 cps 519.00 

Panasonic KX-P1080i 

144 cps, 80 col. $ 169 


KX-P109H 194 cps, 80 col. . 
KX-P1092i 240 cps, 80 col. . 
KX-P1595 200 cps, 132 col. 
Star Micronics 
NX-1000 140 cps, 80 col 
NX-1000C C64/128 Interface 

NX-15 120 cps, 132 col 


P321-SL 216 cps, 24-wire . . 

P351-SX 300 cps, 24-wire . . 



. 999.00 

In the U.S.A. and in Canada 

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Circle 55 on Reader Service Card AUGUST 1988 • BYTE 37 

Ask Byte 

Circuit Cellar 's Steve Ciarcia answers your questions on microcomputing 

A Drive for All Seasons 

Dear Steve, 

I'm looking for a 3 '/2-inch floppy disk 
drive capable of coping with the IBM 
1.44-megabyte format as well as the 
Apple 800K-byte format. I have asked 
most of the major brand representatives 
in Europe about this, but so far I've been 
without luck. I think there must be quite 
a market for such a device, so I don't 
understand why it should not exist. 

H. Anjou 
Gothenburg, Sweden 

There 's an old saying in this country 
that there 's an oddball in every crowd. In 
the computer crowd, the oddball is Apple 
Computer. Apple's disk system for all its 
computers uses an unusual data encoding 
method called group coding, whereas 
modified frequency modulation (MFM) 
encoding is the basis for the dominant in- 
dustry standard dictated by IBM. Apple 's 
method is very software-intensive, using 
a variable-speed 80-track drive to obtain 
its 800K-byte-per-disk capacity. 

The IBM 1.44-megabyte disk drive 
uses industry-standard controllers. The 
differences between the systems make de- 
signing a single drive to work with both a 
bit adventurous. At least two companies 
have attempted to market controllers that 
permit industry-standard 40-track dou- 
ble-sided drives to be used with the Apple 
II series; both failed. It seems highly un- 
likely that anyone will design and market 
a disk drive that works with both kinds of 
controllers with acceptable reliability. 
I'm not saying it can 't be done— just that 
no one is likely to do it. — Steve 

Alive and Kicking 

Dear Steve, 

Do you know where I can get software 
to let me use my Osborne 1 with a hook- 
up to an IBM PC XT? I've tried several 
sources without success. 

Steven Takle 
Fridley, MN 

I don't know of any specific software 
package that links Osborne or other 
CP/M machines to IBM PCs. Maybe you 

can find something on CP/M bulletin 
board systems (BBSes), CompuServe, or 
The Source. You can find a large list of 
user groups and BBSes in Computer 
Shopper magazine. 

You can operate a PC from a remote 
computer of almost any type with some 
communications programs. Procomm, for 
example, has a host mode that provides 
many of the features of BBS control pro- 
grams, and it has a shell-to-DOS func- 
tion that allows the remote user full ac- 
cess to the PC. All I/O is redirected to the 
COM port. This would allow you to use 
Modem! or some other program on your 
Osborne to run the PC remotely. Pro- 
comm is available on most local BBSes, 
or you can order it from Datastorm Tech- 
nologies, Inc., 1621 TowneDr., Suite G, 
Columbia, MO 65205. One advantage of 
downloading from a local BBS is that you 
can try it before you buy it. —Steve 

IN ASK BYTE, Steve Ciarcia, a computer con- 
sultant and electronics engineer, answers 
questions on any area of microcomputing and 
his Circuit Cellar projects. The most repre- 
sentative questions will be answered and pub- 
lished. Send your inquiry to 


One Phoenix Mill Lane 

Peterborough, NH 03458 

Due to the high volume of inquiries, we 
cannot guarantee a personal reply. All letters 
and photographs become the property of 
Steve Ciarcia and cannot be returned. 

The Ask BYTE staff includes manager 
Harv Weiner and researchers Eric Albert, 
Tom Cantrell, Bill Curlew, Ken Davidson, 
Jeannette Dojan, Jon Elson, Frank Kuech- 
mann, Tim McDonough, Edward Nisley, Dick 
Sawyer, Robert Stek, and Mark Voorhees. 

Protocol Problems 

Dear Steve, 

My computer is a Hewlett-Packard 
IPC, a machine that is apparently a poor 

My problem concerns connecting an 
external disk drive. According to the 
manuals, any drive that uses the Amigo 

or SS-80 protocol can be directly con- 
nected (via the HP-IB or IEEE-488) and 
operated using drivers in the operating 
system. Since I don't want to pay HP's 
price for its drives, I've been looking for 
another source. Unfortunately, no one 
has heard of the required protocols. 

Do you know of a source of informa- 
tion? I've already tried HP and local 
dealers. I've also written to drive manu- 
facturers, to no avail. 

James A. Hazel 
Bremerton, WA 

A field that is evolving as rapidly as 
microcomputers creates its inevitable or- 
phans and unsupported, expensive, and 
hard-to-find products. 

For a number of reasons (but mostly by 
accident), the Seagate ST506 and ST412 
hard disk drive interfaces have largely 
dominated, with a strong showing by the 
Shugart Associates system interface 
(SASI) and small computer system inter- 
face (SCSI). The HP-IB/IEEE-488 inter- 
face, though usable with hard disk 
drives, was developed to connect labora- 
tory instruments to minicomputers; it is 
therefore less than optimal for hard disk 
drive applications. The newer, simpler 
Seagate and SCSI drives have dominated, 
with run length limited (RLL) coming on 
fast as a variant. 

With this in mind, it should be no sur- 
prise to you that I haven 't been able to lo- 
cate any third-party drives that would be 
compatible with your system. Your 
choices would seem to be as follows: Go 
without a hard disk drive, buy HP's ver- 
sion, or get a different computer — such 
as a PC or PC compatible— for which 
bargain-priced drives are offered by 
dozens of suppliers. —Steve 

Identical Printers 

Dear Steve, 

What is the difference between Epson- 
and IBM-compatible printers with regard 
to the Centronics interface? Is this differ- 
ence a hardware- or software-dependent 

Also, is it possible to interface an 


38 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 


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AUGUST 1988 'BYTE 39 

Circle 107 on Reader Service Card 

Integrand's new Chassis/System is not another 
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40 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 

Epson-compatible printer with an IBM 
PC? If so, how is this done? 

Finally, I'd like to know the intrica- 
cies involved if you use a serial interface 
(RS-232C) for the printer. 

V. Shyamasunder 
Bangalore, India 

The hardware for an Epson interface is 
identical to an IBM-compatible printer 
interface. This interface was originated 
by Centronics. The commonly used sig- 
nals include 8 data bits, an active-low 
data-available strobe, an active-low ac- 
knowledge strobe, an active-high level 
busy signal, and ground signals. The dif- 
ference between the two types of printers 
lies in the graphics mode each supports; 
the graphics mode is controlled by the 
computer via the high bit of data sent to 
the printer. 

In graphics mode— high bit set — an 
IBM-compatible printer will reproduce 
the high-ASCII screen graphics character 
of the IBM PC family; a non-IBM-com- 
patible Epson will produce different 
characters. In text mode, high bit clear, 
the two printers will produce the same 
output. You can use an Epson-compatible 
printer with an IBM-type computer, if the 
IBM graphics characters are not re- 
quired, simply by connecting the com- 
puter and printer with a cable that has 
suitable connectors at the ends, typically 
either a 36-pin Amphenol-type connector 
or a DB-25 connector. 

You can use a serial printer with an 
IBM-type computer via a COM port and a 
suitable cable— usually with a DB-25 
connector on the printer end and a DB-9 
or DB-25 connector at the computer end. 
Since many serial printers follow DTE 
(data terminal equipment) protocol 
rather than DCE (data communications 
equipment), you'll need a null modem 
adapter or cable for successful opera- 
tion. These adapters interchange the data 
and handshaking lines. While it's easy 
for experienced users to construct cables 
and adapters for serial interfacing, it is 
frequently frustrating and time-consum- 
ing for novices. Sources such as Jameco 
Electronics and JDR Microdevices (both 
advertise in BYTE) carry ready-made 
cables and adapters that will prevent or 
eliminate most problems.— Steve 

Polylingual Clone 

Dear Steve, 

I'm interested in buying an IBM AT 
clone. However, I need the system to op- 
erate in English and Japanese (my key- 
board has four character types: English, 
kanji, katakana, and hiragana). In Japa- 
nese mode, I need to be able to select the 

character I need from a shift/function 
key and have this character displayed on 
the CRT or printer. 

Many printers can print in different 
languages (e.g., the Epson can print in 
German and French), but Epson USA 
couldn't help me. I need this system to 
operate as a regular computer or word 

M. J. Cavanaugh 
Steger, IL 

A PC clone that writes in English and 
three different Japanese character sets 
sounds like a tough item to find in the 
U.S. market. The old Epson MX-80 
printers sold in the U.S. a few years ago 
did include a katakana character set, but 
I haven 't seen any other printers with this 

You may be able to use Microsoft Win- 
dows if you can get a copy of the Japanese 
version. Microsoft Systems Journal 
(March 1988) contains an article on im- 
plementing Windows for Japanese com- 
puters. The article vaguely implies that a 
Japanese version of the PC AT or clone is 
required. It is not necessary for the 
printer to have the Japanese characters, 
however, because Windows uses its own 
fonts and prints in graphics mode when 
you use a dot-matrix printer. 

You may be able to find out if this ap- 
proach is feasible by calling Microsoft at 
(800) 426-9400. -Steve 

Computerized Slide Show 

Dear Steve, 

I am attempting to store some docu- 
ments that are four to eight pages long on 
my IBM PC. The documents contain 
mostly text, but some have line drawings, 
graphs, and maps. I'd like to retrieve 
these documents and display them on the 
screen with as little extraneous display as 
possible. Most word processors and 
desktop publishing software display 
more than the document on the screen. 
What options do I have for storing and 
displaying documents in this manner? 

I'm using an IBM PC AT with an EGA 

Doyle L. Jones 
Clinton, MS 

If I understand correctly, you want to 
display documents page by page on your 
PC, but not necessarily for editing. In 
other words, you want a slide show. 

There are a few programs that are de- 
signed especially for this kind of task. 
Two are Show Partner and Show Partner 
Professional by Brightbill-Roberts & 
Co. , 120 East Washington St. , Suite 421, 


Circle 185 on Reader Service Card — ► 


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Harvard. And with good reason: 


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•AUGUST •1988->:'H-Y.-'F.E-y/A3V 


Syracuse, NY 13202, (315)474-3400. 

Another is EGA Paint with EGA Slide 
by RIX Softworks, Inc. , 18552 MacAr- 
thur Blvd. , Suite 375, Irvine, CA 92715, 
(714) 476-8266. 

These products are widely available 
from mail-order suppliers or in computer 
stores.— Steve 

Communication Problems 

Dear Steve, 

I recently purchased a Macintosh SE, 
and I was under the assumption that such 
a sophisticated machine would hook up 
to my printer, a Toshiba P1340. 1 also as- 
sumed that any software— such as Micro- 
soft Works and Lotus's Jazz— would also 
operate with the printer. No such luck. 
Although I have just begun searching, I 
have had equally poor luck in unearthing 
any information that will help me solve 
the problem. 

My Toshiba is a good product, and I'd 
like to continue to use it with the Mac. I 
have an Apple lie and have had no prob- 
lems with any of the printers I have used 
with it. I can't understand why a superior 
machine would present such a frustrating 

I do have an Orange Micro C/Mac/GS 
linked between my Panasonic 1091 and 
the Mac. However, printing is so slow 
that I could write the documents by hand 
faster. I don't consider this a realistic 
solution. I'd appreciate any suggestions. 
David T.Barrat 
Acton, MA 

The success of the Macintosh com- 
puter, after an under-powered beginning, 
has been one of the more interesting phe- 
nomena of the post- 1985 computer scene 
(parallel with, and quite distinct from, 
the overwhelming continued dominance 
of the IBM line and its clones). Perhaps 
the most distinctive characteristic of the 
Mac is its penchant for doing nearly 
everything in a non-IBM way. What 
works with IBM won 't work with the Mac, 
and vice versa. 

The individuality, though perhaps 
somewhat interesting, creates problems 
that aren't easily solved. Attempting to 
use the Mac with other than its own spe- 
cially designed printers graphically illus- 
trates some of those problems. 

Your desire to use your Toshiba printer 
with the Macintosh is understandable, 
but it may not be possible. The Macintosh 
uses software drivers to communicate 
with devices like printers; these drivers 
can be found in the system folder. Apple 
Computer supplies drivers only for its 
Imagewriter and LaserWriter printers. 
To use a different printer, the appropriate 

driver must be installed in the system 
folder of the Macintosh. So far as I can 
determine, there is no driver available for 
your Toshiba printer. Unless you create 
your own driver (a nontrivial task), or 
one becomes available from another 
source, your Mac and Toshiba won 't sing 
the same song or speak the same lan- 
guage. —Steve 

Joyless Joystick 

Dear Steve, 

I'm trying to interface an external de- 
vice to my Amiga 500 through the second 
joystick port. I have experimented and 
read a few books on the Amiga, but I 
can't find any way of doing output 
through the port. I've experimented with 
pokes and peeks, and I've found that I 
can input information through the port 
with the following code: 

LOOP: PRINT PEEKW(l46l4540) 
POKEW 14614582, 

Could you show me how to do output 
through the port or refer me to some 

Virender Dayal 
Hoboken, NJ 

I understand your desire to use an un- 
used joystick port on your Amiga for out- 
put. Tinkering with hardware and explor- 
ing new applications is one of the true 
joys of computing. Your desire to get out- 
put, however, isn't practical. 

There are essentially two kinds of con- 
nections to electronic circuits: inputs and 
outputs. Except in the case of specialized 
devices, like transceivers and analog 
switches, the two functions aren 't inter- 
changeable. The Amiga 500' s joystick 
port is for input only, and there is no 
way— short of redesigning, cutting, sol- 
dering, and praying— that you can 
change this.— Steve 

Do-It- Yourself CAD/CAM 

Dear Steve, 

I am an amateur engineer and designer 
with some professional experience in 
FORTRAN programming. I'm inter- 
ested in knowing if I could construct a 1- 
megabyte computer that would have the 
capability for CAD/CAM operations and 
FORTRAN programming. I don't think I 
would need BASIC for my application. 

My goal is to use CAD/CAM software 
to construct an item on the monitor, then 
cut the item in selected locations and use 
FORTRAN to make an engineering 
strength analysis. I could then redesign 
as necessary without removing the item 

from memory or even from the screen. 

I see various companies that sell com- 
puter components. Can I buy a keyboard, 
motherboard, monitor, and other com- 
ponents to put together a system to help 
me with my engineering? I don't need the 
extra space and chips that I guess are 
needed for BASIC or, say, Symphony— I 
would use those resources for CAD/ 

Joseph Weiss Jr. 
South Hutchinson, KS 

While I think you could construct a 
computer along the lines that you de- 
scribe, I think it would be far more prac- 
tical to purchase a standard one. There 
are a few things you haven 't considered 
that make the decision fairly simple. 

It turns out that all computers are 
pretty much the same under the hood, so 
any machine that can run FORTRAN or 
CAD/CAM programs will also run 
BASIC and other languages. You don't 
need additional hardware gizmos for 
those other programs; as far as the com- 
puter is concerned, they 're all just 

By the same token, Symphony and all 
the other programs will run on the same 
IBM PC clone that will handle FOR- 
TRAN or AutoCAD, simply because 
they're programs written to use that 
hardware. In fact, you '11 find that the 
CAD programs tend to have more strin- 
gent hardware requirements, because 
they need high-resolution displays, plot- 
ters, printers, digitizing tablets, and mice 
to handle complex graphic I/O. 

If you 're interested in CAD work, plan 
to buy at least an IBM PC AT clone with a 
40-megabyte hard disk drive, a VGA- 
compatible monitor, and a mouse. That 's 
the minimum hardware for reasonable 
performance. Hard copy output can go to 
either a laser printer or a plotter; the for- 
mer can handle word processing with 
ease. But the tab will run about $5000 for 
all that hardware, and you won 't realize 
significant savings by assembling parts 
from several vendors. 

Sounds in the Silence 

Dear Steve, 

I want to communicate by telephone 
with my cousin, who is hearing im- 
paired. I'd like to be able to use my com- 
puter and a modem, but my cousin has 
only teletypewriter (TTY) equipment, 
and I understand that there is no modem 
that can connect to a TTY. 

The president of the Maryland State 
Society for the Hearing Impaired tells 


44 BYTE' AUGUST 1988 

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me that the Bell Telephone System has a 
very expensive converter that will allow 
modems and TTYs to connect. He tells 
me further that the deaf community uses 
machines that are based on the TT Y code 
because (a) such machines are readily 
and economically available, and (b) most 
of the members of the deaf community 
cannot afford the Bell System converter. 
I think you can make an enormous 
contribution to the many people who are 
hearing impaired and to the microcom- 
puter community as well. If such a con- 
verter exists, surely you can design 
equipment that will serve the same func- 
tion and that can be made from economi- 
cal and readily available parts. 

George Allison 
Essex, MD 

I've received many useful suggestions 
for Circuit Cellar projects from readers 
such as yourself. I will seriously consider 
your suggestions concerning modem/TTY 

There are definitely some possibilities 
that deserve consideration and explora- 
tion. The microcomputer world is fre- 
quently afflicted with incompatibilities, 
and the differences between current 
microcomputer modems and the older 
TTY-based equipment illustrate the situ- 
ation nicely. 

While there are viable markets for var- 
ious computer modems and TTY equip- 
ment, there is a much smaller market for 
protocol converters for the two communi- 
cations methods. The small size of the 
market limits the amount of development 
you can accomplish without going broke. 

As you said, there seems to be no gen- 
eral-purpose equipment on the market, 
other than the expensive converters sold 
by the phone company, that permits com- 
munication between a typical microcom- 
puter and a TTY unit used by hearing- 
impaired individuals. Modifying existing 
commercial equipment is usually imprac- 
tical unless the TTY capability has been 
designed into it from the beginning. 

At one time Novation made an internal 
modem called the Apple Cat for Apple II 
series computers. After a simple factory 
hardware modification, you could use it 
with special software (available on disk 
from Novation) to work with the 45.5- 
bit-per-second, Baudot-coded (5-bit) 
protocol used by TTY. However, Nova- 
tion no longer makes it. Texas Instru- 
ments also has a software package avail- 
able for the 77 Professional that lets that 
computer emulate a TTY terminal, but it 
works in conjunction with unique TI 
hardware and thus has little generality. 

—Steve ■ 

46 BYTE' AUGUST 1988 

Circle 24 on Reader Service Card 



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Y)U Can Never Be 



As portable PCs go, ours may look a 
bit on the skinny side. But they're by no 
means undernourished. 

After all, each 286 and 386 powered 
Toshiba portable has an easy-to-read gas 
plasma screen. Each is IBM-compatible. 
And each gives you a wide range of features 
you'd expect only from a desktop PC. 

The T3100/20, for example, weighs a 
scant 15 pounds, yet has an abundance 
of power. It comes with an 80286 micro- 
processor and 640KB of RAM that's ex- 
tendable to 2.6MB. Plus, there's a built-in 
20MB hard disk. 

Our T3200 has the advantages of a 
12MHz 80286 microprocessor, an EGA 
display system, a 40MB hard disk and 1MB 
of RAM expandable to 4MB. Also, its two 
IBM-compatible internal expansion slots 
let you connect your PC to mainframes, 
LANs and more. But what's even more im- 
pressive is how we managed to fit all this 
into a slim, 19-pound package. 

Then there's our T5100. As amazing as 
it seems, we managed to squeeze a 16MHz 
80386 microprocessor into a slim package 
that weighs less than 15 pounds. To that 
we added an EGA display system and a 29 

msec 40MB hard disk. As your thirst for 
power grows, its 2MB RAM can be up- 
graded to 4MB. And for a limited time, 
your T5100 purchase entitles you to buy 
the powerful Paradox 386® database 
software for only $299 (nearly $600 off 
the retail price). 

For more information on Toshiba com- 
puters and printers, call 1-800-457-7777. 
And rest assured that whichever Toshiba 
PC you choose, you'll be getting the kind 
of power once reserved for cumbersome 
desktop computers. 

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Book Reviews 

The Armchair 

by A. K. Dewdney 

W. H. Freeman & Co. , New 
York: 1988, 330 pages, $19.95 
cloth, $13.95 paper 

Reviewed by Hugh Kenner 

For nearly two years, a 
Turbo Pascal program I 
play with on my Zenith Z-100 
has been accumulating short- 
cuts and speedups. It exam- 
ines areas near the border of 
the famous Mandelbrot set and 
represents their detail with 
colored patterns. It began as a 
direct translation into Pascal 
of a program that, being in in- 
terpreted BASIC, was far too 
slow. The author of the BASIC 
program had been guided by a 
short algorithm in the August 
1985 Scientific American. My 
copy of that issue was long ago 
swiped by someone, and the li- 
brary copy I recently con- 
sulted had lost the article to a 
vandal's scissors. I was 
pleased to find it reprinted in 
this first collection of A. K. 
Dewdney 's Computer Recrea- 
tions columns. 

I suspect that's not an un- 
common scenario. Dewdney 
is very likely responsible for 
more filched and mutilated 
copies of Scientific American 
than any other current author. 
He has also prompted, world- 
wide, uncountable hours of 
coding time. That's because 
he doesn't list programs; he 
states some interesting theme 
and shows you how to think 
about implementing it. At the 
back of The Armchair Uni- 
verse is a list of suppliers, and 
Dewdney 's tone dissuades you 
from even thinking about buy- 
ing such canned software— an 
altruistic act, given that 
Dewdney himself might be 
one of the suppliers. He'd like 
us all to get our feet wet and 

our minds stretched by learn- 
ing to program (i.e., think se- 
quentially). He wants us to 
shed the chains of "software 
slavery, " a state "inadvertent- 
ly encouraged" by packagers. 
This collection has some- 
thing for almost everyone. If, 
like me, you're challenged by 
graphics, there are chapters 

entitled "The Mandelbrot 
Set" and "Wallpaper for the 
Mind." Higher Math? Try 
"Golomb Rulers" or "Hyper- 
cubes." Artificial Intelli- 
gence? Try "RACTER," 
"Facebender," "Checkers," 
more. Life? Puzzles? Simula- 
tions? They're all here. And if 
your fantasies run to aliens 

In the Age of the Smart Machine: 
The Future of Work and Power 

Programmer's Guide to the Hercules Graphics Cards 

Manufacturing Intelligence 

HyperCard Power 

snuffing out benign systems, 
three pieces on "Core Wars" 
deal with plagues that propa- 
gate through memory, zap- 
ping anything they find except 

Good Medicine for Pros 

The great merit of Dewdney 's 
approach is his patient, genial 
concentration on how to define 
a project and relax and think 
about it. His book might even 
be good medicine for pros who 
scorn the very idea of recre- 
ational computing. Thus he 
cites the solution of Jon L. 
Bentley (Programming Pearls 
columnist for Communica- 
tions of the ACM) to the prob- 
lem of finding anagrams. As- 
sume the computer has access 
to a dictionary (as it must, to 
know if what it has found is a 
word). The obvious way is to 
exhaust the permutations, 
checking each in the dictio- 
nary. At 120 permutations for 
just 5 different letters, that's 
slow. But here's Bentley's 
"Aha!" way: Sort the letters of 
each dictionary word in as- 
cending order; sort the result- 
ing list; and pair its entries 
with the parent words, like 

aecrs acres 

aecrs cares 

aecrs races 

aecrs scare 

aecrt cater 

aecrt crate 

That big but uncomplicated 
job once done, any anagram 
problem is reduced to a single- 
letter sort and a quick lookup. 
You want anagrams for acres? 
The sort is aecrs. The lookup 
finds cares, races, and scare. 
And that is all, so far as this 
dictionary knows. 

One pleasure in The Arm- 
chair Universe problems is en- 
joying them in themselves 
(every day, in countless news- 


AUGUST 1988 • B Y T E 51 








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papers, anagrams entrance 
the players of a game called 
Jumbles), and another is the 
light they can throw on deeper 
problems. A story I especially 
enjoy has Dewdney in a quarry 
marveling at a fossil trilobite, 
when a man named Smith, a 
professor of paleontology, 
happens by. Why, Dewdney 
asks him, did the trilobites be- 
come extinct? Why, Smith re- 
joins, is the name Smith so 
common? Those turn out to be 
the forms of the same ques- 
tion, and they prompt two re- 
lated algorithms— PALEO- 
TREE, in which genera and 
species survive, mutate, or die 
out; and NEOTREE, in which 
families (and their names) be- 
come extinct, leaving space 
for Smiths to flourish in. The 
chief difference is that NEO- 
TREE has no parallel for new 
species evolving. (Though 
what about Smythe from 
Smith? In fine-tuning that 
program, I'd insert a Vanity 

Start with 1000 family 
names, and, by NEOTREE's 
showing, in about 23 genera- 
tions three-quarters of them 
wil 1 be extinct . That ' s because 
it's the males who carry on the 
name, and the empirical prob- 
ability is 0.317 that a family 
will produce no males des- 
tined to marry. Half the fam- 
ilies are gone in some 3 gener- 
ations, two-thirds in about 10. 
Thereafter, attrition slows 
down. Will the number ever 
shrink to 1? Perhaps in Goo- 
golplex years (that's 10 to the 
10th to the 100th). Or more 
likely not. If Smiths are a tena- 
cious tribe, so are Joneses. 

Then there's the Voting 
Simulation dreamed up by two 
Britons . We start with a grid of 
randomly colored squares- 
say, blue for Republican, red 
for Democrat. We next as- 
sume that opinions follow 
those of forceful neighbors. 
Select a voter at random; 
select one of his eight neigh- 
bors at random; change his 
persuasion to that of the neigh- 
bor. Silently and rapidly, this 
simulates a lot of argument, a 
lot of malleability , and strange 
things happen. (Voters near an 

edge of the grid still have eight 
neighbors because left wraps 
to join right, top to join bot- 
tom. Yes, that does make the 
country toroidal . I have a feel- 
ing this game could be imple- 
mented on a spreadsheet.) 

"First, large blocks of votes 
develop within the grid. The 
blocks are geographic areas 
where everyone has the same 
opinion." (Recall FDR's old 
Solid South.) "Then the 
blocks migrate around the 
grid, and for a while two 
blocks struggle for domi- 
nance. Finally, the two-party 
system collapses as everyone 
ends up voting the same way. 
The smaller block vanishes as 
democracy votes itself out of 
existence— or does it? This is a 
neat philosophical question. " 

Dewdney hastens to remark 
that as a model of the political 
process, this is "admittedly 
simpleminded." He also re- 
ports that even so simple a 
model leaves democracy look- 
ing pretty tough. Some readers 
reported that after an over- 
night run, considerable differ- 
ence of opinion lingered. In 
Dewdney 's own experience, 
achieving unanimity takes 
"the better part of a day": 
many million acts of random 
persuasion. (And what hap- 
pens, he asks, if each beset 
voter crank ily adopts an opin- 
ion the opposite of that random 
neighbor's? He doesn't tell, 
and I haven't tried it.) 

Simulation vs. Reality 

Many of Dewdney 's chapters 
conjure up the besetting devil 
of Computer Simulations: Do 
I really gain insight into real- 
world events, or am I just 
amusing myself with a model 
so neat I can see how to pro- 
gram it? The chapter entitled 
"Sharks and Fish on the Plan- 
et Wa-Tor" is a good example. 
Fish die of being eaten by 
sharks; sharks die if they 
haven ' t eaten recently enough . 
Both have single offspring at 
fixed intervals (it works best 
when the sharks breed more 
slowly) . Both move at random , 
point to point, north, south, 
east, west, with this complica- 

52 BYTE* AUGUST 1988 

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Quaid Analyzer is a powerful diagnostic tool 
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Overwrite the vector for interrupt 3, so you 
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Overwrite the vector for interrupt 1, so you 
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Warning I 

For advanced programmers only. 


tion: A shark will always move 
to (and eat) an adjacent fish 
when there is one. 

I haven't tried this one, 
either, though the program- 
ming looks simple. What 
Dewdney reports is scenarios 
sensitive to geometry. Neither 
the initial distribution nor the 
actual movement seems im- 
portant, but when a tight 
school of fish forms, then the 
sharks discover and destroy it, 
then die themselves for lack of 
food. Result: zero population 
of any kind. (Though some- 
times a smaller school offish, 
elsewhere on the screen, 
would go unnoticed until the 
sharks were extinct. Result: 
an ocean crammed with fish.) 

An evident simplifying as- 
sumption is that nothing ever 
happens to fish, save getting 
eaten by sharks. Still, the 
game exhibits cyclic ups and 
downs that resemble the fluc- 
tuating numbers of predators 
and prey in situations that have 
been tabulated, as when Hud- 
son's Bay Company counted a 
whole half-century's lynxes 
and hares. A lot of hares fed a 
lot of lynxes; then as hares 
drew near extinction lynxes 
died off, too, permitting a re- 
surgent hare population . . . 
You see the pattern. 

A graph of some very 
smooth things called the 
Lotke-Volterra equations 
looks rather similar, and 
they ' ve been invoked to model 
predator-prey fluctuations. 
But by Dewdney 's report, 
graphs derived from the Wa- 
Tor game look more like the 
Hudson's Bay data than 
Lotke-Volterra curves do. 
He's puzzled, though, by cer- 
tain long-term instabilities. 
I'll leave it at that. Computer 
modeling still awaits its 


In the Age of the Smart Ma- 
chine: The Future of Work 
and Power by Shoshana 
Zuboff, Basic Books, New 
York: 1988, 468 pages, 
$19.95. The television intro- 
duced to entertain may end up 

shaping the very schedule of 
our days. The microwave 
bought for convenience may 
change the type of meals we 
eat. Thus, examining a tech- 
nology only in light of its origi- 
nal intentions may obscure the 
actual effects. Such is the case 
with computers: They are in- 
stalled in order to increase 
productivity, but, in fact, they 
fundamentally alter the work 
environment. Shoshana Zu- 
boff takes a long, careful look 
at what happens to the work- 
place when computers are 

Zuboff has two basic ways 
of looking. First, she uses her 
eight in-depth studies (1981 to 
1986) of companies that had 
recently made the transition to 
computerization. Second, she 
puts observations about the 
current work environment in 
light of a history of work in- 
formed by her wide readings 
in philosophy, psychology, 
and sociology. 

Zuboff takes the body as the 
focal point of her history of 
work. At first, work was phys- 
ical labor that required bodily 
effort and bodily skills. As 
work has developed— or at 
least changed— throughout the 
centuries, it has been distrib- 
uted, and the types of knowl- 
edge necessary have changed. 
(Zuboff s analysis of knowl- 
edge develops from her de- 
scription of the different ways 
one's body inhabits one's en- 
vironment, rather than begin- 
ning from an assumption that 
mind and body are fundamen- 
tally apart. This approach 
proves fruitful, in line with 
the work of the French phe- 
nomenologist Maurice Mer- 

Zuboff looks to her case 
studies to find the state of work 
today. Her findings are not 
surprising. For example, at a 
pulp mill where workers went 
from checking on the pulping 
process by sticking their hands 
into the vats to checking a digi- 
tal readout on a computer con- 
sole, the workers have traded 
bodily involvement and skill- 
ful knowledge for a more ab- 
stract relationship with their 

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Optimouse w/DPE 

92 1 
92 1 

...185 | 



. . $145 





GS Amber 

. .. 190 



TTL Amber w/tilt 



. ... 249 



MSP 40 



MSP 50 



LQ 500 






. . .869 






NEC 890 



. . .3199 


OKI 390 


OKI 391 

.... 679 


NX 1000 


NX 1000 Color 

.... 238 


Circle 248 on Reader Service Card 

AUGUST 1988 • B Y T E 55 




KK ■ . 

Kf ■ ' 


Iff • 



1 , ' 













si*kur,' a. [L. securus]: The ability to keep your 
confidential data and your whole personal computing 
environment away from prying eyes and meddling 

Securing your personal computer 
files has, until now, been a com- 
plicated and mostly unreliable 
matter. Not any more. 

The Tandon Personal Data Pac is 
the world's first truly removable, 
self-contained Winchester hard disk 
drive that pops in and out of its 
receptacle with the stroke of a key. 
You just lock the Personal Data Pac 
with your entire computing environ- 
ment in your desk or your safe. 

And when your business keeps 
you on the move, the Tandon 
Personal Data Pac lets you take 
your office with you. It fits easily in your brief- 
case or your garment bag. If the airlines lose it, 
don't fret. Backing up a 

full Personal Data 
Pac onto another 
takes only a few 
minutes. So you 
can take one and 
keep a copy secure 
in your safe. 

The Personal 
Data Pac protects 
your data well. It's 
a hearty little traveller that can take a lot of 
abuse. It can cope with the rough and 
tumble world of the postal 
system, as well as 
take an occasional 
knock off your 

desk. Your precious programs and 
data remain cradled inside. Safe, 
secure, and ready to use. 

The Tandon Personal Data Pac 
shatters the storage limitations of 
your personal computer. When 
your first high-capacity Data Pac 
is full, pop in a fresh one and 
you're ready to go on. Infinitely. 
If you need to share your PC, 
software and data, the Tandon 
Personal Data Pac offers the saf- 
est, cheapest and most reliable 
"network" ^^^^ pos- 

sible for 
^ transferring 
capacity files 
quickly and 
easily. And, you can 
make any computer 
your personal dedicated 
workstation, simply 
inserting your own Data 

Let your Tandon Dealer 
you how the Personal Data Pac can make living 
with your PC more economical and productive. 
See him today, or call us at 1-800-556-1234, 
Ext. 171 (in California 1-800-441-2345, Ext. 171). 
Security for a small price. 

Circle 236 on Reader Service Card 
(DEALERS: 237) 

We're redefining 

personal computing. 

AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 57 

Circle 145 on Reader Service Card 



Keyboard Protector 


Finally! A Keyboard Protector That: 


Against computer downtime due to liquid spills, dust, ashes, 
staples, paper clips and other environmental hazards. 

• REMAINS IN PLACE during the operation of your keyboard. 
SafeSkin is precision molded to fit each key - like a "second skin." 

• EXCELLENT FEEL - The unique design eliminates any in- 
terference between adjacent keys, allowing smooth natural 
operation of your keyboard. 

• SafeSkin IS VIRTUALLY TRANSPARENT - Keytops and 
side markings are clearly visible. In fact, SafeSkin is so clear, 
sometimes you may not know it's there! 

• DURABLE - LONG LASTING - SafeSkin is not a "throw- 
away" item. Many of our protectors have lasted over 3 years 
under continuous daily use, without failure. 

SafeSkin is available for most popular PC's and portables including: 
ZENITH. Specify computer make and model. Send $29.95, Check 
or M.O., VISA & MC include exp. date. Dealer inquiries invited. 
Free brochure available. 

Merritt Computer Products, Inc. 

4561 S. Westmoreland / Dallas, Texas 75237 / 214/339-0753 


increases your 
DOS addressable conventional 
memory beyond 640K 

Add up to 256K 
above 640K for pro- 
grams like FOXBASE 
and PC/FOCUS. 

Short card works in 
the IBM PC, XT, AT, 
and compatibles. 

Top oft a 512 IBM 
AT's memory to 640K 
and add another 
128K beyond that. 

Run resident 
programs like 
Sidekick above 640K. 

Compatible with 
EGA, Network, and 
other memory cards. 

Add up to 96K above 
640K to all programs. 

Break through the 640 barrier. 
MAXIT increases your PC's available 
memory by making use of the vacant 
unused address space between 640K 
and 1 megabyte. {See illustrations) 

Extend the productive life of your, IBM 
PC, XT, AT or compatible. The MAXIT 
256K memory card and software works 
automatically. If you have questions, 
our customer support people will 
answer them, fast. 


Order toll free 1-800-227-0900. MAXIT is just $245 plus $4 shipping, and 
applicable state sales lax. Buy MAXIT today and solve your PC's memory crisis. 
Outside the U.S.A. call 1-415-548-2085. We accept VISA, MC, American Express 

MAXIT is a trademark ol Osborne McGraw-Hill IBM is a registered trademark of International 
Business Machines Corporation, Sidekick is a registered trademark of Borland International. Inc. 
FOXBASE- is a trademark of Fox Software; Hercules is a trademark of Hercules Computer 
Technology, Inc; XT and AT are registered trademarks of International Business Machines Corpo- 
ration; Compaq is a registered trademark of Compaq Computer Corporation. 

work. Zuboff discovers that 
this has resulted in a certain 
amount of alienation. More in- 
teresting, she describes what 
happens to social relationships 
and work flow when employ- 
ees are moved into cubicles to 
go one-on-one with a CRT. 

Even when the results are 
not surprising, and even when 
the case study accounts go on 
too long, Zuboff keeps it inter- 
esting by putting the results 
into a larger historical and 
philosophical context. (She 
does, however, tend to suffer 
from the Academic Syn- 
drome: She uses lots of jar- 
gon— "textualization" and 
"automaticity"— and dis- 
cusses many marginally rele- 
vant authors.) 

The second part of the book 
moves from the question of 
knowledge to that of power. 
Zuboff maintains that com- 
puterization changes the type 
and justification of manage- 
rial authority. Originally, a 
boss got the right to lord it over 
people because he or she was 
the owner. Then bosses re- 
ceived their legitimacy by vir- 
tue of having worked their way 
up the ladder. Now, bosses (or 
managers) have authority by 
dint of their mastery of the Sci- 
ence of Management. 

Part Three discusses the 
techniques that "can shape 
and control behavior and so 
can be harnessed to the inter- 
ests of those who employ 
them"— the techniques by 
which authority maintains it- 
self in the computer-laden 
workplace. Frequently, com- 
puterization leads to increas- 
ingly centralized control, 
usually accomplished by cen- 
tralizing knowledge (i.e., 
managers become informa- 
tion hogs). Yet Zuboff reports 
that several years after the 
transition, some companies 
were recognizing "the need 
for critical judgment at the in- 
formation interface" and the 
value of "intellective skills" 
in analyzing and responding to 
digital information. 

But the chief technique of 

control is "the information 

panopticon"— the omniscient, 

I objective computerized 

58 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 

Circle 164 on Reader Service Card 

record of all that occurs in the 
workplace or plant. Zuboff is 
particularly good at disclosing 
what life under that unceasing 
eye is like for both workers and 

At the end, Zuboff offers a 
brief view of a nonhierarchical 
organization that more uni- 
formly distributes knowledge 
and skill. She also includes a 
section entitled "Dissent from 
Wholeness, " which describes 
the disadvantages of this seem- 
ingly more egalitarian envi- 
ronment: a loss of sense of def- 
inition, rights, and autonomy. 

At times tendentious, at 
times based on too few exam- 
ples, at times too long, In the 
Age of the Smart Machine re- 
mains an important work. 

—David Weinberger 

Programmer's Guide to the 
Hercules Graphics Cards by 

David B. Doty, Addison-Wes- 
ley, Reading, MA: 1988, 370 
pages, $24. 95. This book de- 
livers a comprehensive treat- 
ment of Hercules graphics 
cards. It is occasionally 
marred by a bit of hype and 
homage to Hercules Computer 
Technology, but it overcomes 
this with clear explanations of 
the architecture of each card, 
many solid programming ex- 
amples, and some knowing 
advice on the design of graph- 
ics software. David B. Doty 
describes the original Her- 
cules graphics card, the later 
RamFont card, and the latest 
InColor card in detail . 

Because the Hercules cards 
are programmed without 
using the PC ROM BIOS , writ- 
ing programs for them is de- 
cidedly different than pro- 
gramming for other IBM 
graphics adapters. Doty wrote 
his programming examples in 
Microsoft Assembler and 
Microsoft C, but the assembly 
language functions can be 
readily changed to work with 
the stack frame conventions of 
another compiler. The func- 
tions include detecting a Her- 
cules adapter and its type, 
writing a dot, reading a dot, 
drawing a line, displaying 
text, drawing circles, filling a 

Circle 232 on Reader Service Card — ► 

SCSystems 1-800-669-9933 

ing Computer Buyers For 
~t Yei 

Para Asistirle En Espanol 
^lame Al Tel 1-800-842-177" 


1200B Int Modem 




14" RGB Monitor 


640 x 230 
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Graphics Card 


Parallel Printer Port 



CopyllPC Brd Deluxe $ 99 

Masterpiece + 95 



Multispeed $1429 

Multispeed EL II 1525 


T-1100 S/Twist 1455 

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AST Adv Prem lmb . 
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Hercules Grph + 

Intel Above 286 

.$ 419 
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Orchid Designer 

Paradise 480 

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Princeton U/Sync 
NEC Multisync 2. 



Seagate 125 w/cont 
Seagate 138 w/cont. . . . 
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Keytronics 5153 



Logitech $ 68 

MS Bus Mouse 99 

Optimouse w/DrHalo 92 

Hayes 1200 

Hayes 1200B 

Incomm RPC1200 



... 62 

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Amdek 410 

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$ 145 




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$ 356 






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Managing Your $ 119 

Ability Plus $ 139 

First Choice 79 



Carbon Copy Plus $ 106 

CrossTalkXVI 89 

CrossTalk4 115 

PC Anywhere . . .- 57 

SmartCom II 82 

MSQuickBasic $ 60 

MS QuickC 60 

Turbo Basic 59 

Turbo C 59 

Turbo Prolog 59 



Clipper $ 370 

Data Perfect 255 

DBase III 379 

DBXL Diamond 109 

Fox Base + 190 

Paradox2.0 Call 

Q and A 188 

Relate & Report 100 

Lotus 123 $Call 

Plan Perfect 192 

Quattro 150 

Surpass 329 



Pagemaker $ Call 

PFSFirstPub 55 

Ventura 495 





Fastback Plus 

Form tool 


Norton Advanced 
PC Tools Deluxe . . 

Sidekick Plus 

Sideways Print . . . 

. 39 

Chartmaster $ 199 

Generic Cad 3.0 51 

Printshop 33 

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Word Perfect 5.0 $ 219 

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Call For Items Not Listed 


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Order Line 800-669-9933 Espanol 800-842-1777 

Status Line 602-275-1395 FAX No. 602-273-0043 

Order Line for Europe & Mexico 602-287-5347 

TERMS: No charge for Visa or Mastercard. We do no! charge your card UNTIL WE SHIP your order. Manufacturers warranty applies in all cases, all warranties are handled by the 
manufacturers. We accept Purchase Orders from authorized companies only, for 3,5% above cash price. No COD orders. No refund on opened software. All prices are subject to change 
Allow 14 days for personal/company checks. Arizona orders add 6.7% tax. We do not guarantee Compatibility. 

Circle 105 on Reader Service Card 


Development- and System- 

Development In MODULA2 ADA C 

Gundeldlngerstr. 432 
CH-4053 Basel 

Tel. 061/50 71 51 BRD:004161 

Ctalk ™ 

Object-oriented Extensions For C 


□ Adds encapsulation, inheritance and dynamic C» 


messaging to your C compiler. 
D Smalltalk-like Browser for building objects. 

□ Semi-automatic Make for building applications. 

□ Preprocessor for converting objects to standard C source code. 

□ Foundation classes to help you get started. 

Q Professional telephone support from our engineering staff. 

Start building software components into your next application. 

Join the leading edge today. 

Order Now: 

CNS, Inc. 

Software Products Dept. 
7090 Shady Oak Road 
Eden Prairie, MN 55344 
Tel: (612)944-0170 
Fax: (612)944-0923 
30 day money back guarantee 
MasterCard, Visa 

Shipping: $ 5 - US. 
S 25 - Intl. 

Cjalk is designed lor an IBM' 
PC (or compatible) with : 
Microsoft* C, Lattice C. Turbo 
C, or C86- A system with a 
hard drive and mouse is highly 

IBM is a registered Iradomnrk ot IBM 
Corp MICROSOFT is a registered 
trademark of MICROSOFT CORP 
C Jalk is a trademark ol CNS, Inc 



closed shape, printing a 
screen, and saving and restor- 
ing an image to and from a file . 
The source code contained in 
the book is available directly 
from the author for $30. 

Today, Microsoft's C 5.0 
and Borland's Turbo Pascal 
4.0 provide comprehensive 
support for the original Her- 
cules card, but Doty's book 
provides thorough back- 
ground information, even for 
users of these languages. 
Whether the RamFont and In- 
Color cards will succeed in the 
market as well as the original 
is still unclear, but for some- 
one who needs to program for 
either, the book is essential. 
—Ben Myers 

Manufacturing Intelligence 

by Paul Kenneth Wright and 
David Alan Bourne, Addison- 
Wesley, Reading, MA: 1988, 
352 pages, $40.95. This book 
is not only an excellent text for 
the engineer learning about 
factory automation, but it also 
serves as a good basis for an 
engineer about to specify an 
automation project. The au- 
thors ask all the necessary 
questions to determine what 
an automation project should 
accomplish. Written for the 
manufacturing engineer as 
well as the software engineer, 
Manufacturing Intelligence 
provides enough knowledge so 
that each can understand the 
mechanical and computation- 
al tasks required in factory 

The book is divided into 
four sections. The first de- 
scribes the present and imme- 
diate future state of the ma- 
chine tool industry. It also 
highlights one of the author's 
developments, Cell Manage- 
ment Language (CML), a 
software environment offer- 
ing a high-level solution for 
controlling a number of in- 
compatible machine tools and 

The second section goes 
over the different parts needed 
for intelligent machines to 
function. These include vi- 
sion, machine control, and 
manipulators. The third sec- 
tion looks at how the knowl- 

edge and talent of a skilled 
craftsman can be transferred 
to an intelligent machine. In- 
cluded here are examinations 
of artificial intelligence, flex- 
ible fixtures, and sensor tech- 
nology. The last section of the 
book speculates on the future 
of manufacturing technology. 
The book offers both a glos- 
sary and a good bibliography. 
The chapters are well cited, so 
readers can pursue any issue 
that is presented. 

—Keith H. Erskine 

HyperCard Power by Carol 

Kaehler, Addison-Wesley , 
Reading, MA: 1988, 435 
pages, $17. 96. This book is a 
review of the widely ac- 
claimed Macintosh program 
for the novice and entry-level 
HyperCardarian. Copiously 
illustrated, it has great breadth 
of subject matter, but little 
depth. Carol Kaehler devotes 
only paragraphs to concepts 
such as passing messages to 
the next handler, yet she sup- 
plies practical and indexed 
hints. For instance, she ex- 
plains how to make sure a card 
inherits the correct back- 
ground—not a trivial task in 
some situations. She provides 
utility scripts in one chapter, 
but leaves the reader to extend 

The book covers some of the 
HyperTalk language at the in- 
troductory level in one brief 
appendix. HyperCard Power 
is at its best when it shows sim- 
ply and step by step how to ac- 
complish unified HyperCard 
tasks.— Larry Loeb ■ 


Critic and author Hugh Ken- 
ner lives in Baltimore, Mary- 
land. David Weinberger 

works for Interleaf and lives in 
Brookline, Massachusetts. 
Ben Myers designs and writes 
IBM PC graphics applications 
and lives in Harvard, Massa- 
chusetts. Keith H. Erskine is 
a program coordinator for Sun 
Microsystems in Billerica, 
Massachusetts. Larry Loeb 
is a dental surgeon in Walling- 
ford, Connecticut. 

60 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 

Circle 43 on Reader Service Card 
(DEALERS: 44) 


AVMAC™ assemblers can make 

your high-performance design 

a winner, too. 

In Formula 1 racing, performance is 
everything. And the sport's jiP-based 
instrumentation is no exception. 

That's why SRD Co., Inc. chose the 
AVMAC 8096 assembler to develop their 
state-of-the-art racing dynamometer — 
a device sophisticated enough to simul- 
taneously calculate every parameter of 
Formula 1 performance — all before the 
vehicle has moved 4 inches! 

In the critical assembly language 
phase of development, AVMAC "was 
a must." 

The race is on: in personal /iP 

development tools, Avocet 

sets the standards. 

AVMAC's standard-setting speed 
and sophistication were needed to write 
the complex multi -tasking operating sys- 
tem at the heart of SRD's dynamometer 
(patent pending). When you need a 
macro assembler that really performs, 
AVMAC can give you the same advantage. 

AVMAC supports all the most 
popular chip families and offers you en- 
hanced compatibility with Intel, Motorola, 
Hitachi, and other chip makers. 


Circle 16 on Reader Service Card 

What's more, every package comes 
complete with our AVLINK™ linker, 
AVLTB™ librarian, AVREF™ cross-refer- 
ence generator, HEXFORM™ object file 
utility, plus a 250+ page user's guide. 

The last lap: 
Compatible simulation/debugging. 

When it's time to test your target 
code, choose our unique AVSIM™ simu- 
lator/debugger. It offers detailed, full- 
screen CPU simulation that eliminates 
the need for additional hardware. 

Best of all, AVSIM is designed for 
compatibility with AVMAC and our new 
Avocet C Compilers— the ideal combina- 
tion for cost-effective code development 
—from start to finish. 


Our Racy New Catalog 


Call Toil-Free 

For your free catalog, to order, or for more 
information about AVMAC and other 
Avocet products. 

Getting to the finish line: 
try before you buy. 

When you order AVMAC or AVSIM, 
we'll include a special demo kit that you 
can try for 30 days. 

If you're not satisfied for any reason, 
return the unopened software for a full 
refund— less the $35 demo/documenta- 
tion which is yours to keep. 

Discover the power of AVMAC and 
the entire line of Avocet /uP/^C develop- 
ment tools. Affordably priced. With 
comprehensive technical phone support. 
And delivery in 48 hours, even overnight. 

If you're in the development race, 
we'll get you to the checkered flag in 
record time. 

Avocet Systems, Inc., 120 Union Street 
P.O. Box 490AT, Rockport, Maine 04856 
"In Maine, or outside U.S., call (207) 236-9055 
TLX: 467210 Avocet CI • FAX: (207) 236-6713 

i WHH Avol-ci Systems. Inc All rights reserved Avoeei logo and name, AVMAC 
AVSIM. AVL1NK. AVUB. AVREF and HEXFORM are registered trademarks o) 
Avocet Systems, ine 


AUGUST 1988 

BYTE 61 

The new NEC 
desktop publishing monitors 

For those getting start 



nd fo 

who can't stop 


MultiSync GS 
The ideal way to b 
~"':top publishing. 

/XT/AT/386 to PS/2. 

NEC has the perfect monitor for any desktop. For starters, 
there's our MultiSync® GS. It offers up to 64 gray scales for supe- 
rior monochrome text and graphics, a flat 14" diagonal screen for 
minimal glare, and compatibility with just about any system you 
may be using, including PC/XT/AT/386 and PS/2. 

Then there's our MonoGraph™ System, for the ultimate in 
desktop publishing. It includes a graphics board that works with 
PC/XT/AT/386 (or 100% compatibles) and runs software like 
Microsoft Windows, Ventura Publisher and PageMaker. Its square 
16" screen offers 1024 x 1024 resolution and the best of both por- 
trait and landscape-style displays; there's room for a whole page 
of material, with space alongside for menus, icons and scrap. 

Hi'.' !'•■> giiiphic 'jcn.'pri w;r, ticilM using Dr HAL O which is ,i rriyissrrecl I r. idem rut .mil r; ui'.cd coufli'sy nf Wilu i ;y!ieinelics 

Best of all, with either monitor you get a feature no one else can 
give you at any price: NEC. For literature or a dealer call 
1-800-447-4700. For technical details call NEC Home Electronics 

IracJemaih ot Ventura Soflwar 

(USA) Inc. 1-800-NEC-SOFT. 

NEC is a regisiered IfBdamarii or NEC Coipoianon 



Compuiers and Communications 

Circle 157 on Reader Service Card AUGUST 1988 'BYTE 63 


Double Your 
Productivity With 
Carbon Copy Plus 

L-arbon Copy Plus™ -the industry standard in remote 
control software -easily lets two PCs share the same 
application program over ordinaiy phone lines. 

So now you can share the same keyboard, screen and 
disk with a remote user thousands of miles away, allow- 
ing you to give effective product demonstrations, sup- 
port remote customers or train new users-without ever 
having to leave your office! 

Remote control and much more! 

Of course, Carbon Copy Plus offers other advanced remote 
communications features, including remote printing, 
remote access to a local area network and remote ses- 
sion capture and playback. But Carbon Copy Plus also 
offers many of the same features found in "standard" 
communications programs, such as file transfer, terminal 
emulation and complete scripting macros. And much more! 

Introducing Version 5.0 

If you thought Carbon Copy Plus was powerful before - 
wait until you see the new Version 5.0. Carbon Copy Plus 
has always been able to transmit text or graphics, but 

A separate Carbon Copy Plus is required for each PC location 

Carbon Copy Plus is a trademark of Meridian Technology. 

All other products referenced are trademarks of their respective companies 

now our new universal graphics translator merges incom- 
patible graphics formats. So you can jointly update a CAD 
diagram using your CGA, EGA, VGA or MCGA system 
with an associate who is using the Hercules™ standard, 
just as important is our new background file transfer 
capability. This lets you easily send or receive files, at 
any time, without exiting your current application. Now 
you can double your productivity by working on one 
spreadsheet file while an associate sends you another! 

Twice as easy 

Find out why Carbon Copy Plus has become the industry 
standard in remote communications and is fast becom- 
ing one of the most popular communications programs 
overall. Call us today. We'll show you how easily you can 
increase your productivity. 

J I 



Fully translated foreign versions now available! 



7 Corporate Park Suite 100 Irvine, CA 92714 (714)261-1199 

64 BYTE • AUGUST 1988 

Circle 144 on Reader Service Card 


Products in 


What's New 


Short Takes 

Dell System 220 


Cambridge Computer Z88 

Grammatik III 

Watcom C 6.0 

Paradox OS/2 

Expert Advice: 


Computing at Chaos Manor 

by Jerry Pournelle 


Applications Plus 

by Ezra Shapiro 


Down to Business 

by Wayne Rash Jr. 



by Don Crabb 


OS/2 and You 

by Mark Minasi 



by Brock N. Meeks 

First Impressions 


Compaq Deskpro 386/25, 

Everex Step 386/25, Intel 

SYP302, andSimpleNet's 

Netpro 386/25 



Stand-alone communications 



Tatung TCS-8000, Proteus 3 86 A 

and Everex Step 386/20 


PC-Trac, FastTRAP, Trackball 

Plus, and Felix 


Unix for the Mac II 


VersaCAD on a Mac 


Review Update 

AUGUST 1988 • B Y T E 65 


PROBE'S menu 
bar and pull- 
down menus set a 
new standard for 

PROBE has 
debugging to let 
you "C" your 

POP registers up 
and down with a 
single key. 

This is an 
bug. Since it is 
interrupt related, 
it only appears in 
real time. 

Welcome to your nightmare. Your company has bet 
the farm on your product. Your demonstration 
wowed the operating committee, and beta ship- 
ments were out on time. Then wham! 

All your beta customers seemed to call on the same day. 
"Your software is doing some really bizarre things',' they say. 
Your credibility is at stake. Your profits are at stake. Your 
sanity is at stake. 


You rack your brain, trying to figure something out. Is it a 
random memory overwrite? Or worse, an overwrite to a stack- 
based local variable? Is it sequence dependent? Or worse, 
randomly caused by interrupts? Overwritten code? Undocu- 
mented "features" in the software you're linking to? And to 
top it off, your program is too big. The software debugger, 
your program and it's symbol table can't fit into memory at 
the same time. Opening a bicycle shop suddenly isn't such a 
bad idea. 


Announcing the 386 PROBE™ Bugbuster,*from Atron. Nine 
of the top-ten software developers sleep better at night 
because of Atron hardware-assisted debuggers. Because they 
can set real-time breakpoints which instantly detect memory 
reads and writes. 

Now, with the 386 PROBE, you have the capability to set a 
qualified breakpoint, so the breakpoint triggers only if the 
events are coming from the wrong procedures. So you don't 
have to be halted by breakpoints from legitimate areas. You 
can even detect obscure, sequence-dependent problems by 
stopping a breakpoint only after a specific chain of events has 
occurred in a specific order. 

•Versions for COMPAQ. PS/2-KOs and compatibles. Copyright ©, 1987 by Atron. 386 PROBE is 

Circle 15 on 

Then, so you can look at the cause of the problem, the 386 
PROBE automatically stores the last 2K cycles of program 
execution. Although other debuggers may try to do the same 
thing, Atron is the only company in the world to dequeue the 
pipelined trace data so you can easily understand it. 

Finally, 386 PROBE's megabyte of hidden, write-protected 
memory stores your symbol table and debugger. So your bug 
can't roach the debugger. And so you have room enough to 
debug a really big program. 


Look at it this way. Nine of the top-ten software products in 
any given category were created by Atron customers. Maybe 
their edge is - a good night's sleep. 

Call and get your free, 56-page bugbusting bible today. 
And if you're in the middle^ f of a nightmare right now, 

give us a purchase order 

number. We'll FEDEX 

you a sweet dream. 


A division of Northwest Instrument Systems, Inc. 
Saratoga Office Center • 12950 Saratoga Avenue 
Saratoga, CA 95070 • Call 408/253-5933 today. 

trademark of Atron. Call 44-! 

Reader Service Card 

-855-888 in the UK and 49-8-985-8020 in West Germany. 

What's New 


The Incredible 
System Unit 

Claimed to be the 
"world's smallest," Ad- 
vanced Logic Research's lat- 
est systems are the FlexNode 
286 and the FlexNode 386. 
Both occupy AVi by 15 inches 
of desktop real estate and 
perform at 20 MHz with zero 
wait states by using paged 
interleaved cache memory. 

The systems have 1 .44- 
megabyte PS/2-compatible 
3 '/2-inch floppy disk drives 
and industry-standard 101-key 
keyboards. Both have four 
full-length 16-bit expansion 
slots, as well as an optional 
expansion unit that provides an 
additional four slots and sup- 
port for a second hard and 
floppy disk drive. Within 
those additional slots, you can 
place ALR-designed ARC- 
net, Ethernet, or token-ring 
adapter cards. 

The FlexNode 286 comes 
standard with 512K bytes of 
RAM, expandable to 5 mega- 
bytes with add-in cards. The 
386 comes standard with 1 
megabyte of RAM and can be 
expanded to 13 megabytes 
with an optional ALR RAM- 
Pak. There is also room for 
an optional math coprocessor. 

Both machines include a 
four-slot backplane with a sin- 
gle RS-232C serial port, a 
parallel port, and a floppy disk 

Price: $1990 for basic 286; 
$2549 with 30-megabyte hard 
disk drive and controller; 
$2990 with 50-megabyte hard 
drive and controller; $3490 
for basic 386; $3990 with 30- 
megabyte hard drive and con- 
troller; $4449 with 50-mega- 
byte hard drive and 

Contact: Advanced Logic 
Research, Inc., 10 Chrysler 
Ave., Irvine, CA 92718, 
(714) 581-6770. 
Inquiry 751. 

The FlexNode system has a 5- by 15-inch base. 

Laptop Makers 

Shed Light 

on Their Screens 

Mitsubishi's mp286L lap- 
top features a fluores- 
cent backlit liquid crystal 
display (LCD) and four slots 
for add-in capabilities. The 
12-/8-MHz, one-/zero-wait- 
state machine comes stan- 
dard with a 6V2- by 9 W-inch 
display and 640- by 400-pixel 

Features include dual 
1 .44-megabyte 3 'A -inch floppy 
disk drives and 640K bytes of 
RAM that you can expand to 

2.6 megabytes. 

The CGA controller is in 
one slot, additional memory 
is in a second, and a built-in 
Hayes-compatible 2400-/ 
1 200-/300-bit-per-second 
modem is in the third. The 
fourth slot could be used for 
a local-area-networking card. 

Weight is 16 pounds, not 
including the optional 
7-pound battery pack. 
Price: $3195; OS/2, $325. 
Contact: Mitsubishi Elec- 
tronics America, Inc., Com- 
puter Systems Division, 991 
Knox St. , Torrance, CA 
90502, (800) 556-1234; in 
California, (800) 441-2345. 
Inquiry 752. 


We 'd like to consider your product for publication. Send us full 
information, including its price, ship date, and an address and 
telephone number where readers can get further information. Send 
to New Products Editor, BYTE, One Phoenix Mill Lane, Peter- 
borough, NH 03458. Information contained in these items is based 
on manufacturers ' written statements and/or telephone interviews 
with BYTE reporters. BYTE has not formally reviewed each product 
mentioned. These items, along with additional new product 
announcements, are posted regularly on BIX in the microbytes.sw 
and microbytes.hw conferences. 

Multiuser 386 

Power in 

an 11 -inch Cube 

Housed in an 1 1 -cubic- 
inch box, the Unix-based 
QB2 386 from Cubix has the 
advantage of being MS-DOS- 
compatible while acting as a 
file server for up to eight pro- 
cessors or terminals. 

It runs with zero- or one- 
wait-state performance be- 
cause of an alternative bank- 
ing scheme. When configured 
with 4 megabytes of memory, 
it runs with zero wait states. 
When configured with 8 
megabytes, it runs with one 
wait state. The standard 
package includes an 80387 co- 
processor and an Ethernet 

The QB2 386, as the name 
implies, is based on Intel's 
80386 processor. It runs 
Unix version 3.0 and comes 
standard with 2 megabytes of 
RAM, expandable to 8 mega- 
bytes. In a standard config- 
uration, it includes an 80- 
megabyte hard disk drive, a 
60-megabyte tape drive for 
backup, and a 1. 44-megabyte 
5 14 -inch floppy disk drive. 

The built-in power-fail 
system involves nickel-cad- 
mium batteries for 10-minute 
on-line protection. If the power 
stays off for longer than 10 
minutes, another battery sub- 
system kicks in for up to an 
hour. Software that automati- 
cally shuts the system down 
is activated next, but not before 
the system tells you it's time 
to quit because it's operating 
on batteries. 
Price: $8995. 

Contact: Cubix Corp., 2800 
Lockheed Way, Carson City, 
NV 89706, (702) 883-7611. 
Inquiry 753. 


AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 67 



Compact Keyboard 
Conserves Desktop 
Real Estate 

By compressing row 
spacing, Mechanical En- 
terprises has designed an 
IBM PC AT- and XT-compat- 
ible 100-key keyboard that's 
60 percent smaller than tradi- 
tional AT-enhanced 

The microtype keyboard 
measures only 1 1 by 6 inches 
and weighs less than 2 
pounds. Mechanical Enter- 
prises says its studies show 
that touch typists achieve nor- 
mal typing speed after a 
short familiarization period. 
Price: $150. 

Contact: Mechanical Enter- 
prises, Inc., 461 Carlisle Dr., 
Herndon, VA 22070, (703) 
Inquiry 754. 

End Those 
Scrolling Blues 

A dual-page landscape 
monitor from Nutmeg 
Systems lets Macintosh desk- 
top publishing aficionados 
view two complete pages 

ni - J / 

Space-saving 100-key PC-compatible keyboard. 

when they write, edit, and pre- 
pare layouts. 

The Nutmeg 19, available 
for the Mac Plus, SE, and II, 
has a 79-dpi resolution in a 
1024- by 768-pixel paper- 
white phosphor display. The 
horizontal refresh rate is 63.65 
kHz, and the vertical scan 
rate is 63.73 kHz. 

The monitor measures 17 
by 19 by 18 inches and weighs 
42 pounds. Nutmeg also uses 
a proprietary video interface 
that lets you easily upgrade 
your monitor if you move up to 
a Mac II. 

Price: $1899 for use with the 
Mac II; $1699 for use with 
either the Plus or SE. 
Contact: Nutmeg Systems, 
Inc. , 25 South Ave. , New 
Canaan, CT 06840, (203) 
Inquiry 755. 

A Passport 

to Portable Data 

Plus Development's latest 
technological innovation 
is called the Plus Passport. 
It's a removable hard disk sys- 
tem that lets you insert 1 '4- 
inch thick, 3'/2-inch 20- or 40- 
megabyte hard disks into the 
company's custom chassis like 
you insert video cassettes 
into a VCR. 

You then have an MS- 
DOS- and OS/2-compatible 
hard disk subsystem that 
works on all the IBM ma- 
chines and compatibles, in- 
cluding systems with Micro 
Channel architecture. 

The drives use 1-to-l in- 
terleave for efficient data 
throughput and are rated for 

Put Up to 8.4 Gigabytes in the Palm of Your Hand 

While the battle over 
digital audio tape 
(DAT) for recording music 
rages in both Congress and 
the music industry, a Cali- 
fornia company has adopted 
DAT technology for storing 
truly massive amounts of 
computer data. 

Gigatape's Giga 1200 
DAT subsystem writes from 
1.2 to 8.4 gigabytes on a 
standard 4-millimeter digi- 
tal tape cartridge. The com- 
pany claims that the unit is 
compatible with all the 
IBM machines and compat- 

ibles, including the PS/2s, as 
well as with the Macintosh, 
MicroVAX, and other 

The Giga 1200 uses heli- 
cal scan technology, origi- 
nally developed for the VCR 
industry, and the latest digi- 
tal recording techniques. 
Helical scan technology in- 
volves using two read/write 
heads on a drum that rotates 
at 2000 rotations per minute. 

The tape speed is 0.32 
inches per second, and the 
data transfer rate averages 
192K bytes per second. But 

read/write is sustained even 
through 1.5-megabyte-per- 
second bursts. That means 
an entire tape can be loaded 
with information in less than 
2 hours. Error correction is 
handled with a proprietary 
code that the company 
claims keeps bit and burst 
errors to less than one in 
10 15 . 

Price: $6500. 

Contact: Gigatape, Inc., 
5266 Hollister Ave., Santa 
Barbara, CA 93 11 1,(805) 
Inquiry 788. 

shocks of up to 150 g's. If you 
use the Passport for booting 
up other drives, you can back 
up as much as 40 megabytes 
of data in less than 5 minutes, 
says Plus Development. 

The drive cartridges fit 
into a drive subsystem that fits 
into a standard 5 '4 -inch half- 
height bay. 

Price: 20-megabyte PC ver- 
sion, $1250; 40-megabyte PC 
version, $1450; 20-megabyte 
Micro Channel version, $1350; 
40-megabyte Micro Channel 
version, $1550. 
Contact: Plus Development 
Corp., 1778 McCarthy Blvd., 
Milpitas, CA 95035, (408) 
Inquiry 756. 

Yes, We Have No 
DataDesk Keyboards 

DataDesk International 
keyboards were incor- 
rectly associated with EECO 
keyboards in the June What's 
New section on page 70 
("123-Key Keyboard Remem- 
bers Macros"). 

DataDesk is an indepen- 
dent designer and manufac- 
turer of two popular key- 
boards: the Turbo-101 for IBM 
PC compatibles, and the 
Mac-101 for Macintosh 

The two keyboards togeth- 
er are compatible with just 
about everything on the mar- 
ket, including the Tandy 1000, 
AT&T PC 6300, and IBM 
PCjr. The two keyboards are 
101 -key units with firm keys 
that produce a definite 
"bounce feeling" that many 
users prefer over PC-clone and 
Macintosh keyboards. 
Price: Turbo-101, $149.95; 
Mac-101, $169.95. 
Contact: DataDesk Interna- 
tional, 7651 Haskell Ave., Van 
Nuys,CA 91406, (818) 
Inquiry 757. 


68 BYTE* AUGUST 1988 

Ymr pad or ours? 

If you perform 
calculations, the answer 
is obvious. 

MathCAD 2.0. 

It's everything 
you appreciate about 
working on a scratch- 
pad-simple, free-form 
math -and more. More 
speed. More accuracy. 
More flexibility. 

Just define your 
variables and enter your 
formulas anywhere on the screen. MathCAD 
formats your equations as they're typed. 
Instantly calculates the results. And displays 
them exactly as you're used to seeing them- 
in real math notation, as numbers, tables 
or graphs. 

MathCAD is more than an equation 
solver. Like a scratchpad, it allows you to add 

© 1987 MalhSoft. Inc. 

Circle 138 on Reader Service Card 

text anywhere to 
support your work, 
and see and record 
every step. You can 
try an unlimited 
number of what-ifs. 
And print your 
entire calculation as 
an integrated docu- 
ment that anyone 
can understand. 
Plus, MathCAD 
is loaded with powerful 
built-in features. In addition to the usual trig- 
onometric and exponential functions, it 
includes built-in statistical functions, cubic 
splines, Fourier transforms, and more. It also 
handles complex numbers and unit conver- 
sions in a completely transparent way. 

Yet, MathCAD is so easy to learn, you'll 
be using its full power an hour after you begin. 

Requires IBM PC* or compatible, 512KB RAM, graphics card. 

IBM PC® Inlernalional Business Machines Corporation. 
MalhCAD* MalhSofl, Inc. 

What more could you ask for? How 
about the exciting new features we've just 
added to MathCAD 2.0... 

• Built-in equation solver 

• Full matrix operations 

• Two to four times increase in 
calculating speed 

• Easier full-page text processing 

• Auto-scaled plots 

• Memory enhancements 

• Additional printer and plotter 

• And more. 

If you're tired of doing calculations by 
hand or writing and debugging programs, 
come on over to our pad. MathCAD. The 
Electronic Scratchpad. 

Call for a detailed spec sheet and the 
name of a MathCAD dealer near you. 
1-800-MathCAD (In MA: 617-577-1017). 


MalhSofl, Inc., One Kendall Sq.. Cambridge, MA 02139 
AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 69 


A D D - I N S 

Manipulate Video 
on Your Mac II 

Now you can use your 
Mac II to display video 
captured from standard video 
sources, then manipulate that 
image and add graphics with 
the ColorCapture board by 
Data Translation. 

The board allows real-time 
video that's been captured on 
video cameras, VCRs, and 
still-video equipment to be dis- 
played on the Mac II. Two 
versions are available — one for 
the National Television Sys- 
tem Committeee (NTSC) stan- 
dard in North America and 
Japan, and one for the Phase 
Alternate Line (PAL) stan- 
dard in western Europe. 

Once you capture the 
image, you can crop the pic- 
ture, add text or graphics, ex- 
port color images to other ap- 
plications, sharpen and 
soften edges, adjust brightness 
and contrast, add or subtract 
images, print hard copies, 
animate, and output to a 

Resolution is 640 by 480 
pixels, and images can be dis- 
played from a palette of 
32,768 colors. The board fits 
into a single Mac expansion 
slot with a cable that extends 
from the board to plug into 
video cameras, VCRs, or elec- 

Real-time Mac II video translation. 

tronic still-video equipment. 
For live display, you can attach 
composite or RGB monitors 
directly to the board. 

Additional specialized 
functions include a zoom/pan/ 
scroll controller, which 
allows instantaneous magnifi- 
cation and close-up examina- 
tion of image regions. There's 
also a graphics memory 
plane for merging text and 
drawing lines, arcs, curves, 
boxes, icons, and so on. 
Price: $2995. 
Contact: Data Translation, 
Inc., 100 Locke Dr., Marl- 
borough, MA 01752, (617) 
Inquiry 758. 

Low-Cost, High- 
Speed Modem 

The ATI Technologies 
2400etc is a 2400-bit-per- 
second internal modem that 
allows for the equivalent of 
4800-bps data transmission 
with its data-compression 

Only modems with MNP 
Class 5 error correction will 
communicate with this 
modem at maximum speed, 
however. MNP Class 5 pro- 
vides for what the company 
calls " 100 percent error-free 
data transfer." This IBM 

Add PostScript to Your Laser Printer 

The ConoDesk 6000, a 
printer controller, outputs 
PostScript code 10 times 
faster than competing units, 
the manufacturer claims. 

Scalable fonts for Ventura 
Publisher, PageMaker, and 
Windows let you scale every 
typeface to all standard Post- 
Script point sizes and rotate 
them to any angle. 

The controller uses a pro- 
prietary 32-bit microproces- 

sor and 2.5 megabytes of 
RAM and works with the 
IBM XT, AT, Compaq 386, 
and compatibles. It supports 
Hewlett-Packard LaserJet 
and Canon-engine printers. 
There are 13 typefaces 
with PostScript-compatible 
metrics and a 228-character 
set for Ventura Publisher and 
PageMaker. Optional soft- 
ware includes ConoScript, 
the interpreter that allows 
the printer to print Post- 

Script files. Optional hard- 
ware includes HP LaserJet 
Series II and Canon LBP-8II 
video interface boards. 
Price: $2995 for the base 
system with interpreters for 
Windows and PageMaker; 
$695 for the ConoScript in- 
terpreter; $100 to $700 for a 
floating-point processor. 
Contact: Conographic 
Corp., 16802 Aston, Irvine, 
CA 92714, (714)474-1188. 
Inquiry 789. 

PC-compatible unit fits into 
a standard half slot and also 
operates at 1200 and 300 bps. 
Price: $239. 

Contact: ATI Technologies, 
Inc., 3761 Victoria Park Ave. 
Scarborough, Ontario, 
Canada M1W3S2, (416) 
Inquiry 759. 

Serial Mice Can 
Now Take the Bus 

The Pointing Device 
Adapter (PDA) lets you 
convert your serial mouse to 
work on a standard PC bus, 
freeing up that serial port for 
other things. 

This MicroSpeed product, 
a Vi -length card with software 
for Microsoft, Logitech, 
Mouse Systems, and compat- 
ible rodents, is compatible 
with the IBM AT, XT, PS/2 
Model 30, and compatibles. 

The PDA's features are 
many. They include an I/O ad- 
dress that's the same as that 
for bus mice, and interrupt se- 
lection for IRQ 2, 3, 4, 5, or 
7. MicroSpeed 's MAP (multi- 
axis pointer) driver with bal- 
listic gain support is included, 
allowing you to better control 
the pointer on the screen with 
the mouse. While the ballis- 
tic gain feature has been avail- 
able on the Macintosh mice 
for some time, MicroSpeed 
says this is the first time you 
can buy a mouse for PC com- 
patibles with variable speed 

Finally, there's a device 
driver for Windows applica- 
tions, an AutoDesk device in- 
terface driver for AutoCAD, 
and MicroSpeed's KeyMAP 
keyboard emulator software. 
Price: $69. 

Contact: MicroSpeed, Inc., 
5307 Randall Place, Fremont, 
CA 94538, (800) 232-7888; 
in California, (415) 490-1403. 
Inquiry 760. 


70 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 

Get Sprint and you'll never 
be afraid of the dark! 

Nothing holds a candle to Sprint! 




MS Word 



• = Yes O = No 





Adv. 1.0 

Maximum file size 






Thesaurus (integrated) 






Windows Open (maximum) 






Files Open (maximum) 






Cross-Reference (dynamic) 





Indexing Options 






Columns: Parallel 






Snaking (chg. * same page) 



Not same pg. 



H-P LaserJet Support 






PostScript Support 






Mouse Support (integrated) 





Dynamic Shortcuts 





Alternative User Interfaces 






Verify Spelling as you type 






Programmable Macro lang. 






Save File' 






Top to Bottom 2 






Search and Replace 3 






Find Unique Word 






Suggested List Price 

$199.95 S495.00 $450.00 $495.00 $565.00 

File size 103K. "1636 lines. ' 14 occurrences. Times shown are in seconds. 

Time tests were performed on an Acer 286 (8 MHz). 640K RAM. 
(Benchmark details available upon request.) 

Trices and specifications snhjeci to change without notice. 

•Customer satisfaction Is our main concern; if within 60 days of purchase this product docs not perform in accordance with our claims, call our customer service 
department, and we will arrange a refund. 

All Borland products are trademarks or registered trademarks of Borland International. Inc. Other brand and product names arc trademarks of their respective 
holders. Copyright ©1988 Borland International. Inc. Bl 1 

rorgetting to "Save" is a fact 
of life as are power outages, and 
it used to be that a power outage 
could wipe out everything you've 
done. Not any more. Your work 
is always safe when you Sprint.® 

Sprint's "Auto-Save" auto- 
matically saves your words as 
you type, so if the lights do go 
out, you may be in deep dark- 
ness but not deep trouble. 

Sprint's Auto-Save is more 
than "insurance," it's also 
invisible. You know it's there, 
but it does its job without 
interrupting yours. 

Sprint: It's the word processor 
with everything! 

You name it, Sprint's got it. 
Incredible speed, Auto-Save, a 
customizable user interface, and 
professional output. Sprint even 
includes a bonus pack of alter- 
native user interfaces that make 
it act like WordStar, 8 MultiMate, 9 
WordPerfect,® Microsoft® Word, 
or other familiar word proces- 
sors—a $99 value free! 

Sprint has all this and does 
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of the up to $600 that some 
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it also automatically saves 
your money. Sprint— The fast 
track to performance word 

60-Day Money-back Guarantee* 

For the dealer nearest you 
Gall (800) 543-7543 


Circle 30 on Reader Service Card (Dealers: 31) 

N 7 i R H & T I H A I 

AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 71 



An Affordable and 
Expandable Fiber- 
optic Network 

Eight XT- or AT-compat- 
ible computers, eight 
printed circuit boards, one 
networking hub, and fiber- 
optic cabling constitutes 
the simplest form of the new 
Ethernet local-area net- 
work (LAN) from lONet 

But you can expand that 
with more fiber-optic cabling, 
more boards, and more hubs. 
Each hub supports eight com- 
puters. To form a 392-com- 
puter, 10-megabit-per-second 
(mbps) LAN with as much as 
6 kilometers between any two 
nodes, you'll need 54 hubs, 
392 boards, and lots of 

To expand the network 
even further, you can add a re- 
generative repeater and link 
two 392-computer networks. A 
second repeater allows you to 
link more than 1000 com- 
puters. The boards use Intel's 
82586 Ethernet controller chip 
and have Hewlett-Packard 
LED sources and positive- 
intrinsic-negative (PIN) 
photodiode receivers to trans- 
mit and receive 850-nano- 
meter light pulses through 
62.5-micron multimode fi- 
ber-optic cabling with recom- 
mended SMA or ST connec- 
tors. Total delay between two 
hubs on 392-computer clus- 
ters is 25 nanoseconds. 

Repeaters, which restore 
amplitude (like the hubs) and 
retime the signals, add 750 ns 
to transmissions. Repeaters 
also allow connection of fi- 
ber-optic to coaxial or cheaper- 
net (thin coaxial) cabling. 

If you add two more full- 
length cards to one of the com- 
puters, you have a bridge that 
will link clusters of lONet 
1-mbps LANs with several 
types of networks, including 

Ethernet local-area network from lONet Communications. 

Ethernet, Token Ring, and 
ArcNet. The networking soft- 
ware is lONet's existing 
package, lONet 4.0, which in- 
cludes an electronic mail 
package called Network Cou- 
rier from Consumers 

Price: PC board with soft- 
ware, $1295; hub, $2995; re- 
peater, $1395. (Fiber cabling 
and installation not included.) 
Contact: lONet Communica- 
tions, 7016 Corporate Way, 
Dayton, OH 45459, (513) 
Inquiry 765. 

Ethernet Stalks 
the Twisted Pair! 

If you're considering in- 
stalling Ethernet but the 
hassle of running coaxial 
cable through the walls and 
floors is giving you pause, 
Hewlett-Packard has a simple 
solution. Its newest product, 
HP StarLAN 10 PC Link, uses 
the already-installed tele- 
phone wiring in your building 
to network your PC or com- 
patibles at 10 mbps. 

PC Link includes a half- 

length PC card and software 
called OfficeShare, which 
provide the transport mecha- 
nism between MS-DOS- or 
Unix-based systems, as well as 
the twisted-pair Ethernet net- 
work that HP introduced last 
year. With PC Link, you can 
locate as many as 12 PCs up to 
100 meters from the network- 
ing hub. And those capabilities 
will increase when repeaters 
and bridges become available, 
since StarLAN 10 can sup- 
port a total of 1024 PCs or 
Unix devices. 

You can also connect your 
PCs using existing coaxial 
Ethernet networks with a de- 
vice called the Twisted-Pair 
Media Access Unit. Accord- 
ing to HP, before its all- 
twisted-pair products became 
available, such coaxial-to- 
twisted-pair devices were the 
only way to connect PCs to 

Price: PC Link, $695; hub, 
$2995; Twisted-Pair Media 
Access Unit, $295. 
Contact: Hewlett-Packard 
Co., Customer Information 
Center, Inquiry Fulfillment 
Dept. , 193 10 Pruneridge Ave. , 
Cupertino, CA 95014, or 
call the HP sales office listed 
in your telephone directory 
white pages. 
Inquiry 766. 

Your PC or PS/2 
Can Now Talk 

The first IBM PC- and 
PS/2-based AppleTalk 
file server supports up to 30 
machines at 230 kilobits per 
second (kbps). It consists of a 
board and software for the host 
and the clients. 

The Tangent Technologies 
card, dubbed the Tangent- 
Share, eliminates the need 
for a dedicated Macintosh file 
server or for individual hard 
disk drives at each work- 
station. As a nondedicated 
file server, it allows you to 
store files and applications 
from any IBM PC, PS/2, or 
Macintosh on the AppleTalk 
network host, to use the host as 
a local disk drive, or to trans- 
fer files between incompatible 

TangentShare provides 
both "administrator" and 
"super user" privileges from 
any IBM or Apple machine on 
the network. Administrator 
machines can perform such 
management functions as 
adding users to the network 
and changing passwords. The 
super user machines, desig- 
nated by the administrator 
machines, have complete ac- 
cess privileges to all directo- 
ries in the network. There can 
be multiple administrators 
and multiple super users on 
each network. 
Price: $700 for board and 
file server software; $325 for 
board and IBM PC client 
software; $400 for board and 
PS/2 client software. 
Contact: Tangent Technol- 
ogies, 5990-K Unity Dr., 
Norcross, GA 30071, (404) 
Inquiry 767. 


72 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 

Gut yourself a better deal, 

CORNERSTONE R. 1.3, send 
us your obsolete PC CAD 
software, and get a $1,000* 
check from CADAM! 

If you've always wanted real 
mainframe-based CAD power for your 
IBM® PS/2,'" PC/AT® or compatible system, 
here's a sharp new offer from CADAM® 

CORNERSTONE R. 1.3 now. Compare its 
productivity, ease of use, and mainframe- 

based features with your conventional PC 
CAD system. (You cm go right to work 
with your existing CAD files, thanks 
DXF data translator.) 

Then cut up your obsolete software 
and send us the half with the label, along 
with your completed rebate coupon and 
proof of purchase for MICRO CADAM 
CORNERSTONE R. 1.3. We'll cut you a 
check for $1,000. 

CADAM's rebate offer is the ultimate 
deal on the "ultimate PC CAD production 
tool." But act fast. Rebate expires October 
31, 1988. See your dealer today for 

qualification details and rebate coupon. For 
the location of your nearest dealer, phone 
CADAM toll-free today: 800-255-5710. 

The Ultimate PC CAD Production Tool 

cflDnm inc 


•This rebate may nol be combined with any other special CADAM INC promotion or discounts ami is available only in the United States to end users. Certain restrictions apply— see rebate coupon available from your MICRO CADAM CORNERSTONE 

dealer for details and restrictions. All sales will be verified with dealer of record. 
CADAM is a registered trademark and MICRO CADAM CORNERSTONE is a trademark of CADAM INC. AutoCADs a registered trademark of Autodesk, Inc. IBM and PC/AT are registered trademarks and PS/2 is a trademark 

of international Business Machines Corporation £T9SK CADAM INC 

Circle 35 on Reader Service Card (Dealers: 36) 

AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 73 



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Personal Peripherals. Worldwide. 

PageMaker is a trademark 
of Aldus and Ventura Publisher 
is a trademark of Ventura 
Software Inc. 

Circle 129 on Reader Service Card (Dealers: 130) 

Cardhnldpr Nnmp 

Authampd Signaturp 

[Please print) 

Ship to: 



Offer valid in the U.S. only. Allow 2-3 weeks for delivery. 30-day Money Back Guarantee. DEALER INQUIRIES 
WELCOME. Send to: LOGITECH. Inc. attn: Coupon Redemption Program, 6505 Kaiser Drive, Fremont, CA 94555 






Who Can Make 
a 4-inch Scan? 
The ScanMan Can 

With 200-dpi resolution, 
ScanMan provides a 
way for you and your IBM 
PC, AT, XT, PS/2, or com- 
patible to add graphics to desk- 
top publishing, business pre- 
sentations, and other 
documents. Then you can 
store the images in your per- 
sonal database. 

The ScanMan has a 4- 
inch-wide scanning window, 
and it can scan images that 
are up to 1 1 inches long. The 
scanner, interface board, 
graphics editor, and ScanWare 
software are included. 

ScanWare allows for scan- 
ning directly into Microsoft 
Windows or to Logitech's 
Graphics Editor. The Graphics 
Editor allows many manipu- 
lations, including image siz- 
ing, cut and paste, color, re- 
verse and rotate, insert, and 
magnify. Compatible appli- 
cation packages include Aldus 
PageMaker, Ventura Publish- 
er, Logitech PaintShow, Logi- 
tech Publisher, PFS: First 
Publisher, and ZSoft PC 
Price: $299. 
Contact: Logitech, Inc., 
6505 Kaiser Dr., Fremont, CA 
94555, (415) 795-8500. 
Inquiry 761. 

Logitech 's 4- by 11-inch scanner. 

More HP DeskJet 


for Soft Fonts 

Expansion memory cards 
for Hewlett-Packard 
DeskJet printers can expand 
your printer memory by 128K 
bytes with one cartridge or 
by 256K bytes with two cards. 

Popular soft fonts such as 
Helvetica require as much as 
256K bytes of memory. In 
fact, a single point size can use 
more than 50K bytes. These 
memory cards, therefore, pro- 
vide for the necessary soft 
font memory. But in addition, 
the memory cards are com- 
patible with hard fonts that fit 
into HP expansion slots. 

Four 32K-byte by 8-bit 
static RAM chips are used in 
each 5- by 3-inch cartridge. 
Each cartridge is specifically 
designed for one of two op- 
tion slots available on each HP 
Price: $129. 

Contact: Pacific Data Prod- 
ucts, Inc., 6404 Nancy Ridge 
Dr., San Diego, CA 92121, 
(619) 552-0880. 
Inquiry 762. 

Monitor Testing 
Made Simple w 

One tool now tests moni- 
tors and nothing else. It's 
called the Montest-A5D3, 
and it tests at least six types of 

The IEEE 488 Controller That Stands Alone 

Anew IEEE 488 control- 
ler from IOtech lets you 
control instruments and 
store data in 32K bytes of 
nonvolatile memory. 

Called the Macro488, it 
allows up to 100 macros, or 
instruction sets, to be loaded 
into the unit's memory from 
any computer with an RS- 
232C or RS-422 data port. 

You can control up to 14 
instruments simultaneously 

with the Macro488. It's 
ideal for applications, such 
as vehicle testing, where vi- 
bration, and excessive tem- 
peratures, and humidity can 
cause problems. Because it 
stands alone, its relative im- 
munity to vibration prob- 
lems places the Macro488 at 
an advantage over computers 
in the field. It also operates 
over a temperature range of 
between 0°C and 35°C and a 

relative humidity range of 
between and 70 percent. 

A built-in clock with time 
and date stamping lets you 
collect data at precise times 
or at regular or irregular 
Price: $995. 

Contact: IOtech, Inc., 
25971 Cannon Rd., Cleve- 
land, OH 44146, (216) 439- 
Inquiry 790. 

standard personal computer 
monitors: IBM PC mono- 
chrome, Color Graphics 
Display, Enhanced Graphics 
Display, Mac II, IBM PS/2, 
and IBM Professional Graph- 
ics Display. You use it to set 
alignment, convergence, and 
color balance. 

The Montest-A5D3 gener- 
ates four patterns— color bars, 
cross hatch, full raster, and a 
window — and has all the hard- 
ware and adapters needed to 
directly drive either analog or 
digital monitors. The Mon- 
test-A5D3 measures 8 by 6 by 
2 inches and weighs less than 
2 pounds. 
Price: $925. 

Contact: Network Technol- 
ogies, Inc., 19145 Elizabeth 
St., Aurora, OH 44202, 
Inquiry 763. 

Printer Ribbons 
That Won't 
Fade Away 

Long after most printer 
manufacturers began con- 
centrating on desktop pub- 
lishing applications, one com- 
pany decided to reinvent the 

Chronos Computers now 
offers Sta-Blk reinking printer 
ribbons for more than 350 
popular printers, including the 
Apple Imagewriter I and II, 
the C. Itoh Pro Writer, and two 
Epson models. The reinking 
technology makes the ribbons 
last at least 20 times longer 
than conventional ribbons, the 
company claims. Besides 
that, the ribbons don't fade. 
Price: $49.95 for the Epson 
printer version; $39.95 for the 
Imagewriter or Pro Writer 

Contact: Chronos Com- 
puters, 4186 Sorrento Valley 
Blvd., Suite H, San Diego, 
CA 92121, (619)455-8200. 
Inquiry 764. 


76 BYTE • AUGUST 1988 

r %3&® P 





no dates 



No Way 





Sun, etc. 



PC Jr. too 

286 & 386 











PC Nets 

PC, mini & 


You must 
be kidding 

CPU & Disk 


ONLY $199 
CALL 1-800-0RACLE1 

Oracle Corporation, the world's 
fastest growing software 
company, 1 has just climbed past 
Ashton-Tate to become the world's 
largest supplier of database man- 
agement software and services. 2 


• Because ORACLE® runs on PCs, 
plus mainframes and minicom- 
puters from IBM, DEC, DG, HP, 
Prime, Wang, Apollo, Sun, etc. — 
virtually every computer you have 
now or ever will have. AshtonTate's 
dBASE runs only on PCs. 

• Because ORACLE is a true dis- 
tributed DBMS that connects all 
your computers — PCs, minicom- 
puters and mainframes — into a 
single, unified computing and infor- 
mation resource. dBASE supports 
only primitive PC networking. 

• Because Oracle has supported 
the industry standard SQL language 
since 1979. Ashton-Tate promises 
to put SQL into dBASE sometime 
in the indefinite future. 

• Because ORACLE takes advan- 
tage of modern 286/386 PCs by 
letting you build larger-than-640K 
PC applications on MS/DOS that run 
unchanged on OS/2. dBASE treats 
today's 286/386 PCs and PS/2s like 
the now obsolete, original PC. 

Don't go down in flames. Bail out 
from dBASE. Call 1-800-ORACLE1 
and order your S199-PC copy of 
ORACLE 3 today. Or just ask and we'll 
send you information on ORACLE, 
the number one selling DBMS on 
minicomputers and mainframes. 



Call 1-800-0RACLE1, 
ext. 149 today. 

{Dear Oracle, 


Oracle Corporation 

20 Davis Drive • Belmont, CA 94002 

for my 286/386 PC. Enclosed is my 
□ Check or □ VISA DMCD AMEX 
credit card authorization for $199 
(California residents add 7% sales tax). 
1 understand this copy is for PC develop- 
ment only. Offer valid only in the US 
and Canada. 

1 Revenue doubled In 9 ol Oracle's 10 years. ' Sales rale over S20D million In current fiscal year. > For PC development use only, Requites a 286/386 PC plus 1-MByte extended memory. Offer 
valid only In US & Canada. © 19S8 by Oracle Corp. ORACLE ' is a ret;, trademark ot Oracle Corp. dBASE Is a reg. trademark of Ashlon-Tate. Microsoft & IBM own numerous reg. trademarks. TRBA 


Street (P.O. Box numbers no! acceptable) 


Credit Card Number 

Card Expiration Date 

Signature BYTE 

I am a value-added reseller (VAR): n YES D NO 

AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 77 



Dell Releases OS/2 

Dell Computer reports 
that its version of 
Microsoft's OS/2 is a single- 
user multitasking operating 
system for 80286 and 80386 
systems. It supports VGA 
video adapters based on 
Chips & Technologies, 
Video Seven, and Cirrus 

Logic VGA controllers. 

Dell's OS/2 lets you in- 
stall Microsoft OS/2, MS- 
DOS, and Xenix on the 
same hard disk. Utility pro- 
grams such as Etree and 
Speed are included. Etree 
displays a visual tree of the 
disk directory, and Speed 

lets you change the process- 
ing speed and keyboard re- 
peat rate. 
Price: $324.95. 
Contact: Dell Computer 
Corp., 9505 Arboretum 
Blvd., Austin, TX 78759, 
Inquiry 770. 

80386 C Compiler 
Creates Protected- 
Mode Code 

The NDP C-386 C com- 
piler from Micro Way is a 
globally optimizing compiler 
that was designed for the Intel 
80386. It generates native 
80386 protected-mode 32-bit 
code that runs under DOS or 
Unix V. 

The compiler is capable of 
running with arrays larger than 
64K bytes and can run pro- 
grams as large as 4 gigabytes. 

NDP C-386 is a full imple- 
mentation of PCC, Bell Lab's 
Portable C Compiler, whose 
syntax is a superset of Ker- 
nighan and Ritchie C. The 
compiler includes all standard 
PCC extensions along with 
supersets of ANSI C and 
Microsoft C extensions. The 
new extensions include a set of 
graphics and BASIC-like 
screen handling functions, in 
addition to hooks to the oper- 
ating system. 

Coprocessors supported 
include the Micro Way /Weitek 
mWl 167 and the Intel 80387 
and 80287 coprocessors. 

MicroWay's C compiler 
runs on any 80386-based com- 
puter or AT compatible with 
an Intel Inboard or other 
80386 add-on board. A float- 
ing-point coprocessor is re- 
quired, as well as 2 mega- 
bytes of extended memory. 

You'll also need a hard disk 
drive with at least 2 megabytes 
of free memory. DOS 3.2 or 
higher or Unix 386 System V 
Release 3 is also required. 
Price: $595. 

Contact: MicroWay, P.O. 
Box 79, Kingston, MA 02364, 
Inquiry 768. 

Document It! 

To simplify the process of 
documenting C programs, 
Software Blacksmiths de- 
signed C-DOC, a set of docu- 
mentation tools for C pro- 
grammers. The tools also 
modify your programs and 
can insert documentation as a 
part of each individual mod- 
ule header. 

C-Call documents the 
caller/called hierarchy of a 
group of programs. It creates 
graphic tree diagrams that 
show the flow structure. It 
also produces a table of con- 
tents of files versus modules, 
processes functions and 
macros with parameters, and 
generates cross-references of 
function definitions and 

C-Ref analyzes and docu- 
ments the use of local/global 
parameter identifiers. It also 
produces summaries for indi- 
vidual modules for use in 
headers, and it produces a 
module- or system-level 
cross-reference of all identifi- 
ers, definitions, and usages. 

C-List analyzes and dis- 
plays the flow structure within 
modules. It will reformat a 
source program and produce 
structure outlines of the flow 

C-Hdr uses outputs from 
C-List to generate and update 
module headers. 

The program runs on the 
IBM PC, XT, AT, and compat- 
ibles with DOS 2.0 or higher 
and 256K bytes of RAM. 
Price: $89. 

Contact: Software Black- 
smiths, Inc., 6064 St. Ives 
Way, Mississauga, Ontario, 
Canada L5N4M 1,(416) 
Inquiry 769. 

A Rascal for Pascal 

A Pascal compiler for 
$19.67? Rascal (rhymes 
with Pascal) supports a 64K- 
byte code and a 64K-byte data 
segment, performs floating- 
point arithmetic with an 8087, 
and produces a . COM file in 
two passes. The company re- 
ports that the compiler is ca- 
pable of compiling about 1000 
lines per minute on an IBM 
PC and compares the object 
code produced to that of 
Turbo Pascal 4.0. 

Rascal features 30 opera- 
tors and 6 distinct classes. It 
also includes 156 standard 

procedures. The compiler rec- 
ognizes explicit register ref- 
erences through standard iden- 
tifiers, the company reports. 
It also recognizes explicit 
branches to labels, proce- 
dures, and functions. 

Source code for the code 
generator and library is in- 
cluded. You can compile the 
code generator with either 
Turbo Pascal 4.0 or Rascal. 
The Rascal-generated code is 
about 50 percent faster, ac- 
cording to the manufacturer. 
Price: $19.67. 
Contact: Eugene Nelson, 
1009 Vilas, Suite 3, Madison, 
WI 53715, (608) 257-7588. 
Inquiry 771. 

Facelt Builds 

Instead of drawing a win- 
dow, typing in the text, and 
positioning it on-screen, 
Facelt automatically builds 
single windows and multi- 
menu systems from your data- 
base and ASCII files. It de- 
termines the window size 
based on the amount of text 
to be displayed. It also auto- 
matically positions the win- 
dow on-screen, configures the 
spacing between choices, and 
determines the correct number 
of columns. 

Virtual windowing and 
built-in scrolling are other fea- 
tures of Facelt. The program 
is compatible with dBASE III 
Plus, FoxBASE + ,DBXL, 
Clipper, Quicksilver, and Bor- 
land and Microsoft lan- 
guages. Language-specific 
modules are contained within 
Facelt. It runs on PS/2s and 
Price: $99. 

Contact: Black and White 
International, Inc. , 23 West 
88th Street, New York, NY 
10024, (212) 787-6633. 
Inquiry 772. 


78 BYTE* AUGUST 1988 

Take a peek 
at Genoa's new 
PC graphics 


You've known Genoa as a developer 
of high performance graphics chips, and 
a leading manufacturer of graphics 
boards and tape backup. Soon you'll 
be able to depend on us for all your PC 
graphics add-on hardware. 

Over the next year, we'll be unwrap- 
ping a series of graphics products. Each 
is designed to give you the most reliable, 
yet innovative engineering features. And 
above all, the highest performance 

Our SuperVGA HiRes family, featured 
here, is the first in our new product series. 
SuperVGA HiRes offers breathtaking 
color and resolution. From 16 colors in 
1024x768. Up to 256 colors in 800x600. 
You'll see more of your spreadsheets at 
once with SuperVGA HiRes. 132 columns 
and 60 rows. You'll do Windows or 
OS/2. In fact, every SuperVGA HiRes 
feature is designed to turn your IBM 
PC/XT/AT and PS/2 models 25 and 30 
into real graphics engines. 



SuperVGA HiRes" now! 

100% IBM VGA compatible 
Advanced features 
-1024x768 in 

16 colors and 

800x600 in 

256 colors/Model 5200 
-512x512 in 

256 colors/Model 5100 
132 columns text 
For both analog and 
TTL displays 

If you're looking for PC graphics 
add-ons, take a look at Genoa first. Our 
new line of products is starting 
delivery now! 

For the Genoa dealer nearest 
you or to add your name to our mailing 
list contact: Genoa Systems Corporation, 
75 E. Trimble Road, San Jose, CA 95131. 
Fax: 408/434-0997. Telex: 172319. 
Or phone: 408/432-9090. In the UK, 
contact Genoa Systems Limited, phone 
01-225-3247 In the Far East contact 
Genoa/Taiwan, phone: 2-776-3933. 

Circle 94 on Reader Service Card 



Delivering PC Graphics 


© 1988 Genoa Systems Corporaiion. SuperVGA HiRes is a trademark ol Genoa Systems Corporation. Windows is a trademark of Microsoll, Inc. IBM PC/XT/ AT PS/2, and OS/2 are Irariemarks ol International Business Machines. 



Data Analysis All 
Over Your Screen 

DSP Development Corp. 
says the most difficult 
thing about DADiSP is pro- 
nouncing its name. It's pro- 
nounced "Day-Disp," and it 
stands for data analysis and 
digital signal processing. 

You use the program after 
you've acquired data from a 
variety of instruments. 
DADiSP 2.0 is a package that 
lets you import ASCII and 
binary single or multichannel 
data files into the database as 
a data set. The program has a 
menu-driven interface and 
lets you analyze your data 
graphically and numerically. 
The waveforms are represented 
in windows that are treated as 
cells in a spreadsheet. When 
you make a change to a wave- 
form in one window, the pro- 
gram makes the necessary 
alterations to others. 

The worksheet can hold up 
to 64 windows, with each of- 
fering graphics operations 
such as scrolling, zooming, 
expansion, compression, and 
cursor movement. 

The program has over 160 
analysis routines, including 
signal arithmetic, signal cal- 
culus, waveform generation, 
Fourier analysis, frequency 
domain analysis, correlations, 
and trigonometric and statis- 
tical routines. DSP reports that 
the size of waveforms is un- 
limited, as the program pages 
large waveforms to and from 
your disk during calculations. 

DADiSP waveforms are presented in multiple windows. 

DADiSP runs on the IBM 
PC, XT, AT, and compatibles 
as well as on Sun and other 
workstations. It runs under 
DOS, Unix, and OS/2, ac- 
cording to DSP. 
Price: DOS version, $795; 
Unix version, $2495. 
Contact: DSP Development 
Corp., One Kendall Sq., 
Cambridge, MA 02139, 
Inquiry 773. 

Go Solo! 

Solo 101 is a statistical 
program that features fill- 
in-the-blank-type panels that 
give you your statistical- 
analysis options. If you need 
help knowing what to put into a 
panel, you move the cursor to 
the field and a help message 
pops up. 

With Solo you can calcu- 
late the mean, standard devi- 
ation, and percentiles, and 

you can generate frequency 
tables and cross-tabulations. 
The program also performs 
multiple regression with re- 
sidual analysis, stepwise re- 
gression, robust regression, 
weighted regression, and cor- 
relation analysis. You can 
store residuals, predicted 
values, confidence intervals, 
and other observation-type sta- 
tistics in Solo's database. 
Forecasting techniques include 
trend analysis, single and 
double exponential smoothing, 
and seasonal adjustment. 
Analysis of variance proce- 
dures include general linear 
models, unweighted means, 
and repeated measures. 

Solo includes a data-entry 
spreadsheet, database utilities, 
data import, report writing, 
and transformation capabili- 
ties. With the spreadsheet 
editor, you can cut and paste 
sections of the database, ap- 
pend data to existing informa- 
tion, and reorder columns for 
easier data entry and viewing. 

AutoCAD on the Mac 1 

A utoCAD Release 10 
f\ runs on the Mac II and 

nate systems, dynamic real- 

write drawing files inter- 

time zoom and three-dimen- 

changeably between two dif- 

adds three-dimensional 

sional rotation, and multiple 

ferent machines. 

wireframe construction and 


Price: $3000. 

surface modeling capabili- 

Release 10 is data-file- 

Contact: Autodesk, 2320 

ties, along with new drawing 

compatible with MS-DOS 

Marinship Way, Sausalito, 

and editing features. These 

and Unix versions of the pro- 

CA 94965, (415) 332-2344. 

include user-defined coordi- 

gram, so you can read and 

Inquiry 776. 

The data-import facility lets 
you read and write ASCII 
files. You can also sort, 
merge, transpose, or make 
subsets of databases. A re- 
port writer also lets you output 
to a printer or ASCII file. 

The program runs on the 
IBM PC, XT, AT, and compat- 
ibles with DOS 2. 1 or higher, 
512K bytes of RAM, and a 
VGA, EGA, CGA, or Her- 
cules graphics card. 
Price: $149. 

Contact: BMDP Statistical 
Software, Inc., 1440 Sepul- 
veda Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 
90025, (213) 479-7799. 
Inquiry 774. 

Preview AutoCAD 

Whether you're using 
AutoCAD or not, you 
can pop out of whatever pro- 
gram you're in and take a look 
at an AutoCAD (DWG) draw- 
ing with SoftWest Quick-See. 
Because it is a stand-alone 
program, you don't need Auto- 
CAD to run it. The manufac- 
turer reports that it displays a 
drawing at close to AutoCAD 
Redraw speeds. 

SoftWest Quick-See runs 
on the IBM PC and compat- 
ibles with DOS 2. 1 or higher, 
256K bytes of RAM, and a 
Hercules monochrome 
display adapter, EGA, CGA, 
or VGA. A math coprocessor 
and a hard disk drive are not 
Price: $99. 
Contact: The Great 
SoftWestern Company, Inc., 
207 West Hickory St., Suite 
202, Denton, TX 76201, (800) 
231-6880; in Texas, (817) 
Inquiry 775. 


80 BYTE" AUGUST 1988 




With the new Mannes- 
mann Tally 8 Universal™ Publishing 
System, you can practically fly. 

Thanks to a Raster Image 
Processor board that plugs directly 
into your PC or compatible, you'll 
process your pages at a speed lim- 
ited only by the speed of your 
computer. Not -as is typical— at 
the speed of the printer. And you'll 
transfer ready-to-print data directly 
to the printer through a video 
interface at an incredible 3-million 
bits per second. 

So when you're using the 
PostScript® compatible interpreter, 
you'll produce a printed page 
almost twice as fast as most other 
systems. But that's just ground 

If you use Aldus® Page - 
Maker or Ventura Publisher) 8 you'll 

Circle 135 on Reader Service Card (DEALERS: 

■ Systems: 

1 . Universal Publishing System (includes a 
PostScript compatible interpreter and Docu- 
ment Description Language (DDL)) 

2. DDL Publishing System (DDL only), 
i Resolution: 300 x 300 dpi. 

i Emulations: Both systems include HP* 

i Memory: 2 Mg. 

i Typefaces: UPS includes 35 typefaces, DDL 
System includes 22 typefaces. 

i Speed: 10 pages-per-minute. 

i Dual paper cassettes standard, 250 sheets 

i Dual output bins standard, 250 sheets each. 

i Manual feed handles single sheets, enve- 
lopes, transparencies, and labels. 

i Workload: 10,000 pages-per-month. 


really take off. Because when you 
select DDL instead of the PostScript 
compatible interpreter, you'll double 
that speed again. And with full page 
bitmap graphics, you can get print- 
ed output up to 17 times as fast. 

So call the number below 
for the name of your nearest dealer 
and log in your time on the New 
Mannesmann Tally Universal 
Publishing System. A pilot's license 
is not required. 



Ext. 130 

In Washington state, call: 

206-251-5524 Ext. 130 

Test results available upon request. PostScript is a registered trade- 
mark of Adobe Systems, Inc. DDL is a registered trademark of 
Imagen Corp. Ventura Publisher is a registered trademark of Ven- 
tura Corp. Pagemaker is a registered trademark of Aldus Corp. 

AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 81 





. . :■ ■ ■ ■■■; ■ 

...,.:. .■.■"'. 

Introducing our newest family of 9-wire dot-matrix 
printers.The re -engineered MSP series ; featuring the latest 
advances in print technology. 

lb begin with, theyfe 50% faster. In the draft printing 
mode ; the MSP- 40 and 45 top out at 240 cps. And the 
MSP- 50 and 55 have a maximum cruising speed of 300 cps. 

Each model features a ne w ; bidirectional print mechanism, 
that can generate brilliant graphics resolution. And the new 
MSP- 50 and 55 can produce crisp, near-letter-quality print 
with even better throughput. 

We also made it easier to load the MSE series. 

The paper bale has been replaced with a built-in convert- 
ible push or pull paper tractor. And the sleek new redesign 

82 BYTE* AUGUST 1988 



\ •■■■■■• ' '. 


now incorporates a rear or bottom feed. Real handy if you're 
printing labels, forms, cards or stationery. 

As for convenience, youll also appreciate the front panel 
controls, the outstariffiig compatibility and the wide selection 
of typestyles via available font cards.Tneres even color capa- 
bility on the deluxe MSP- 50 and 55. 

All in all, the MSP series, with an 18-month warranty 
represents an excellent value in precision- butft printers.Wnich, 
considering Citizen's tradition, isn't all that new 

For the dealer nearest you, call 1-800-556-1234, Ext. 34. 
In California/call 1-800- ^=^ r^wrrvwrwTfTkt 

441-2345, Ext. 34. ^dll/hlN \ 

©1988 Citizen America Corporation. Citizen and the 
Citizen logo are trademarks of Citizen Watch Co., ltd. 

Printers that run like clockwork. 

AUGUST 1988 • B Y T E 83 



on the Desktop 

Now you can create slides 
with access to 16.8 mil- 
lion colors on a Mac II to use 
in your desktop presentations. 
Microsoft has enhanced 
PowerPoint 2.0 with templates 
that have built-in color 
schemes, background effects, 
and fonts. Other added fea- 
tures include a spelling 
checker and a f ind-and- 
replace command. 

To take advantage of the 
preselected color schemes, you 
select a background color, 
and the program suggests con- 
trasting colors. If you merge 
slides into other presentations, 
you can choose different 
color schemes, with all ele- 
ments of the slide converting 
to the new color scheme. 

The spelling checker 
comes with a main dictionary 
that you can supplement with 
your own words. Word-pro- 
cessing features of the pro- 
gram include tabs and decimal 
tabs, variable line and para- 
graph spacing, and five out- 
line-like levels for bulleted 
copy points. 

The program also lets you 
import graphics from Mac- 
Point, PICT, and EPSE file 
formats. Using the Macintosh 
Clipboard, you can incorpo- 
rate graphics in any format, 
according to Microsoft. You 
can also incorporate black- 
and-white graphics and then 
color them. 

PowerPoint 2.0 runs on the 
Mac Plus, SE, or II running 
System 4. 1 or higher with 1 
megabyte of RAM and two 
800K-byte floppy disk drives 
or a hard disk drive. The soft- 
ware is compatible with Ap- 
pleShare and MultiFinder. 
Price: $395. 

Contact: Microsoft Corp. , 
16011 Northeast 36th Way, 
P.O. Box 97017, Redmond, 
WA 98073, (206)882-8080. 
Inquiry 777. 


Christopher %3J Columbus 

V.Y. Pinz6n 


i-S.R. deGaira 


MA. Pin26n 


F.M. Pin26n 


-C.G. Xalmiento 



I C.Columbus 

Sample desktop presentation slide from PowerPoint 2. 0. 

Make Your 
Commodore 64/128 
a Desktop Publisher 

Create multiple-column 
page layouts on the Com- 
modore 64 and 128 (in 64 
emulation) with PaperClip 
Publisher from Electronic 

You can create documents 
of up to 50 pages in length; 
manipulate text and graphics 
with ruler, margin, and col- 
umn guides; enlarge pages 
with the magnify mode; and 
resize boxes and have text 
flow between them. 

A text editor is included, 
and the font converter utility 
lets you convert fonts from 
popular word processors. You 
can also import text files 
from PaperClip II and other 
word processors. 

The built-in graphics edi- 
tor lets you import and edit 
graphics from other pro- 
grams. You can also choose 
from a variety of box back- 
grounds and outlines, and you 
can work on pages from 3 by 
3 inches to 8 by 14 inches with 
as many columns as you 
want. PaperClip Publisher also 
supports a wide variety of 

The program runs on the 
Commodore 64 and 128 with 

or 1571 floppy disk drive, and 
a mouse or joystick. 
Price: $49.95. 
Contact: Electronic Arts, 
1820 Gateway Dr., San Mateo, 
CA 94404, (415)571-7171. 
Inquiry 778. 

1-2-C Compiler 

Compile 1-2-C converts 
your worksheets into C 
source code instead of 
BASIC. It also handles more 
than just Lotus files and will 
compile any .WKS files. 

Once your worksheets are 
compiled, you don't need the 
original spreadsheet pro- 
gram, as the worksheets be- 
come stand-alone .EXE files. 

Compile 1-2-C, formerly 
known as LTS2C, runs on the 
IBM PC, XT, AT, and com- 
patibles with 640K bytes of 
RAM and a 1.5-megabyte 
hard disk drive. The program 
works with Lotus 1-2-3 re- 
leases 1A and 2.01 and works 
with all 1-2-3 commands ex- 
cept Graph and Window. The 
program is not copy- 
Price: $299. 

Contact: Resource Analysis 
International Corp. , 12581 
Venice Blvd., Los Angeles, 
CA 90066, (213)390-7661. 
Inquiry 779. 

A Helping Hand 
from Handi 

The makers of Handi call 
it "information integra- 
tion software." It's one pro- 
gram that combines a database 
manager, word processor, 
calendar, scheduler with 
alarms, and report generator. 
You can run it as either a 
stand-alone or a memory-res- 
ident program. 

HandiBase is the database 
manager. Each database holds 
a maximum of 65,500 B-tree 
indexed records. Each record 
can contain up to 4090 bytes 
of structured and free-form 
data. Each database can sup- 
port up to 20 structured fields. 

HandiWord is a word pro- 
cessor that performs word 
wrap, text block manipula- 
tion, find/replace, cut/paste, 
import, export, and other test 
manipulation functions. It han- 
dles large documents of up to 
60,000 characters. 

The program's calendar 
module is called Handi- 
Scheduler, and it features an 
alarm that you can set to re- 
mind you of appointments or 
other events. When the alarm 
goes off, a small window 
pops up on the screen when 
you're in other programs, 
and some text reminds you of 
why the alarm has gone off. 

HandiReport is the report 
generator, and it lets you print 
form letters, labels, business 
reports, invoices, and more. 

Handi runs on the IBM 
PC, XT, AT, and compatibles 
with DOS 2. 1 or higher and 
74K bytes of free RAM. 
Price: $49. 

Contact: HandiCorp, Inc., 
17080 142nd Place NE, P.O. 
Box 1263, Woodinville, WA 
98072, (800) 451-3496; in 
Washington, (206) 481-7026. 
Inquiry 780. 


84 BYTE* AUGUST 1988 

EmulateThe Best 
WthThe Brightest 

There's no denying the availability of some outstanding dedicated terminals to 
access Digitalf Hewlett-Packard, and Data General® host systems. Which makes the 
task of precisely emulating the performance of those dedicated terminals on an 
IBM® PC or compatible a rather significant challenge. 

Based on the feedback we've received from Smaflerm® users, our family of 
terminal emulation software has met the challenge, passed every test, and surpassed, 
in the opinion of a host of enthusiastic users, the performance of the host system 
terminals being emulated. 

The reasons why we shine are fundamental. 

Every Smaflerm emulation is precise. So precise, in fact, that a dedicated 
terminal's Smaflerm counterpart fully emulates not only advanced performance 
features but also unique terminal quirks and bugs. 

Every Smaflerm emulation is easy to use. It's one thing to make software do 
what hardware does. It's another challenge to minimize software's human wear. The 
people designing our products understand the nature of the people using them. 

Every Smaflerm emulation is easy to learn. These days, training costs are a hot 
topic. Software intended to boost overall system efficiency must recognize the value 
of learning speed. We have. 

It's also easy to learn more about how Smaflerm emulations can help you 
shine. Your software dealer can supply all the details. Or you can contact us at 
(608) 273-6000 to request complete specifications and a demonstration disk of the 
Smaflerm emulation that precisely matches your requirements. npfCftff'* 

© 1988 Pcrsoft, Inc., 465 Science Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53711 U.S.A. Persoft and SmarTerm are registered trademarks of Persoft. Inc. All Rights Reserved. IBM is a registered trademark of 
International Business Machines Corporation. Digital is a registered trademark of Digital Equipment Corporation. Data General is a registered trademark of Data General Corporation. 

Circle 173 on Reader Service Card 

AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 85 



1 0-Net Software Offers OS/2 Support and More 

NetBIOS compatibility, 
electronic mail, en- 
hanced network software, 
and support for OS/2 are 
added to 10-Net Plus local- 
area-network (LAN) soft- 

The E-mail package 
added is Network Courier 
from Consumers Software. 
It supports large mail net- 

works and has the ability to 
link various mail servers to- 
gether. It also features net- 
work-monitoring tools and a 
chat utility. 

lONet recently unbundled 
the software, making it 
available for IBM Token 
Ring and Ethernet systems. 
Applications written for pre- 
vious versions of 10-Net will 

run on 10-Net Plus, accord- 
ing to lONet Communica- 

Price: $395 per node for 
IBM Token Ring version 

Contact: lONet Communi- 
cations, 7016 Corporate 
Way, Dayton, OH 45459, 
Inquiry 782. 

Make Connections 
with Reunion 

Reunion software lets you 
access and process infor- 
mation between an IBM PC, 
an asynchronous host main- 
frame, and minicomputers. It 
provides two-way communica- 
tion between host computers 
and PC applications, terminal 
emulation, file transfer, 
multitasking, and program de- 
velopment. The program's 
multitasking ability lets you 
run it in the background of 
other application programs, 
transferring files, sending 
mail, or retrieving host infor- 
mation, while you continue to 
use the application program 
in the foreground. 

The program is menu- 
driven and contains a dialing 
directory and help. To fur- 
ther simplify use of the pro- 
gram, you can redefine or re- 
map any key on your PC 
keyboard. You can also 
create macros with Reunion, 
automating repetitive tasks so 
that one keystroke can perform 
a series of commands. 

A Writer facility lets you 
create, modify, compile, and 
test scripts. It also imports 
any ASCII editor for use with- 
in Reunion. A Learn facility 

lets you automate communica- 
tions sessions, allowing you 
to alter scripts. The Connect 
facility offers a modular 
structure for connecting to 
host computers and informa- 
tion services. It also includes a 
dialing directory. 

Reunion's application lan- 
guage, Resource, contains 
about 75 commands that let 
you read and write to PC files, 
initiate and control other PC 
applications, call other scripts 
as subroutines, and let the 
host computer initiate PC 

Terminals emulated in- 
clude the IBM 3101 Character 
Mode; DEC VT-220, VT- 
100, and VT-52; generic TTY; 
and PC7171 for protocol con- 
verters. Methods of file trans- 
fer include XMODEM and 
YMODEM, Kermit, Link- 
ware, and nonprotocol 

To run Reunion you'll 
need an IBM PC or PS/2 with 
DOS 2.0 or higher and at 
least 384K bytes of RAM, with 
at least 512K bytes needed 
for Linkware file transfers. 
You also need an asynchro- 
nous COM1 port, a COM2 
port, or a Net/One network 
adapter, and a CGA, EGA, 
VGA, or IBM monochrome 
Price: $175. 

Contact: Westford Harbor 
Co. , 288 Littleton Rd. , POB 
240, Westford, MA 01886, 
(617) 692-9440. 
Inquiry 781. 

with DataEase 

DataEase, a database 
management program, is 
now available in a network 
version. Applications you've 
developed with single-user 
DataEase can run on DataEase 
LAN with a single keystroke, 
the company reports. 

The LAN version provides 
three record-locking and two 
file-locking strategies for 
viewing and editing shared 
data. It also has a MultiView 
feature, which shows you 
multiple related files with 
one keystroke. 

With DataEase LAN 1.1, 
you can have 26 databases per 
directory, up to 255 files per 
database, and up to 255 reports 
per database. It also provides 
B-tree indexing, wild-card 
searches, and 99 predefined 
choice fields. You can import 
DataEase, Lotus, dBASE II 
and III, DIF, ASCII, and mail- 
merge files, and you can ex- 
port to Lotus, DIF, Multi- 
Mate, ASCII, mail-merge, 
and GrafTalk file formats. 

DataEase LAN 1 . 1 runs 
on the IBM PC, XT, AT, 3270 
PC, PS/2s, and compatibles 
with at least 640K bytes of 
RAM. You also need an in- 
terface card supported by the 

DOS 3.1 network interface or 
Novell Netware 86 or 286 ver- 
sion 2.0a or higher. The 
database management program 
runs with Banyan VINES 

2.1, 3Com EtherSeries and 3 + 

1.2, IBM PC LAN 1.1, No- 
vell Netware 86/286 2.0a or 
higher, and the AT&T 

Price: $700; $900 for the 
Workstation pack, which pro- 
vides access for three addi- 
tional PCs. 

Contact: DataEase Interna- 
tional, Inc., 7 Cambridge Dr., 
Trumbull, CT 0661 1,(800) 
243-5123; in Connecticut, 
(203) 374-8000. 
Inquiry 783. 

Macintosh E-Mail 

Macintosh users can add 
the ability to communi- 
cate electronically over 
AppleTalk networks with 
QuickMail. This desk acces- 
sory offers an automatic log-in 
option, log-in/log-out, and 
password security. 

With QuickMail you can 
have real-time private or public 
conferences; you can also 
generate a transcript of the 
conferences. A public bulle- 
tin board is included, and you 
can invoke a privacy feature 
for a specified length of time. 

You can forward messages 
to other users, print them out, 
or save them to disk. You can 
also attach up to 16 files or 
clipboards per message and 
reply to or edit sent messages. 

The program works on 
networks with the Macintosh 
512KE systems and higher 
with at least one hard disk 
drive. It is compatible with 
AppleShare, TOPS, and Mac- 
Serve networks. 
Price: $300 per 10 users. 
Contact: CE Software, 1854 
Fuller Rd. , West Des Moines, 
IA 50265, (515)224-1995. 
Inquiry 784. 


86 BYTE' AUGUST 1988 



"JPl Modula-2 looks like another 
classic in the making. It gener- 
ates code as good as or better 
than leading C compilers and the 
programming environment is a 
genuine pleasure to use. At the 
price it's a tremendous bargain, 
and with luck it just might do for 
Modula what Turbo has done 
for Pascal. " 
Dick Pountain 
Byte Information Exchange 
short. takes conference 

"/ liked all of the hard-disk space 
that was recovered after I deleted 
and LOGITECH compilers, 
because with TopSpeed Mod- 
ula-2 all the rest are obsolete. " 

Robert D. Randall 

Donnelley Marketing 

The successor of Pascal: JPI TopSpeed Modula-2 produces 
better code than Microsoft C, Turbo C, Logitech Modula-2, 
and Turbo Pascal 4.0. 

JPI TopSpeed Modula-2 is a professional Modula-2 
development system with full support of memory models, 
multi-tasking, long data types, structured constants, long 
and short pointers, 80X87 inline code and emulator, sepa- 
rate compilation, direct BIOS/DOS calls, etc. The com- 
prehensive library includes CGA, EGA and VGA graphics 
support, math functions, sorting, file handling, window 
management, a time-sliced process scheduler and more. 

The Compiler Kit includes: High-speed optimizing compiler, integrated 
menu-driven environment with multi-window/multi-file editor, auto- 
matic make, fast smart linker. All Modula-2 sources to libraries included. 
BONUS: Complete high-speed window management module included 
with source. 258-page User's Manual and 190-page Language Tutorial. 

The TechKit includes: Assembler source for start-up code and run-time 
library, JPI TopSpeed Assembler (30,000 lines/min), TSR module, 
communications driver, PROM locator, dynamic overlays, and tech- 
nical information. 72-page manual. 

System Requirements: IBM PC or compatible. 384K RAM, two floppy 
drives (hard disk recommended). 

Circle 115 on Reader Service Card 

TopSpeed 's seamlessly integrated 

VID, the Visual Interface 
Debugger, coming soon. 

12 3 4 







U fl ir«,hModul O JV3.0 ||| j|\ 

Sieve benchmark measured by 
the British Standards Institution 
(BSI)—25 iterations on an 
8MHz AT. 

Compiler Kit $99.95. 
TechKit $59.95. 

To Order: 

In the US & Canada, call: 

Ext 255, 24 Hours. 
Or mail us your order with 
a check, money order, or 
VISA/MC information. 
30-day unconditional 
money-back guarantee. 

Shipping & handling charges: 
In North America: Add $5.00 ship- 
ping & handling, plus $2.00 for 
each additional product. Overseas: 
Add $20.00 shipping & handling, 
plus $8.00 for each additional 

Jensen & 



1101 San Antonio Rd, Suite 301 
Mountain View CA 94043 
Phone: (415) 967-3200 

In England and Europe contact: 

Jensen & Partners UK Ltd. , 63 
Clerkenwell Rd., London EC1M 
5NP. Phone: (01) 253-4333. 
Compiler Kit £59.95, (add £4.69 
for VAT & handling in the UK; 
£4.00 handling in Europe). Tech- 
Kit £34.95 (add £4.03 for VAT & 
handling in the UK; £4.00 hand- 
ling in Europe). 

TopSpeed is a trademark of Jensen & Partners 
International. Other brand and product names 
are trademarks or registered trademarks of 
their respective holders. 



Design Your Own 

Using an IBM PC with a 
Truevision TARGA or 
VISTA graphics board and 
Flamingo's Logo Editor, you 
can create logos and 

The object-oriented draw- 
ing program lets you trace or 
create illustrations with 
smooth antialiased edges. The 
Logo Editor comes with ob- 
ject types such as curves, 
ovals, arcs, circles, lines, 
rectangles, irregular polygons, 
and text. You can choose ob- 
jects from pop-up menus and 
manipulate them with a 
mouse or graphics tablet. You 
can also group, ungroup, ro- 
tate, flip, move, copy, scale, 
stretch, delete, and undelete 

You can edit the text that 
comes with the cubic spline 
outline definitions and incor- 
porate the text into your logos. 
Eight outline fonts are 

Layout tools include flat, 
gradient, or TARGA image 
background styles; and grids, 
resident color palettes, and 
color creation models. You 
can render your work on- 
screen through an antialias- 
ing process that smooths the 
curves and lines. You can 
also store your designs as logos 
or as fonts. Logo files are 
read back into the Logo Editor 
and printed onto any TARGA 
image file. Font files are com- 
patible with Flamingo 
Graphics' RIO. 

Logo Editor runs on the 
IBM PC AT and compatibles 
with at least 640K bytes of 
RAM and a 10-megabyte hard 
disk drive. You also need a 
TARGA frame buffer and an 
analog RGB or composite 
monitor. The company also 
recommends Expanded 
Memory Specification mem- 
ory and a math coprocessor. 

An illustration created with Flamingo 's Logo Editor. 



t ORIGIN from keyboard 

MAP COORDINATE VALUES (Insert from keyboard) 

TABLET COORDINATES (Digitize these values) 

ORIGIN.- 5665.000 NORTH 

14425.000 EAST i 

POINT Y: 6690.000 

POINT Z: 10710.000 

HotDij matches digitizer data to other programs. 

Price: $895. 

Contact: Flamingo Graphics, 

875 Main St., Cambridge, MA 


Inquiry 785. 

Digitize Me 

Place data from a digi- 
tizer tablet directly into 
your word processor, spread- 
sheet, or other programs with 
HotDij , a memory-resident 

HotDij contains prepro- 
grammed control characters to 

match the digitizer data to 
your other programs. You can 
also define up to four addi- 
tional sets of control charac- 
ters. The program adds con- 
trol characters to enter the data 
into columns on the monitor. 
It adjusts for drawing scale and 
corrects for drawing place- 
ment errors. HotDij keeps 
track of changes in scale or 
drawing location, as well as the 
application in use. Whenever 
you reboot, HotDij remembers 
your previous application and 
sets up for it. The program 
allows for keyboard input and 
accepts ASCII input to the 

HotDij is menu-driven. It 
also offers you a selection of 

34 predefined digitizer inter- 
faces. When you install the 
program, you must match the 
report format of the digitizer 
tablet to your computer. 

Designed to run on the 
IBM PC and compatibles, 
you'll need at least 64K bytes 
of free RAM and an asynchro- 
nous communications port. 
The program comes with a 
wiring adapter to connect 
your system with a digitizer. 
Geocomp reports that the 
program works with any digi- 
tizer that sends ASCII. 
Price: $335. 

Contact: Geocomp Ltd., 749 
Van Gordon Court, Golden, 
CO 80401, (303) 233-1250. 
Inquiry 786. 

Perk Up 
Your Output 

If your standard 9-pin dot- 
matrix printer produces 
dull-looking output, The 
Image Printing Utilities may 
be able to help. The program 
achieves higher-quality output 
by making three print passes 
over each line, with a different 
pattern of dots each time. 
The dot density is 216 dots per 
inch vertically by 240 dpi 

The program includes 16 
fonts, and all except the 
Graphics font include the en- 
tire character set of an IBM 
Graphics Printer. 

The program takes up 35K 
bytes of RAM for each font 
loaded. It runs on the IBM 
PC and compatibles with DOS 
2.0 or higher and at least 
128K bytes of RAM. 
Price: $89.95. 
Contact: Image Computer 
Systems, P.O. Box 647, Avon, 
CT 06001, (203) 678-8771. 
Inquiry 787. 

88 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 





16 color VGA Support 

Dual Brush nodes 


ABC EGA Paint 2DD5 

Snoot!) Connand 

Final Version 

Airbrush Connand 

3 8 4 Point 

Curve Connand 

• \|X 





i».W r.r.i"T )m 

Ik IJ.- 1 UllM 1 

* t« -|« 1i» MMlt)|.|1l*«>«*llWi»K_l 

MMiHfiEMn - 

i 1 it*- 





360 Rotate Connand 

Full Page 




«■" !i 

Publish any EGA Paint 2085 Graphics screen* 

capture The Final Version uill convert any screen to 
aln ost any scree n ,i n G r .PCX files for your desktop systen! 

■Z E£*0=£ SAVIN 

Area Connand 

One picture is worth a thousand words! 

Kiss those endless upgrade fees goodbye! After well over three years of development, RIX is 
pleased to announce the Final Version of our EGA specific graphics editor, EGA Paint 2005. RIX 
was the first (and still the only) graphics, software company to introduce an EGA specific 
graphics editor, the first to create a combination TARGA™ image translator and print package, 
the first to release a VGA specific hi-res graphics editor (in July), and now the first to 
release a final version of any software program ... ever! We at RIX had originally planned 
to release a separate package to implement desktop publishing capabilities but when the 
release date arrived, we felt our loyal users deserved a fully self-contained graphics package. 
Now RIX has made it possible for you to make a little history too with EGA Paint 2005 Final 
Version, At $129.00, surely the best value in graphics programs ever! Find out why. Order 
today! RIX SoftWorks, always the best ... for less! 



ColoRIX VGA Paint is the cat's meow for your Hi-Res VGA system! 
ColoRIX supports all modes of VGA and has time saving features 
like: Automatic color graduation generation, block palette freeup, 
image drag for 3D effects, a completely self-contained presenta- 
tion package which has animation capabilities, and much more. 
We'll be shipping in July, first come, first served so get your order 
in now! Only $199.00! 

REX SoftWorks, Inc. 

18552 MacArthur Bl. • Suite 375 • Irvine, CA 92715 • (714) 476-8266 

In CA (800) 233-5983 Outside CA; (800) 345-9058 

Circle 420 on Reader Service Card (DEALERS: 421) 

AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 88PC-1 


What's New 


Data for Here, 
or to Go 

The Disk Pack has two 
slots that hold removable 
hard disks (20 to 160 mega- 
bytes) and is fully compatible 
with Macintosh, Apple, IBM 
PC, XT, AT, and compatible 
computers, according to 
Mega Drive Systems. 

The base, which contains 
the two slots for the removable 
hard disks, has a SCSI inter- 
face bus and a Mac-compatible 
connector. You can choose 
between several formatted 
capacities for the hard disks: 
20, 45, 70, 120, or 160 
megabytes. Each weighs 
about 2!/2 pounds, and you 
can daisy-chain disk packs 
to hold as much as 1 gigabyte 

Disk Pack works with IBM PCs, Macs, and Apple computers. 

of on-line data. 

Disk Pack connects di- 
rectly to the Mac Plus, SE, and 
II through the SCSI port. A 
SCSI board is required to con- 
nect the Disk Pack to an 
Apple He, Ik, IIGS or Mac 
128K, 512K, or512Ke. SCSI 
connector kits ($469 for IBM 
PC, XT, AT, or compatibles 
and $749 for the PS/2 series) 
are also available. 
Price: Base (two-slot), $699. 
Modules: $849, 20-megabyte; 
$1299, 45-megabyte; $1599, 
70-megabyte; $1999, 120- 
megabyte; price not available 
for the 160-megabyte. 
Contact: Mega Drive Sys- 
tems, 1801 Avenue of the 
Stars, Suite 507, Los Ange- 
les, CA 90067, (213) 556-1628 
or (800) 322-4744. 
Inquiry 835. 


If s the Dawn of the Information Age . . 

The new modem$ with built-in 
data compression are all the rage. 
Trouble i$, they use the Limpel-Ziv 
algorithm— something le$$ than op- 

The centerpiece of the FlySpeed 
Collection is st/exp, the first com- 
mercial implementation of Fly 
Coding, st/exp compresses text files 
typically to 30% or less of their 
original size, at rates of over 1000 
words per second, allowing you not 
only to communicate faster, but also 
save valuable disk space. 

But now that you can communi- 
cate and store information so much 
more efficiently, you need a more ef- 
ficient way of creating it. So we 
created Typing Demon, a spin-off 
of our work on communication aids 
for the handicapped. Typing Demon 
partially automates typing, speeding 
word-processing by 25% or more. 
Nothing revolutionary— just the dif- 
ference between finishing the after- 
noon's word-processing at 4:45, ver- 
sus 6:00 p.m. 

Do yon know where your 

Optimal Representation 

of Language is? 

Microcomputer Square 

126 Hancock Avenue 

Spartanburg, S.C. 29302 

(803) 583-9655 

With "d," FlySpeed's user- 
friendly directory program, you'll 
be able to look at your files sorted by 
file name, file date, etc. And you'll 
be able to page back and forth 
through long directories to your 
heart's content. (Say goodbye to 
directories scrolling off-screen.) 

And when Merlin, the text- 
retrieval member of FlySpeed, 
debuts in January, you'll not only be 
able to create, communicate, and 
store information more quickly and 
efficiently, but you'll actually be able 
to find it later! Instantly, based upon 
any word or combination of words 
in a document. Because Fly Coding 
is inherently indexed. 

You wouldn't expect computers of 
the 21st century to store and com- 
municate information in the same 
inefficient format used in the 1950s. 
Now, for just 75 bucks, neither will 

88PC-2 BYTE* AUGUST 1988 

Circle 417 on Reader Service Card 

Great Software for your PC - 
$2 per disk (Reg. $6) 

We are making this special offer to introduce you to membership in PC-SIG: 
The World's Largest Source of Low Cost Software for the IBM-PC and com- 
patibles. PC-SIG disks are normally $6 each (less with membership) and come 
packed full of Shareware - software marketed in the revolutionary new way that 
allows you to try out a program before registering it with the author. PC-SIG 
provides your gateway to this software with the bimonthly SHAREWARE 
Magazine, Hotsheets and a 424+ page software directory. All this for a yearly 
membership fee of $20 (USA). 

Some of the advantages of buying from PC-SIG: We are the oldest and largest 
Shareware vendor. Our disks are the latest versions. Free technical support by 
phone. Most complete library of Shareware: over 1000 disks. 48 hour shipping. 

Join PC-SIG and receive 424 page directory, bi-monthly 
Shareware Magazine, Hotsheets and special discounts. 

Take any disk listed in this ad - 
$2 each - when you join today! 
Offer expires August 31, 1988. 


D 499 PROCOMM: Extremely versatile telecommunications. 
□ 310,1022,1023 Q-MODEM: A layorite. Let's your computer 
talk via phone. 

[ ] 212,334,621 RBBS-PC: Set up your own bulletin board. 

Computer Languages/Education 

□ 577, 578 C TUTOR: Learn C language. 

Q 965 PASCAL COMPILER: Full-screen editor, incremental 
compiler and more. 

□ 254 PC-DOS HELP: Gives you on-line help to remember 
those DOS commands. 

□ 105 PC-PROFESSOR: Learn beginning BASIC. 

□ 775-778 PSEUDOSAM: Macro assemblers & debuggers tor 
many popular microprocessors, including 8088/86/286S. 

□ 481 STILL RIVER SHELL: Menued DOS commands. Makes 
life easier. 

D 403 TUTOR.COM: Learn beginning DOS. 


□ 287,288 FILE EXPRESS: Customize, menu driven data 

□ 5, 730, 1015 PC-FILE+: The most powerful and popular 
data base. 

□ 830 WAMPUM: dBase III clone, but easier to use. (Hard disk 


I. 1 844 ABC FUN KEYS: For ages 2-5. Teaches the alphabet. 

□ 612 FOREIGN LANGUAGES: Beginning Spanish, French. 
German S Italian. 

□ 229 FUNNELS & BUCKETS: Fun game teaches younger 
children arithmetic. 

□ 320 PC-TOUCH: Typing tutor. (Color Req) 

□ 477 WORDGAMES: Stimulates the intellect. 


□ 164, 773 CASHTRAC: Manage checking accounts, track 

□ 151 FINANCE MANAGER II: Double entry bookkeeping. 
LI 469,470 MR. BILL: Itemize invoices, age accounts, etc. 

□ 331 PC-GENERAL LEDGER: Written by a top financial 

IJ 575 PC-STOCK: Track & evaluate stock trends. (Color req) 


□ 452 AMULET OF YENDOR: Hack, a dungeons & dragons 
adventure game. 

□ 708 BACKGAMMON: You against the computer. Also, 
Wheel of Fortune. 

i I 780 BRIDGE PAL: Computer plays 3 hands. 

□ 228 CRIBBAGE: And a few other games as well. 

Circle 419 on Reader Service Card 

457 GREATEST ARCADE GAMES: Flightmare, Jump Joe, 
Spacewar (Color req.) 

i 476 PATRICK'S BEST GAMES: Bugs Centipede, 3-D 
Packman, Castle. Packgal. Spacevad. 
557 PINBALL RALLY: 3 great games ol dexterity and 
speed. (Color req.) 
1 120 PC-CHESS: Your move... 
791 POKER: Play draw poker head to head. Or try some 

694 SLEUTH: A murder has been committed... 
1 97 TWO TREKS: Beam me up, Scottie! 
891 WHEEL OF MISFORTUNE: Spin the wheel, win or go 


(Most require CGA or EGA Card) 

□ 701-704 DANCAD 3D (4 disks): Create and animate 3d 

drawings. (Hard disk req) 

1 828 EDRAW: Draw flowcharts, schematics, even printed 


1 763 FINGER PAINT: A 3d wire Irame modeling program. 

(Runs also with Hercules Card.) 

870 HGCIBM: Run color graphics programs with your 

Hercules Card! 

788 IMAGE 3-D (EGA ver.): Create, view, edit 3d objects. 
: ] 762 IMAGE 3-D (CGA ver.) 

1 1001 MAC PASTE: Read, save, edit and print Readmac or 

Mac Paint pictures. 
[ ] 344.345,1032 PC-KEYDRAW: Graphics and 

"slideshow" presentations. 
. ] 244 SLIDE GENERATION: Create slides/transparencies. 

Home & Hobbies 

□ 966 ASTROLOGY 94: Calculate and print charts. 
! ! 361 . 632 FAMILY HISTORY: Trace your family tree. 
! ! 929 LOTTO: Will this really help you win the lottery? 
' 395 HOME INVENTORY: Keep track of everything you own. 

i 127 PC-MUSICIAN: Compose and play your song. 
279 PIANOMAN: Plays your music or its own in chords. 

AUTOMENU: Create easy access menus for your hard 


i 824 DESK COMMANDO: Tools to tame your hard drive. 
I J 404 EZ-FORMS: Create your own business forms. 
□ 388 FORM LETTERS: Variety of business letter formats. 

483 MAILMONSTER: Add, edit, sort and print labels by 

] 405 PC-DESK TEAM: In memory calculator, calendar, 

phone dialer, alarm & more! 


11517 IMAGE PRINT: Letter quality Irom your dot matrix. 
! 1718 LQ PRINTER: Print fancy fonts on your dot matrix. 
: 523 SIDEWRITER: Print banners or wide spreadsheets. 


974 BIBLE QUIZ PLUS: Learn the Bible trivia game. 
766-772 THE BIBLE (7 disks): King James version. 
581, 582 WORD WORKER: Performs text searches of 
words in the Bible. 


598 MASTER KEY: Like Norton Utilities. Recover lost files, 

1 414 UNPROTECT/PROTECT: Copy a variety of copy 
protected disks. 


524,525 EXPRESS CALC: Powerful but friendly 


199,1016,1017 PC-CALC: Like Lotus 1-2-3 but easier. 

Word Processing 

719 LETTER WRITER: Print out "personalized" letters. 
! 1 528 NEW YORK WORD: Allows split screen, mail merge & 


480 PC-OUTLINE: Like ThinkTank. Organize your ideas & 


455,681 .682 PC-TYPE: Jim Button's own word processor. 

Has it all. 
[ 1 78, 627 PC-WRITE: Powerful, multi featured, spelling 

checker, laser support. 


Please send the disks I have checked above. 

disks x $2 each = 


1 year PC-SIG Membership 

3 1/2"- add $1 per disk 
FREE Shipping and Handling 
Amount enclosed 

By: Check Visa 

Card No: 







_ State _ 




pc-sig 746 

1 030D East Duane Ave 
Sunnyvale, CA 94086 

Offer valid in USA only - Dealer Inquiries Invited I 

Order By Phone: 

(In Calif. 800/222-2996) 

AUGUST 1988 'BYTE 88PC-3 



Borland's Turbo 
Prolog 2.0 

Prolog 2.0 features a 
database system with 
tools for developing and 
maintaining large databases 
and an interpreter that you 
can build into applications that 
require metaprogramming 
capabilities. You can also mod- 
ify the interpreter to handle a 
new logic programming lan- 
guage, inference engine, or 
expert shell system. 

Other new features include 
customizable interface, sup- 
port for multiple internal 
databases, and mechanisms for 
handling error situations and 
controlling user breaks. A 
separate Turbo Prolog Tool- 
box ($99.95) includes support 

for menus, business graph- 
ics, communications, screen 
and report layouts, file 
transfer, and parser 

Turbo Prolog 2.0 requires 
an IBM PC, XT, AT, PS/2, or 
compatible, 384K bytes of 
RAM (640K bytes recom- 
mended), DOS 2.0 or higher, 
and two floppy disk drives 
(hard disk drive recom- 
mended). Video card support 
includes monochrome, CGA, 
EGA, MCGA, VGA, 3270, 
8514, Hercules, and AT&T 
400-line. Turbo Prolog 
Toolbox requires Turbo 
Prolog 2.0. 
Price: $149.95. 
Contact: Borland Interna- 
tional, 4585 Scotts Valley Dr., 
Scotts Valley, CA 95066, 
(408) 438-8400. 
Inquiry 836. 

Page Preview 
Added to WordStar 

WordStar Professional 
5.0 features page pre- 
view capabilities that let you 
view up to 144 pages in thumb- 
nail form on a single screen. 
You can also view single and 
facing pages in WYSIWYG 
format. A zoom view lets you 
look at font and linebreak 

An optional menu-driven 
interface is compatible with 
IBM's Systems Applications 
Architecture. Footnoting, 
automatic reformatting, 
macro, undo, and automatic 
save capabilities are also 

WordStar Professional 5.0 
lets you create newspaper-style 

columns. You can edit two 
documents simultaneously. 
Brown Bag Software's PC- 
Outline, MailList, and Tel- 
Merge, a communications 
program, are also included. 
WordStar Professional 5.0 
runs on the IBM PC and com- 
patibles with DOS 2.0 or 
higher, 384K bytes of RAM 
(512K bytes of RAM is re- 
quired for page-preview and 
outlining capabilities), and 
two floppy disk drives or a 
hard disk drive. A graphics 
board is required for page 
Price: $495. 

Contact: MicroPro Interna- 
tional Corp., Customer Ser- 
vice, 33 San Pablo Ave., 
P.O. Box 7079, San Rafael, 
CA 94901, (415) 499-1200 or 
(800) 227-5609. 
Inquiry 837. 

Can you afford the time to build your own LaserJet Fonts? 

Building your own fonts can be difficult and very time consuming. 
For Example: Building your own 24 point font could take as much as 59 
minutes of your and your computer's valuable time, and that's just one font! 
To get the same typeface in a different weight (regular, bold, italic, etc.) will 
take you almost another hour, again, and again, and again. 
Most business people simply can't afford that much time. Can you? 


are affordable pre-engineered, easy to use, downloadable fonts for your 
HP-LaserJet or compatible printer. Our soft fonts are tried and tested, there's 
no guess work. You know what you're going to get. Best of all, they are ready 
to use as soon as you open their exclusive "pop-up" storage box. 
MASTER FONTS are available in these typefaces: 

„ .. _. , For more information or to order call toll free: 

American Centum New ycrk 1 - 800 ■ merlin - o 

BlOCk MERLIN He\/L Use your Visa, MasterCard, AmEx or COD 




Point sizes range from 8 to 34 point and 50 point headline. All 
font packages include the typeface in regular, bold, italic and two 
distinctive weights, Shadow and Reverse Shadow. 


Over 50 fonts in a variety of sizes and weights, both landscape 
and portrait and includes FREE DOWNLOAD and DISPFONT 
font utility programs. All for 

only $149.95 

Smaller Paks available, starting at $79.95 

^?H 8 ]| 


1240 Johnson Ferry Place ♦ Suile A 10 ♦ Manetta. GA 30068 

'Because you really can 't afford to Build your own fonts ! 
This ad was produced using Merlin Master Fonts 

Dealer inquiries always welcome. 

Authorized Dysan Dealer. Distributing exclusively on Dysan certified diskettes. 
LaserJet is a registered trademark of Hewlett Packard 

88PC-4 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 

Circle 416 on Reader Service Card 


(vWNalion Wide Proteclion Plan) 


i 360K Floppy 

> 20 Meg Hard Disk 

' 640K Ram 

■ Serial/Parallel Port 

■ Monochrome Card 

■ Monochrome Monitor 


• 1.2 Meg Floppy 

• 40 Meg Hard Disk 

• 640K Ram 

• Serial/Parallel/C/C 

• 80286 CPU 

• Monochrome Monitor 

• Graphic Card 


• GW Basic 

In order to provide the best service, 
exclusively sold on location. 


• 80286 CPU 6-8 J2 MHz 
' 1.2 MEG Floppy 

■ 40 MEG Hard Disk 

■ DOS 3.2 Mono Monitor 
& Graphic Card 





QflQQC • 16/8/4.77 MHz switchable 

OUOOU • 8/16 MHz, no wait state (Upgradeable to 20 

• 1 parallel port, 1 serial port with c/c 

• Socketed lor optional math coprocessor 

• 8 layer motherboard/8 full expansion slots 

• High-resolution monochrome monitor. Hercules compatible. 

• 1.2MB (loppy drive 
■ 3 half-high internal device slots 

• 200 watt power supply/101 keyboard 

• FCC approved 

e c n p a i t s s s r j j £ a <, 
OnOOC • 10/6 MHz switchable 

16 MHz 
20 MHz 

■ or 1 wait state 

• 8 expansion slots to fill all of your expansion needs 

• 512K memory— High quality pre-tested chips (upgradable to ' 
MB on the motherboard.) 

• FREE amber monitor and Hercules 
compatible graphics card. 

• One high Quality floppy drive. 1.2 Meg 

• 200 Walt power supply/101 keyboard 

• AT style keyboard with 10 function keys 

• 1 parallel port with c/c battery backup 
» Slol for math co-processor 80287 

• FCC Class B approved. 

20 MHz 
12 MHz 


386 130 meg/20 MHz 6695 

286 40 meg 2395 

386 40 meg/16 MHz 4195 

386 60 meg/20 MHz 5650 

Portable III 40 meg/20 MHz 4195 


PS/2 model 30/20 meg 1775 

PS/2 model 50/20 meg 2595 

PS/2 model 60/40 meg 3250 

PS/2 model 60/71 meg 3995 

PS/2 model 80/40 meg 5100 



Toshiba 3200-40 3795 

Toshiba 3100-20 Call 

Toshiba 1000 Call 

NEC Multispeed 1395 

NEC Multispeed EL 1595 





Seagate 20 meg 305 

Seagate 30 meg 365 

Seagate 4096 80 meg 795 

Seagate 251 395 

Miniscribe Call 

Micropolis Call 


Microsoft Word 239 

Word Perfect 5.0 249 

Lotus 1-2-3 297 

dBase III+ 385 

Microsoft Works 119 


of the Month 

Microsoft Mouse . . .$109 

Microsoft Excel $309 

Aldus Pagemaker ...$479 


AST 386 model 340 4395 

AST 286 model 80 1745 

AST 286 model 120 Call 

AST 286 model 140 2695 




Epson FX850/1 050... $379/535 
Epson LQ850/1 050... $559/785 
Epson LQ500/2500... $359/895 
Epson LX800/EX800.. $199/445 


180D/15E $179/385 

MSP40/45 $299/439 

MSP50/55 $399/509 

Tribute 124/224 $529/679 

Overture Lazer $1459 

HP LASER Jet II .$1750 


3% charge on VISA, MC & 5% on American Express 


. ■ 

M-S 9-6 


1-800-526-3482 (outside ca> 

(818) 884-8644 (In CA) 
(818) 884-8253 (FAX) 



CA 91304 

Prices subject to change without notice 

Compaq is a Registered Trademark of Compaq 

IBM is a Registered Trademark of International Business Machines 

Circle 411 on Reader Service Card 

AUGUST 1988 'BYTE 88PC-5 

Circle 424 on Reader Service Card (DEALERS: 425) 


► The Frame Grabber 
that runs with any 
software, anytime. 

► Text/Graphics overlay on 
live video 

► EGA/CGA text/graphics 
overlay on captured still- 
frame video 

► T.V. quality images 

Software included: 

► Video Editor- cut/paste, 
paint program 

► Universal Interface Driver 

► Printer Drivers 

CALL (619) 587-2800 


10855 Sorrento Valley Road 
San Diego, CA 92121 



Important TIPS* for BYTE Subscribers: 
Receive Product Information 10 Days Earlier! 





John Sample 

All you need is a touch-tone telephone and your subscriber I.D. number. 

See instructions facing the Reader Service Index in the back 

of this issue for outrageous time-saving opportunities! 

*BYTE's Telephone Inquiry Processing Service 

88PC-6 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 



Quality, others promise, we deliver. The fact 
we've already delivered over 3,000,000 color 
monitors is the best proof. Tatung also makes 
a full line of computers and peripherals. Our 
reputation for superb quality is well known 
around the world. And we deliver complete 
after sales service to you. 

TCS 8000 



TCS 7000 

6, 8, 10, 12MHZ 

TCS 4000 (6/10MHZ) 




• CM 1322N 

• CM 1370A 

• CM 1380F 

• CM 1495 

640 X 200 
720 X 400 
640 X 350 
800 X 560 

MM 1222 
MM 1422 
MM 1295 

800 X 350 
800 X 350 
800 X 560 


H10 (AMBER) 





AT&T"" PCs 

14" Color Monitor 

RES: 800 x 560 


12" Mono Monitor 

RES: 800 x 560 






Circle 423 on Reader Service Card 



(fa TATUNG 408-435-0140 

^**>N ■ * * ■ %^ i m %^ 2060 RINGWOOD AVE.. SAN JO 



Circle 414 on Reader Service Card 


Give your PC complete virus 
protection. Our products 
provide the most powerful and ef- 
fective cures for computer viruses 
- and are simple to use. 

Our Products will diagnose and at- 
tack viruses, as well as shield 
your system from harm - and 
remain transparent. 

In addition, we attempt to search 
out and destroy those really tough 
viruses that are mailed to us. (This 
helps us maintain our software 
products so they are ready for any- 

thing). This service is free of 
charge to our software customers. 

Our products offer superior virus 
protection at low prices. Call 
today and we will ship your order 

Villarreal Consulting 
4633 Capitola Avenue 
San Jose, CA 95111-2624 
(408) 972-0179 


Continually diagnoses your disks 
and files and alerts the user when- 
ever an infection occurs. Not copy 
protected $49 


Protects your system from harm- 
ful virus actions and looks out for 
suspicious virul activities. Not 
copy protected $49 

Disk Examination Service 
Mail your disks suspected of in- 
fection to us. We will attempt to 
isolate and destroy the virus. 
There is no charge for unsuccess- 
ful attempts $19 


* Intel 80386 microprocessor 

* IM high speed memory installed 

* Expandable to 10 MB 

* Phoenix 386 BIOS or Award 386 BIOS 

* 4 speed (4.77/6/8/16 MHz} 

* 200W power supply 

* Case with re-set button 

* Enhanced keyboard 

* Hard disk/floppy disk controller card 

* 1.2M floppy disk drive 

* Monochrome/Graphics card 
with printer port 

* HI-RES Monochrome Monitor 

* User's manual 
+ 1 year warranty 

ALTEC-XT Turbo System 


* 8088-1 microprocessor 

* 4.77/10 MHz 

* 640K RAM 

* 150W power supply 

* AT style keyboard 

* Floppy controller card 

* 360K floppy disk drive 

* Monochrome/Graphics 
card with printer port 

* HI-RES Monochrome Monitor 

* Phoenix BIOS 

* User's manual 
■*■ 1 year warranty 

ALTEC-286 Enhanced System 




* Intel 80286-10 microprocessor 

* 640K RAM 

* Dual speed 6/10 MHz 

* 200W power supply 

* AT style case 

* Enhanced keyboard 

* Hard disk/floppy disk controller card 

* 1.2 M floppy disk drive 

* Monochrome/Graphics 
card with printer port 

* HI-RES Monochrome Monitor 

* Phoenix BIOS 

* User's manual 

* 1 year warranty 

___ — . __. 

/// i 

ALTEC-286jr System 

* Intel 80286-10 microprocessor 

* 640K RAM 

* 200W power supply 

* ATjr style case 

* AT style keyboard 

* Hard disk/floppy disk controlled 

* 1.2M floppy disk drive 
+ Monochrome/Graphics 

card with printer port 

* HI-RES Monochrome Monitor 

* User's manual 

* 1 year warranty 


Color System 

EGA System 

20 M hard disk 

40 M hard disk 

360K floppy disk drive 

720K3'A" floppy disk drive 

1.44M 3'A" floppy disk drive 



$235.00 (386 & 286) 5285,00 (XT) 

$405.00 (386 & 286) $465.00 (XT) 



S1 75.00 


ALTEC Technology Corporation 

5751 Rickenbacker Road, Los Angeles, CA 90040 
Tel: 1-213-888-9100 

Order Desk: 1-800-255-9971 

• Intel is registered trademark 
of Intel Corporation. 

■ Phoenix is registered trademark 
of Phoenix Technologies Ltd. 

* Award is registered trademark 
of Award Software Inc. 

■ AT is registered trademark of 
IBM Corporation. 

88PC-8 B Y T E • AUGUST 1988 

Circle 410 on Reader Service Card 


All the speed and power of a hardware-assisted 
debugger at a software price 

Hardware-level break points 

REAL-TIME break points on memory locations, memory ranges, 
execution, I/O ports, hardware and software interrupts. More 
powerful break points than ANY software-only debugger on the 
market. Soft-ICE gives you the power of an in-circuit emulator on 
your desk. 

Break out of hung programs 

With a keystroke - no external switch necessary, 
interrupts disabled. 

Even with 

Breaks the 640K barrier 

Soft-ICE uses ZERO bytes of memory in the first 1MB of address 
space. This is especially useful for those subtle bugs that change 
when the starting address of your code changes. With Soft-ICE 
your code executes at the same address whether the debugger is 
loaded or not. 

Works with your favorite debugger 

Soft-ICE can be used as a stand-alone debugger or it can add its 
powerful break points to the software debugger you already use. 
You can continue to use your favorite debugger until you require 
Soft-ICE. Simply pop up the Soft-ICE window to set powerful 
real-time break points. When a break point is reached, your 
debugger will be activated. 

Solve tough systems problems too 

Soft-ICE is ideal for debugging TSRs, interrupt handlers, self 
booting programs, DOS loadable device drivers, non-DOS 
operating systems, and debugging within DOS & BIOS. Soft-ICE 
is also great for firmware development because Soft-ICE's break 
points work in ROM. 

How Soft-ICE Works 

Soft-ICE uses the power of the 80386 to 
surround your program in a virtual 
machine. This gives you complete control 
of the DOS environment, while Soft-ICE 
runs safely in protected mode. Soft-ICE 
uses 80386 protected mode features, such 
as paging, I/O privilege level, and break 

Eoint registers, to provide real-time 
ardware-level break points. 


Soft-ICE is a product any MS-DOS 
developer serious enough to own a 
386 machine should have. " 
Dr. Dobb's Journal - May 1988 





CodeView is a great integrated debugger, but it 
uses over 200K of conventional memory. 
MagicCV uses advanced features of the 80386 
microprocessor to load CodeView and symbols 
in extended memory. This allows MagicCV to 
run CodeView using less than 8K of 
conventional memory on your 80386 PC. 

Don't let 640K be your limit! 

If you are closing in on the 640K limit and would 
like the power of CodeView, MagicCV is for 

Don't let the debugger hide the bug! 

Even if you're not closing in on the 640K limit, 
running CodeView with MagicCV makes your 
debugging environment much closer to the end 
user's program environment. You can use 
CodeView to locate subtle bugs that only occur 
when there is plenty of free memory, or those 
difficult bugs that only occur when your program 
is running with a couple of TSRs loaded. 

How MagicCV works 

MagicCV uses the 80386 to create a separate 
virtual machine for CodeView. MagicCV uses 
between 4K & 8K of conventional memory as a 
bridge between the DOS environment and 

MagicCV is easy to use 

If you are a CodeView user, you already know 
how to use MagicCV too. Just type MCV 
instead of CV; everything else is automatic. 


Save $86 

MagicCV $199 

Soft-ICE $386 

Buy Both and Save $86 


(603) 888 - 2386 

30 day money-back guarantee 
Visa and Master Card accepted 


PO Box 7607 
Nashua, NH 03060-7607 

Both require 80386 AT compatible or IBM PS/2 Model 80. 

MagicCV requires at least 384K of extended memory. 

CodeView is a trademark of Microsoft Corporation. 



MagicCV with Soft-ICE 

Using Soft-ICE with 
CodeView gives you the 
features necessary for 
professional level systems 
debugging. MagicCV 
and Soft-ICE can work in 
concert with CodeView 
to provide the most 
powerful debugging 
platform you will find 
anywhere. As an extra 
bonus, by ordering both 
MagicCV and Soft-ICE 
together you save $86. 

Circle 418 on Reader Service Card 

AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 88PC-9 

Buy with 


In an effort to make your 
telephone purchasing a more 
successful and pleasurable 
activity, The Microcomputer 
Marketing Council of the 
Direct Marketing Association, 
Inc. offers this advice, "A 
knowledgeable buyer will be a 
successful buyer." These are 
specific facts you should know 
about the prospective seller 
before placing an order: 

Ask These Important 

• How long has the company 
been in business? 

• Does the company offer 
technical assistance? 

• Is there a service facility ? 

• Are manufacturer's warran- 
ties handled through the 

• Does the seller have formal 
return and refund policies? 

• Is there an additional charge 
for use of credit cards? 

'Are credit card charges held 
until time of shipment? 

• What are shipping costs for 
items ordered? 

Reputable computer dealers 
will answer all these questions 
to your satisfaction. Don't 
settle for less when buying your 
computer hardware, software, 
peripherals and supplies. 

Purchasing Guidelines 

• State as completely and ac- 
curately as you can what 
merchandise you want in- 
cluding brand name, model 
number, catalog number. 

• Establish that the item is in 
stock and confirm shipping 

• Confirm that the price is as 
advertised ■ 

• Obtain an order number 
and identification of the 
sales representative. 

Make a record of your 
order, noting exact price in- 
cluding shipping, date of 
order, promised shipping 
date and order number. 

If you ever have a problem, 
remember to deal first with the 
seller. If you cannot resolve the 
problem, write to MAIL 
DMA, 6 E. 43rd St., New York, 
NY 10017. 

This message is brought to you 



of the Direct Marketing 

Association, Inc. 

6 E. 43rd St., 

New York, NY 10017 



of the Direct Marketing Association, Inc. 

|R Direct Marketing Association, Inc. 1988 
88PC-10 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 


Ij /i ; «ii 







(0 WS) 


Mono System 
EGA System 






Basic System Features: 

80286-16 bit CPU, 80287 socket, 51 2K RAM ex- 
pandable to 1 MB, fully compatible AMI BIOS, 1 .2Mb 
Floppy Disk Drive, combined floppy/hard disk 
controller, Keytronics 101 enhanced keyboard, 
clock/calendar with battery backup, 1 95 watt power 
supply, 48 hour burn-in testing, operations manual, 
one year limited warranty and optional on-site 
maintenance agreement. 


20Mb Mono Special $1199 

Basic System features plus: Monographics board 
with printer port, Samsung 1 2" amber mono monitor 
and Seagate 20Mb hard drive. 


20Mb EGA Special $1569 

Basic System features plus: Everex EGA graphics 
board, Mitsubishi 1410-C or Evervision EGA color 
monitor and Seagate 20Mb hard drive. 


20Mb VGA Special $1849 

Basic System features plus: Everex EVGA graphics 
board ( 640 x 480, 800 x 600, up to 256 colors ), 
Mitsubishi Diamond Scan multisync color monitor and 
Seagate 20Mb hard drive. 



20Mb EGA Special.... 

Basic System features plus: Monographics board with 
printer port, Evervision 14" flat screen amber mono 
monitor and Seagate 20Mb hard drive. 
Upgrade to 40Mb Seagate hard drive, Add $160 
Upgrade to 80Mb Seagate hard drive, Add $500 

EGA Bundle $459 

Everex EGA autoswitch graphics board and 

Evervision EGA color monitor. 

Super EGA Bundle $629 

Everex EGA Deluxe autoswitch graphics board 
(640x480, 752x410), and Mitsubishi 1371-A 
Diamond Scan multisync color monitor. 

Super VGA Bundle $769 

Everex EVGA graphics board ( 640x480, 800x600, 
up to 256 colors ) and Mitsubishi 1371-A Diamond 
Scan multisync color monitor 

Hard Disk Specials ( for PC ) 

Seagate ST225 20Mb + Controller $265 

Seagate ST125 20Mb + Controller $329 

Seagate ST238 30Mb + Controller $289 

Seagate ST251 40Mb + Controller $449 

Hard Disk Specials ( for AT ) 

Seagate ST125 20Mb (40ms) $269 

Seagate ST138 30Mb (40ms) $339 

Seagate ST251 40Mb (40ms) $369 

Seagate ST251-1 40Mb (28ms) $429 

Seagate 4096 80Mb ( 28ms ) $729 

Micropolis 1335 71 Mb (28ms) $599 

Everex Modems 

Everex Evercom external and internal half-card 
modems ( fully Hayes compatible ) with Bitcom 
Communications software. 

Internal 1200 Baud Modem SCALL 

External 1200 Baud Pocket Modem $139 

Internal 2400 Baud Modem $149 

External 2400 Baud with Mini I/O $229 

Misc. Specials 

Mini I/O ( PAR, SER, CLK, CAL ) $49 

Mini I/O with Game Port $55 

Mini I/O + Logitech C7 serial mouse $119 

Mitsubishi 3.5" 720K floppy drive $99 

Mitsubishi 3.5" 1.4Mb floppy drive $129 

150 Watt Power Supply $49 

200 Watt Power Supply $79 

2Mb EMS memory board with OK $80 

3Mb EMS memory board with OK $99 

'Special Prices valid only through 8/31/88 

Seagate, Samsung. Miniscribe. Everex, Mitsubishi. Hayes, Micropolis, Bitcom, 
Logitech, ere trademarks or registered trademarks ot their respective companes. 
SFmicro4.2 6n4iS8 

san F . .. irion** " 

ca tttori*» ( 

«!° rn,a "oQ-1505 
, ona tOraerOesH ■» g»1*» 

notice- W e 

Circle 422 on Reader Service Card 

lUGUST 1988 -BYTE 88PC-11 

OutpuK<V4f 70,0X3^ 

,/* SET MODE 2C 




More Digital Equipment users will make more DEC com- 
puting decisions at DEXPO West than at any other event 
in the world. You'll do more to achieve maximum pro- 
ductivity from your DEC system in just three days than 
you'll do in the other 362 days of the year. 

Compare 1 5,000 products, side by side. Save time and 
money when you evaluate all of your options, firsthand. 
Talk to hundreds of product specialists. They've all got 
solutions — find out who's got 
the best. 

• More VAX, MicroVAX, and 
PDP-11 enhancements .than 
any other show — ever! 

"Apple-DEC Connection" 
features 50 Mac-to-VAX exhibits. 

• Hands-on instruction & expert 
advice— direct from 350 leading 
product developers. 

• Communication products to 
integrate multi-vendor systems. 

88PC-12 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 

DECUS' Attendees: DEXPO West Is Free and Easy 

DECUS Symposia attendees are admitted FREE to 
DEXPO West. (DECUS is not affiliated with DEXPO and 
requires separate registration). 

Call Today for Free Show Preview & VIP Tickets 

Call 800-628-81 85 right away, and you'll receive special 

money-saving show tickets. Plus, get a preview of 100 

products on exhibit at DEXPO West 88— a small sample 

of all you'll see when you attend. 


West 88 

The World's Largest DEC Computing Exposition 

Disneyland Hotel 
Anaheim, CA 
October 18-20, 1988 

■fi 1 1 


Coll between 8:30 a.m. and 
5:30 p.m., Eastern Time [in New 
Jersey, call (609)'9B7-9400). 

Organized by: 

Expoconsul International, Inc.. 
3 Independence Way, 
Princeton, NJ 08540 

■Registered trademark ol Digital Equipment Corporation 
DECUS is not sponsored by or attiliated with DEXPO. 

More Than A Computer Store 

Authorized Dealer! 



Call for our Low Prices 


13 286/386 

m*% System 
"r^^S a. In Stock 

512 RAM, 
1.2 Floppy, 40 MB HD 

Also in Stock: 
WYSE Terminals 

Call for Best Price! 




In Stock 

Flat Screen Monitor ^ ..1_._-. 


Toshiba 1000 $749 

Toshiba 1200 $2395 

Toshiba 3100/20 $3099 

Toshiba 3200 CALL 

Toshiba 5100 CALL 


NEC Multispeed EL $1595 



512 RAM, 

1 .2 Floppy, ^~-~~*l2 
40 MB HD, Hi-Res 
Mono Card, DOS 3.2, 
GW Basic 


386 Model Also in Stock 




512K Memory, 20MB HD, 
6/1 Wait State 

In Stock Now 


For Lowest Prices! 

Software & Printer 

WordPerfect $194 

Microsoft Word $209 

Lotus $305 

Epson LX800 $209 

Epson EX800/1 000 $415/519 

Epson LQ800/1 000 $315/519 

Epson LQ500/2500 $349/899 

Epson LQ 850/1050 $549/749/729 

NEC P6/P7/2200 $492/645/379 

Toshiba P321 SL/P351 SL . IN STOCK 

HP Laser Jet Series 2 CALL! 

Ast Turbolaser P/S $3250 

NEC 890 with PS $3195 

Authorized Repair and Service Center. Fast 
Turnaround. Call for Service Contract Information. 


"More than a computer store" 

Pleasant Hill: San Francisco: Mountain View: 

(415) 682-TOWN (415) 956-TOWN (415) 962-TOWN 
(415) 682-8696 FAX (415) 989-8696 FAX (415) 969-8696 

1527 Contra Costa Blvd. 
Pleasant Hill CA 94523 

Phelan Bldg. #219 760 Market Street 
San Francisco CA 94108 

2455 Old Middle Field Way 
Mountain View CA 94043 

Authorized Dealer for Novell, Epson, AST, Samsung, Zenith, Toshiba, Autocad, AT&T, Leading Edge, Okidata, 
NEC, Canon, HAYES, Ashton Tate, Universal Data Systems, Microsoft, Ventura & Aldus. Call for our Low Prices! 

Prices subject to change. Not resposible for typographic errors. 

Circle 412 on Reader Service Card 

AUGUST 1988 'BYTE 88PC-13 

Dealers Call For Complete Confidential Price List I 

New Reduced Prices 

__ mm 


= = =ZT3 

. — 

PS II Model 25 Mono/Color . 


PS II M.25 Mono/Color + 20MB$1395/1650 

PS II Model 30 2DR. + 20MB 

. "$1595" 

PS II Model 30-002/021 .... 


PS II Model 50-021 


PS II Model 60-44MB/70MB/ 


"PS II Model 80-115 20MHZ 

. ..$6095" 

PS II Model 80-44MB/70MB.' 


AT 339 (8MHZ, 512K, 30MB) 

...In Stock 

AT 068 (6MHZ, 256K) 


PC/XT 2DR. 256K 


Mono. Disp. 8503/XT Style . . 


Color Display 8512 


EGA Disp. 8513/XT Style .... 


Ext. Drive F/PS2 (5%) 


Pro Printer ll/XL 


Pro Printer X24/XL24 

. . *$519/675 

Quit Writer ll/lll 


IBM DOS 3.3 (min. 5) 


NEW IBM 50 & 70's IN STOCK. 

'Quantity Discount Available* 





20MB/30MB W/Controller .... 


30MB/40MB (4038/4051) .... 

.. $385/450 

40MB (ST251)/40MB (4053) . . 

. . *$349/449 

80MB (4096)/80MB (277R) . . 

. *$649/445 


40MB (3650)/40MB (3053) . . 

. . . -319/535 

40MB (6053) Full Height.... 


80MB Full Height (6085) .... 



20MB/30MB for XT 

.. .345/399 

40MB Card F/XT 40MSC .... 


20MB/30MB For PS/2 

.. .399/435 




COMPAQ Portable 20MB .... 


COMPAQ 40/60MB F/DP386 . . 


10/20MB IBM Hard Disk 


130MB Compaq Hard Disk 


com pah* 


386/20 MHZ 60 MB HD 


386/20 MHZ 130 MB HD 


"386/20 MHZ 300 MB HD . . . 


386 40MB 16MHZ Factory .... 


386 130MB 16MHZ Factory . . 


286 Model 1 


286 640K, 20MB/40MB HD . . . 


286 Model 40 (Factory) 


Deskpro 2DR. 256K/20MB .... 



"New Portable 386/40MB . . . 

. *5395 

"New Portable 386/100MB . . . 


II Model 4 (Factory/Upgrade) . . 


II Model 2 2DR., 256K (80286) 


***lll Model 40MB** 


***lll Model 20MB" 


Compaq Amber/Green Monitor 


Compaq Color/VGA Monitor. . . 


Compaq EGA/VGA Adapter . . . 


C. DOS 3.3/3.2/3.1 


Call on Memory and Other Compaq Products 

"Quantity Discounts Available" 

Dealers & Consultants Only 

Corporate & Retail Customers Call For Quotes 



8087-3 XT/80287-6 AT "$99/160 

8087-2 XT/80287-8 AT $145/249 

80287-10 AT 10MHZ $289 

80387-16 for 80386 $455 

80387-20 Base Systems $725 


182/182S 120CPS, 30nlq . . . .$239/279 
192 + /193+ 200CPS, 40nlq .$329/419 
292E/293E 200cps, 100nlq . .$359/489 
393/393 Color 450 cps ... .$945/1029 

ML294/ML2410 $737/1695 

Lazer Line 6 $1299 

10 MB. Inter/External $255/379 

20 MB. Inter./External $299/399 

40 MB. Inter./External $379/535 

Call for PS/2 Tape Back Up Units 
Call for Archive, Tecmar, Sysgen 


321SL/341SL (216CPS) $465/645 

351-SX/351-2 Color $995/1019 

Toshiba T1000/T1100 $749/1450 

T1200/T3120 $2295/2950 

T3200/T5100 $3595/4495 

Toshiba Modem/Compatible . .$279/249 


Laser Series II Very Low 

•DeskJet New 250 CPS $669 

1MB F/HP II Compat/HP . . . .$329/369 
2MB F/HP II Compat/HP . . . .$629/669 

HP Plotter 7475A $1395 

HP Scanjet Scanner w/lnt *$1195 

Multispeed EL/HD $1455/2299 

Multisync ll/Plus+ $579/875 

Multisync XL 20+ $1995 

LC860 + /LC890 $1899/3195 

P760/P2200 $599/333 

"LOTUS 1-2-3 - $289** 




4742 Woodman Avenue 
Sherman Oaks, CA. 91423 
(818) 905-0994, (213) 859-3410 
FAX # (818) 905-8869 

American Kxprcss 


One stop shopping for dealers & consultants 

STB MULT/F CARD (OK) $49 MODEM 1200/2400 BAUD . .$69/95 

DC 1000 TAPES $7 IBM MONO/CLR/EGA .$79/145/325 

INTEL 8087-3 $79 INTERDYNE T.B.U. 10/20MB $75/95 


88PC-14 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 

Circle 413 on Reader Service Card 










SUPPRESION BAR6--1 $19.95 

6 OUTLETS < r ;i3->-» i: 

W/ 6' FT. CORD ( =f*«&fc*3/« 

12 @ 14.50 24 @ 12.25 

fa, A 

Knapco UPS Systems 



THE PERFECT UPS by f |" 7* 

tt* nr *r* $ 999 - RETAIL 
$000. DEALER 



Tiue On-Line UPS designed for micro 
and mini power supplies. SINEWAVE 
output. Fits between CPU and CRT 
Only 20 Lbs. Size 1.9"H.x 15.8"Wx15" 






2.2" I IIGI I 24-28 I.BS. RS-232 PORT FOR NOVELL 


UPSC 525 $995. $645. 

UPSC10O1 $1595. $1045. 


it works... . pouch same* 
UPSC 200+ 200 WATT $249; 

RETAIL $499. 

UPSC 350 350 WATT $279. 

RETAIL $799. 

UPSC 550 550 WATT $379. 

RETAIL $899. 

UPSC 800 800 WATT $599. 

RETAIL $999. 

UPSC 1000 WATT $699. 

Made In USA -option 220V. sohz. UPSE200 $359. 

Modified Wave Fotm output 220W. sohz. upse 350 $399. 
2 Ms. Transfer Time onnsv. bohz. upse sso $499. 
RFI And Spike Protection upseiooo $799. 

All Models w/ Internal Gell Cells, Unconditional 1 Year 
Warranty 4 Outlets, Brown-Out, Black-Out Protection 

for computers 

P€RMAPOW€R' end 


■ UPS-equivalem protection at a fraction of the cos! 

• Guard data and equipment from errors and damage 
caused by power line problems 

• Responds in under 1 millisecond to blackout, over- 
voltages, undervoltages. power fluctuations, to provide | 
stable 120V power 

• Built-in surge suppressor easily handles Ihe abuse 
of repetitive surges 

■ Filters oul RFI/EMI noise ■ UL listed 
lomanc overload sensor 

■ Phase-synchronized transfer and automatic reset 



Surge suppressors 

IEEE Standard 587 

Rejection 120/60dB. 

4 Outlets, 6ft. Cord 

Regulation *3% 

Retail Dealer 


150 Va. 
300 Va. 
450 Va. 
600 Va. 
1200 Va. 


$ 99. 







TVR3000 *•*"— * $395. 



STEP UP/DOWN 110v.-220v. 

300 WATT 

500 WATT 

1300 WATT 

*2000 WATT 

"3000 WATT 

*Select Voltage 


$ 39 
$ 59 
$ 85 

100/11 0/1 20v. 




1 <fc 10 OR 12® $10-95 
1 ■}> l^./O 34gi $8. 95 J 

SPS-500 LIST $799 DEALER $549. 











330 XT $399. $259. 


450 AT $599. $389. 


520 ES $699. $449. 


800 RT $1099. $709. 


1200 VX $1399. $905. 

1to2 Ms. transfer time, compact, quality engineered, . 
runs diagnostics, RS232 port, prevents surges, sags, spikes, noise & interference 

LAN's Best friend 

OR 813-449-0019 
FAX 813-449-0701 



Circle 415 on Reader Service Card 

AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 88PC-15 



SYSTEM 386/20 

f 20, 10, 6.7 MHz 



• Fully compatible with the IBM' PC/AT™ 

• Intel' 80386 microprocessor, running at sp- 
and 8 MH: on the 386/16) 

• Speed-selectable by keyboard, software or Iront-panel switch 

• The bus operates at 10 or 6.7 MHz 

« The machine uses write-back cache memory (64K, 128K or 256K of 25 ns static RAM) 

• Socket (or an 80387 math coprocessor option, running synchronously at 20, 10 or 6.7 MHz. (16 
and 8 MHz on the 386/16) 

• 1 Megabyte DRAM expandable to 8 Megabytes on the system board (120 ns DRAMs, 256 Kb or 
1 Mb) 

• Front panel LEDs for power-on, disk access and speed indication 

• Alpha-numeric realtime diagnostic display (8-digit) 

• 1.2 MB floppy diskette drive 

• Six 16-bit and two 8-bit bus expansion slots 

• One 32-bit memory expansion slot 
■ Special Everex very high performance (1:1 interleave) hard disk/floppy combination controller 

• Front access to up 6 to 5 half-height mass storage devices 

• Enhanced 101-key keyboard 

• System clock/calendar/configuration data in CMOS RAM with battery backup 

• Everex enhanced BIOS 

• Easy-to-use SETUP utility in ROM, supports over 45 drive types 

• BIOS supports 3.5" 7270K diskette drives 

• Front panel keylock to disable keyboard 

• Front access reset switch 

• Speaker enable/disable switch 

• Complete, easy to follow user manual 

• UL listed power supply; switchable 120240 VAC 




The Everex System 386 has been evaluated by XXCAL, an 
independent third-party lestmci house. The test objective, as 
steted in XXCALs report of February 16. 1938. was "to reveal 
any problems or inconsistencies relative to a selected group cf 
□fi-the-shelf commercial software.', networks, and peripheral 
products." on the Everex System 386. XXCAL's technicians 
"'installed each application per documentation.. |then| tested all 
functions, commands, and options directly related to a 
successful and thorough test o! the product," 


Based on in how te 




Ut Syslur, 

5 Divis.on 

Comp'jler Syiteir, 



S. AdrtlttW 





Compaq ueskpro 156 ?J 



Euro Sup 3B6/1E 




Enrii Slap 28S/16 




AST premium 366 2& 




Acer 3S6 16 




Compaq Deikpro 3H6 16 




IBM PS 2 Model 60. IBM 


E«ra. Slap 286/12 




AST PflHtiia« 266 !C 



Compaq Dcskprc 266 12 


IBM PS 2 Models EC, EC 





With a 3F 286 or 386 computer, you can do desktop 
publishing, word processing, process control, 
networking, database applications, accounting 
spreadsheets, inventory control, circuit design, 
computer aided design engineering and manufac- 
turing, and architectural design — the list goes on! 

These computers will also run with OS/2, MS OS/2, 
Lotus 123, Dbase III, Unix, Xenix, Informix, 
AutoCAD, Smarttalk, Q&A, Sidekick, Gem, 
Turbo Pascal, Multimate, Word, Wordperfect, 
Wordstar, Ventura, Novell Netware 286, IRMA board. 
Modems, Bernoulli boxes. Network Cards 


3F 286 System 

• 80286 CPU • 6/8/10 Keyboard 

• 1 .2MB Floppy Selectable 

• 51 2K Memory • 195 Watt Power Supply 

• 101 Keyboard • Optional 80287 Socket 

• FL/HD Controller • FCC UL Approved 

8MHz T Wail Slate 80286 Mono System $990 

10MHz T Wail State 80286 Mono System $1239 

10MHz '0' Wait Stale 80286 Mono System $1339 

12MHz '0' Wait State 80286 Mono System $1575 

For an EGA System add $350 

3F 386 System 

• 80386 CPU • FL/HD Controller 

• 1.2MB Floppy • 64K Cache 

• 1MB Memory • 16MHz CPU '0' Wait State 

• 101 Keyboard • 195 Watt Power Supply 

16MHz V Wail Stale 80386 Mono System $1975 

For an EGA System $2299 

Hard Disk add on for above Systems: 

20MB 65ms $249 

40MB 39ms $399 

80MB 28ms $710 

144MB 16.5ms $1995 


Call Us For Full Line of EVEREX 
Peripheral Products. 

We Also Carry Hard/Floppy 
Drives, Monitors, Printers, 
Motherboards and 
All Major Software. 

3F Associates, Inc. 
44100 Old Warm Springs 
Fremont, CA 94538 

(415) 659-0403 
FAX (415) 651-9190 

88PC-16 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 

Circle 409 on Reader Service Card 

Short Takes 

BYTE editors offer hands-on views of new products 

Dell System 220 

T-DebugPLUS 4.0 

Z88 Portable 


Watcom C 6.0 

Paradox OS/2 

Dell Machine Sets 80286 Speed Records 

You can sum up the new 
Dell System 220 in three 
words: small, powerful, and 
affordable. The new unit is 
one of the smallest desktop 
systems around, as well as the 
fastest 80286-based system 
available. And at $1799, 
including a video graphics 
array (VGA) monochrome 
monitor, it is easily the best 
ond-per-dollar value on the 

The new system owes its 
prowess to a new 20-MHz 
CMOS 80286 processor, cur- 
rently available only from 
Harris, and a high-speed chip- 
set from Chips & Technol- 
ogies that saves plenty of board 

The System 220' s small 
size— it takes up about as 
much space as a briefcase — 
can be misleading. Inside, 
there are three IBM PC AT- 
-compatible expansion slots, 
laid horizontally front to back. 
There are also sockets for up to 
8 megabytes of fast 80-nano- 
second memory, a socket for 
an 80287 math coprocessor, 
two serial ports and a printer 
port, and space for a number 


Dell System 220 


$1799 with one floppy disk 

MS-DOS 3.3 with cache 

drive and VGA 

and disk utilities, $119.95. 

monochrome monitor; 

1 megabyte of RAM, $500. 

$1999 with color monitor; 

100-megabyte drive, $1700. 

$2699 with 40-megabyte 

hard disk drive and color 

Dell Computer Corp. 

VGA monitor 

9505 Arboretum Blvd. 

Austin, TX 78759 


Inquiry 851. 

of hard disk options. 

My preproduction unit 
came with a lively 29-milli- 
second 40-megabyte hard disk 
drive and two 1 .44-megabyte 
floppy disk drives. Inside was 
an 80287 and a megabyte of 
memory. The system also 
came with a Mitsubishi color 
VGA monitor. In normal use, 
the Dell System 220 seemed 
immensely faster than my 
usual 6-MHz AT clone with a 
20-megabyte drive. Also, 
both the floppy and the hard 
disk drives on the 220 were 
surprisingly quiet. My im- 
pression of the 220 's speed 
was backed up by our bench- 
marks, which rated the 220 at 
about 1 percent faster than an 
IBM Model 80. 

With all its features, the 
only thing the 220 might pos- 
sibly lack is an 80386 proces- 
sor. This could become a fac- 
tor in the future, when an 
80386 with a 32-bit memory 
bus might be required for cer- 
tain high-performance soft- 
ware . But the 220 also lacks an 
80386 machine's high price 
tag. And for the foreseeable 
future, the 220 will probably 
be the best number-crunching 
bargain on the market. 

—Rich Matloy 

Squash Those 

Whenever you write a pro- 
gram that does more 
than print "Hello World" on 
the screen, you're likely to run 
into bugs. When you have to 
squash those bugs, a good 
symbolic debugger like 
T-DebugPLUS 4.0 for Turbo 
Pascal 4.0 can make your life 
much easier. 

Add-on programs for the 

Turbo Pascal environment 

have always found themselves 


AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 89 


in something of a quandary, 
since one of the main strengths 
of Turbo Pascal is its in- 
tegrated set of editing, de- 
velopment, and debugging 
tools. To convince users to 
turn away from one of the 
Turbo tools, a product has to 
be pretty impressive. I think 
this debugger could turn a few 

T-DebugPLUS begins by 
offering features found in 
most symbolic debuggers. 
You can examine and alter 
variables using the names you 
gave them (instead of ad- 
dresses), set permanent and 
conditional breakpoints, set 
watchpoints, and single- or 
multiple-step through a pro- 
gram. In addition, T-Debug- 
PLUS lets you open watch win- 
dows on up to 8 variables at a 
time ( 1 2 at a time with EGA or 
VGA graphics), switch be- 
tween debug and output 

screens, switch between 
source code and assembly 
code views, and make use of 
expanded memory specifica- 
tion or extended memory to 
debug larger programs. 

The instruction set in T- 
DebugPLUS is mnemonic to a 
good extent, and commands 
can be chained together in 
macros. Both when I worked 
through the example code pro- 
vided with the package and 
when I used it on larger pro- 
grams, I found that the fea- 
tures of the package were easy 
to learn and use, so that I was 
able to really use the software 
after a short time. 

T-DebugPLUS comes with 
an installation program that 
patches TPC.EXE, TPMAP.EXE, 
and TURB0.EXE so that all will 
support local symbols. The 
patched versions of the pro- 
grams create TPU and TPM 
files that are twice as large as 

those created by unpatched 
versions, but are otherwise 
compatible with normal 
Turbo Pascal files. 

Using T-DebugPLUS is a 
simple matter. You compile 
your code to an .EXEfile, using 
the /$T+ command-line option 
of TPC.EXE or by setting the 
"Turbo Pascal map file" op- 
tion to On in TURB0.EXE. 

After compilation, you 
must exit to DOS and run T- 
DebugPLUS as a separate pro- 
gram to debug your code .This 
marks a change from earlier 
versions of T-Debug, which 
ran as a part of the integrated 
Turbo Pascal environment. 
According to TurboPower 
Software, the change was 
made because of the increased 
memory requirements of 
Turbo Pascal 4.0. 

Though the new version of 
T-DebugPLUS does not fit 
into the Turbo environment as 

seamlessly as older versions, I 
found it to be a valuable, easy- 
to-use tool in debugging pro- 
grams. Given the price and 
utility of the package, the 
slight increase in inconve- 
nience is most forgivable. 

— Curtis Franklin Jr. 


T-DebugPLUS 4.0 
$45; with source code, 

IBM PC, XT, AT, PS/2, 
or compatible with 
at least 256K bytes 
of RAM. 

TurboPower Software 
P.O. Box 66747 
Scotts Valley, CA 95066 
(415) 322-3417 
Inquiry 852. 

A Z88 Portable 
to Go 

The Cambridge Com- 
puter Z88 is a laptop por- 
table that weighs less than 2 
pounds and is scarcely larger 
than a copy of BYTE. Achiev- 
ing this compact size involved 
compromises: the Z88 has no 
disk drives but uses RAM for 
mass storage; it has only an 8- 
line liquid crystal display 
rather than a 25-line one; and 
it's not IBM PC -compatible 
but comes with a complete 
suite of applications software 
in ROM , like the Tandy Model 

The processor is a CMOS 
Z80 with 32K bytes of internal 
RAM and 128K bytes of 
ROM. The 9-pin serial port 
works at speeds up to 38,400 
bps. Power is supplied by four 
Walkman-size disposable dry 
cells that last about 20 hours. 
There are three slots at the 
front for memory cartridges. 

My test machine came with 
128K bytes of extra RAM and 
128K bytes of EPROM. A 
built-in PROM programmer 
lets you use the EPROM as 

i n 

1 I » 



W " 

^— iMiiM— ■ fe. 


m o • 

" ^1 



Cambridge Computer 
Z88 Portable Computer 

SSI Computer System Inc. 
424 Cumberland Ave. 
Portland, ME 04101 
Inquiry 853. 


32K-byte EPROM cartridge, 
EPROM cartridge, $1 10; 
PC Link software and 
cable, $75; serial printer 
cable, $14; parallel printer 
cable, $65; modem, $225. 

nonvolatile, write-once mem- 
ory for semipermanent data 
like address lists; an optional 
ultraviolet eraser lets you re- 
use EPROM pack s . 5 1 2K-by te 
RAM cartridges will be ship- 
ping soon, allowing up to 1.5 
megabytes of RAM. The com- 
pany is also promising 1- 
megabyte cartridges soon. 

The keyboard is molded 
from a single sheet of black 
rubber and looks like a choco- 
late bar. Recent history has 
given rubber keyboards a bad 
name, but this one is different. 
It has a surprisingly positive 
action, and you can quickly 
begin to touch-type on it. The 
64-key layout is of standard 
typewriter pitch, with a full- 
size space bar and four cursor 

The display is a supertwist 
LCD with dark blue charac- 
ters on pale yellow. It shows 8 
lines of 100 characters; the 
middle 80 are used for text, 
and each side is reserved for 
menus and indicators. It's 
deeply recessed to avoid dam- 
age, and the top edge throws a 
shadow that hinders viewing 
in some lightings. 


90 BYTE' AUGUST 1988 




':■ ■ ■ . ^ MBSWB 




BO: 8.304 SE: 1.1173 T: 7.4321 
Bl: 1.0655E-3 SE: 7.4902E-4 T: 1.4225 
CORR: 0.24036 MSE: 20.691 DF: 33 

Select the points you want to remove from your 
regression model. . . 

. . . Then press F6 to refit the model and 
recalculate the statistics. 

Because "Statistical Graphics" 
Is Better Than Just Statistics and Graphics 

Most of today's PC statistical 
packages give you all the 
statistics you'll ever need. Some 
even give you a few graphics. But 
gives you integrated statistical 
graphics in an environment you 

Unique "What If" Interactivity 

STATGRAPHICS lets you explore 
data relationships fully, 
producing higher quality, more 
timely solutions. Define your data 
and assumptions, run the 
procedure and review the results, 
modify data and assumptions 
repeatedly and take another 
look— and another. All without 
leaving the procedure or making 
permanent changes to your data. 

Integrated Statistical Graphics Over 250 Statistical Procedures 

Coupled with STATGRAPHICS' 
interactive environment are over 
50 types of graphs— traditional 
pie and bar charts, histograms, 
3-D line and surface plots, quality 
control charts, and more. All are 
integrated with the procedures 
so that they can be displayed 
instantly and modified 

Query data points, do on-screen 
forecasting and model fitting, 
overlay graphs, or zoom-in on any 
area for a closer look. With 
flexibility like that, you can spot 
and investigate visual trends in 
your data— trends you may have 
missed if you looked only at the 

• Direct Lotus® and dBASP 

• ANOVA and regression analysis 

• Experimental design 

• Quality control procedures 

• Multivariate techniques 

• Nonparametric methods 

• Exploratory data analysis 

• Forecasting, time series 
analysis, and more. 


The Best Way to Do Statistics! 

Put the power of STATGRAPHICS 
to work for you today— all for only 
$895*. For our free convincer kit or 
the name of a dealer near you, call 

(800) 592-0050 ext. 400 

In Maryland, (301) 984-5123; 
Internationally, (301) 984-5412. 
Telex 898085 STSC ROVE 


STSC, Inc. 

2115 East Jefferson Street 

Rockville, Maryland 20852 

A wide variety of graphs supported on over 100 displays, printers and 
plotters, including the new IBM PS/2™ Series. 

Circle 226 on Reader Service Card 

'Suggested retail price in U.S. and Canada. 
International prices vary. Available through 
dealers and distributors worldwide. 
STATGRAPHICS, Lotus, and dBASE are 
registered trademarks of Statistical Graphics 
Corporation, Lotus Development Corporation, 
and AshtonTate, respectively. 

AUGUST 1988 'BYTE 91 



Service Diagnostics 

All the software, alignment diskettes, parallel/serial wrap-around 
plugs, ROM POSTs and extensive, professional documentation to 
provide the most comprehensive testing available for IBM PCs, 
XTs.ATs and all compatibles under DOS or Stand Alone. No other 
diagnostics offers such in-depth testing on as many different types of 
equipment by isolating problems to the board and chip level. 

NEW: SuperSoft's ROM POST performs the most advanced 
Power-on-Self-Test available for system boards that are compatible 
with the IBM ROM BIOS. It works even in circumstances when the 
Service Diagnostics diskette cannot be loaded. 

NEW: 386 diagnostics for hybrids and PS/2s! 
For over nine years, major manufacturers have been relying on 
SuperSoft's diagnostics software to help them and their customers 
repair microcomputers. End users have been relying on SuperSoft's 
Diagnostics II for the most thorough hardware error isolation 
available. Now versions of Service Diagnostics are available to save 
everyone (including every serious repair technician) time, money, 
and headaches in fixing their computers, even non-IBM equipment. 

All CPUs & Numeric Co-processors 
System Expansion & Extended Memory 
Floppy, Fixed & Non-standard Disk Drives 
Standard & Non-standard Printers 
System Board: DMA, Timers, Interrupt, 
Real-time Clock & CMOS config. RAM 

All Color Graphics & Monochrome 

Parallels. Serial Ports 
Mono, CGA, Hercules & EGA 

All Keyboards & the 8042 Controller 

Join the ranks of XEROX, NCR, CDC, SONY, PRIME, ...who have 
bundled SuperSoft's diagnostics with their microcomputers at no risk 
because of our 30 day money back guarantee. 

Service Diagnostics for PC, PC/XT, and compatibles only $169 

Alignment Diskette lor PC, PC/XT and compatibles (48 tpi drives) $ 50 

Wrap-around Plug for PC. PC/XT and compatibles (parallel and serial) $ 30 

Service Diagnostics lor ATand compatibles only $169 

Alignment Diskette for AT and compatibles (96 tpi drives) $50 

Wrap-around Plug for AT (serial) $ 15 

ROM POST for PC, PC/XT, and compatiblesonly $245 

ROM POST for ATand compatibles only $245 

Service Diagnostics:TheKIT(includes all of theabove — save $502) $495 

Service Diagnostics for allother CPUs (386, V20.V30, Harris, etc.) $195 

Diagnostics II is the solution to the service problems of users of all CP/M-80, 

CP/M-86 and MS-DOS computers $125 

ROM POST for PS/2 and compatibles only $245 

Alignment Diskette for PS/2 and compatibles (3.5 inch) $50 

To order, call 800-678-3600 or 217-359-2112, 
FAX 217-359-7225, or write SuperSoft. 

SuperS ft 

FIRST IN SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY P.O. 80x1628 Champaign. IL61820 (217)359-2112 Telex 270365 

SUPERSOFT is a registered trademark ot SuperSoft, Inc.; CDC of Control Data Corp.. IBM PC AT & XT of 
International Business Machines Corp.; MS-DOS of Microsoft Corp.; NEC of NEC Information Systems. Inc., 
PRIME of PRIME INC.; Sony of Sony Corp. 

The ROM software is 
powerful and cleverly inte- 
grated. A combined word 
processor/spreadsheet called 
PipeDream works like Lotus 
1-2-3, using spreadsheet cells 
to hold document text, and acts 
as a simple database. 

PipeDream is easy to use 
and permits quite sophisti- 
cated layouts. It supports un- 
derline, italic, and boldface, 
which are visible on the 
WYSIWYG bit-mapped dis- 
play. To the right of the text 
area is a window that shows a 
1-pixel-per-character page 
preview; as well as verifying 
layout, this helps you find your 
place in long documents. 

You can interrupt any pro- 
gram and pop up another, and 
you may run as many copies of 
PipeDream, working on dif- 
ferent files, as memory per- 
mits. The other programs in- 
clude a good appointment 
diary/calendar, a calculator 
(with built-in unit conver- 
sions), a clock/ alarm, a termi- 
nal program, and BASIC. 
There are also pop-up system 
services, including a file man- 
ager, setup options, and 

Printer options. When you 
switch off the Z88, it saves the 
whole environment and starts 
back up where you left off. 

The operating system sup- 
ports hierarchical directories, 
I/O redirection, and proper 
batch files with an auto- 
execute option. RAM car- 
tridges are treated as separate 
devices, like disk drives. You 
can print files directly to serial 
or parallel printers, but the 
best way to use the Z88 is to 
upload files to a desktop PC at 
your office or home. The PC 
Link package consists of a 
plug-in ROM, a cable, and a 
disk of PC software; upload- 
ing is controlled entirely from 
the PC screen via menus. The 
communications package con- 
sists of a 1200-bps matchbox- 
style modem plus a communi- 
cations program in ROM . 

Don't disdain the Z88 just 
because it lacks an 80386 or a 
hard disk drive; the clever 
software makes it a match for 
many a larger machine. And 
when you have to carry it 
around all day, small really is 

— Dick Fountain 

An Analyst for 
Your Writing 

Grammatik III is a new 
version of Reference 
Software's IBM PC-compati- 
ble program for analyzing 
documents for grammatical 
and stylistic errors. Unlike 
Grammatik II, which checked 
documents against a fixed 
phrase dictionary, Gramma- 
tik III uses parts of speech and 
suffix analysis to provide 
more comprehensive gram- 
mar checking. 

Not only does Grammatik 
HI find possible errors, but it 
also offers suggestions for im- 
provement. Grammatik III 
scans your document and 
finds basic errors like double 
words, unbalanced punctua- 
tion, or improper capitaliza- 
tion, as well as more subjective 
problems like use of the pas- 
sive voice, pretentious expres- 

sions and cliches, wordiness, 
and split infinitives. In addi- 
tion, Grammatik III checks 
for subject-verb disagree- 
ment, double negatives, in- 
complete sentences, and other 
incorrect usages. Since writ- 
ing "errors" are often subjec- 
tive, you can customize Gram- 
matik III to ignore certain 
types of phrases. 

While Grammatik II 
worked best with ASCII files 
(it had problems with word- 
processing control codes), 
Grammatik III is designed to 
work with most major PC- 
compatible word-processing 
programs. When you first in- 
stall the program, you select 
from a menu of word proces- 
sors and text formats . You then 
run your document through 
Grammatik III, either interac- 
tively or in batch mode. When 
in interactive mode, it flags 
suspected problems on the 

92 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 

Circle 228 on Reader Service Card 

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DesignCAD 3-D, all at no extra has listed DesignCAD 3-D 

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Circle 13 on Reader Service Card 

The best reason to buy DesignCAD 3-D is not the low 
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AUGUST 1988 • B Y T E 93 

Circle 69 on Reader Service Card 


New, Expandable 
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Model 4D delivers 240 copies per hour, using 
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1 Multiple Formats, Including PS/2 
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New Desktop and high-volume Production Autoloaders also 
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PGSG library (Disks 1 - 1000] $895 


Oxford English Dictionary OTaY] . $945 

Comstock Stock Photography On CD . . . EHE3 . . . $445 

Groier or McGraw H or Bookshelf or PG5G $269 

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screen. You can edit the prob- 
lem phrase or sentence, ignore 
it, or instruct Grammatik III 
not to flag this type of problem 
in the future. After you've fin- 
ished checking the document, 
Grammatik III saves the 
edited version and makes a 
backup of the original. 

Grammatik III also pro- 
vides a statistical summary of 
the document (number and 
type of errors found, a "read- 
ability index," and other 

In batch mode, Grammatik 
III marks your document 
without your intervention, 
saves the marked file, and 
creates a backup of the origi- 
nal. You can then work with 
the marked document using 
your word processor. Gram- 
matik III includes an optional 
spelling checker, but spelling 
checking more than doubles 
the grammar-checking time. 
If your word processor has a 
separate spelling checker, it's 
probably better to use it. 

I tested a beta version of 
Grammatik III using an IBM 
PC XT with an Orchid 286 ac- 
celerator card (TurboEGA). 
In batch mode, a 10,000-word 
document took about 4 min- 
utes to check. I tried the pro- 
cess using both a hard disk and 
a RAM disk and got about the 
same results (the CPU is the 

Can You Stand 
C Compiler? 

Start with your basic C 
compiler: ANSI C sup- 
port, Make feature, symbolic 
debugger, editor, integrated 
development environment, 
overlay linker. Also give it 
support for the usual confus- 
ing array of memory models 
(small, medium, compact, 
large, and huge), and the abil- 
ity to generate instructions 
compatible with the 80x86 
processors, up to but not in- 
cluding the 80386. Plus sup- 
port for the 8087, 80287, and 
80387 math coprocessors. 

bottleneck rather than the disk 
access speed). 

In my tests, Grammatik III 
found a lot of errors but also 
missed some blatant ones. For 
example, it missed "many 
friends of mine lives in New 
York" and the incomplete sen- 
tence, "So should be fun." It 
did find "their going to have a 
party, " and gave the message: 
[the context of "their" indi- 
cates you may have meant 
"there" or "they're."] Al- 
though it missed some errors 
and also flagged some correct 
grammatical phrases, the pro- 
gram is helpful in identifying 
possible stylistic or grammati- 
cal problems. 

—Nick Baran 


Grammatik III 

IBM PC, XT, AT, or 
compatible, 128K bytes 
of RAM, DOS3.0or higher, 
one floppy disk drive. 

Reference Software 
330 Townsend St. 
Suite 123 

San Francisco, CA 94107 
(415) 541-0222 
Inquiry 854. 

You now have all the under- 
pinnings of Watcom C 6.0. 
And most of the other C com- 
pilers that have hit the ground 
in the last year. 

Now give it a price: $495 . A 
little steep? Not for what 
amounts to two compilers. 

Here's where Watcom C be- 
gins to part company with the 
crowd. It actually consists 
of WCC, which operates with 
a 64K-byte data area; and 
WCGL, which makes use of 
all available memory (up to 
640K bytes). The idea is that, 
though WCGL is slower than 
WCC, it can compile all the 
monstrous programs that 
would overflow WCC 's mem- 
ory allotment. 


94 BYTE* AUGUST 1988 

Circle 49 on Reader Service Card 

Software Breakthrough: 

the RANDOM information processor 

New Concept 

With all the software tools available, it is 
surprising that an important need has 
been overlooked— a way to deal with the 
countless bits of RANDOM information 
you spend hours with every day. Tornado 
will not only give you instant access to 
this important information ... it will help 
you make better decisions and even think 
more clearly. Try Tornado risk-free and 
discover the productivity software package 
for your PC that works wonders. 



Time Offer 


(Mini version) 


(When ordered direct) 

■ RANDOM Information 

Did you ever realize that over half the information 
you deal with every day is the RANDOM type? 
Not databases not spreadsheets not long 
documents but the information scattered around 
your workplace and in your head. Yet amazingly, 
until now there was no great software to help 
you the tools were either too structured or 
without organization. But now, at last, there is a 
quick and easy solution -Tornado acclaimed by . 
rave reviews and accepted by corporations 
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consultant, engineer, or in any other profession, 
you need Tornado -it will save you endless time 
and effort every day— guaranteed -or your money 
back. Here is how it works: 

■ Information Windows 

With Tornado, you process information in stacks 
of superfast "intelligent" windows -several on 
your screen at once. You type into the windows; 
interconnect and prioritize them; and scan through 
them in remarkable ways. 

■ Free Form 

Tornado is FREE-FORM. It works the way you 
think. To start a new window you just press N, 
and enter information. No file names. No extra 
keystrokes. To retrieve information you just press 
G (for Get), with any word or phrase you'll 
watch Tornado zip through your windows like 
lightning linking and opening 
those requested. You can even 
flip through your windows with 
the arrow keys and watch them 
instantly pile up and lift away. 
These are just three of 18 easy 
but powerful features. 

■ Countless Uses 

There are thousands of uses for 
Tornado. When Harry calls you 
on the phone, in two seconds 
flat youll display the six 
windows on Harry before he 
finishes his first sentence! No 
more embarrassing pauses or 
scrambling for information. 
Tornado is so versatile you can: 
write and print a letter faster 
than ever; track things to do; 
edit electronic mail; and plan a project 
or event quickly and easily. You can 
even build a sophisticated "knowledge'' 
base or an unstructured data base 
without programming. And that's not 
all. Track phone conversations, 
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other RANDOM information. On a 
portable, Tornado is your ideal 
moving office. Best of all, you tailor 
Tornado to your own needs easily! 

■ 25,000 Windows 

Instead of one window or ten, imagine up to 25,000! 
It's like extra memory.. .for your brain! The uses are 
endless. If you can "type" it you can "Tornado" it. 
And because it's memory resident (if you choose) you 
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information between them. All this power, yet reviewers 
agree you can start "Tornado-ing" in 15 minutes — not 
15 days. 

■ Three Versions 

Choose the Tornado that's right for you: 
Mini Tornado— $49.95— NEW! Lowest cost version 
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multiple forms, compound searches. 

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BYTE, Jerry Pournelle 

"Excellent value" 

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"Editor's Choice" 
PC Magazine 

Regular Tornado— $99.95 -Full version with all 
commands and full information capacity (up to 
25,000 windows and 2,500,000 characters). 
Library Tornado— $149.95- All commands, full 
capacity, plus "Library" of windows containing: 
free-form year logger, simple project planner, grid 
maker, city/ state/ area code/ time zone translator, 
and more templates and references. 

■ Productivity Tool 

To reach your goals, you need tools that 
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your best decisions. Tornado fits the bill perfectly. 
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Tornado more than any other software package! 
Order today risk-free. 

To order call: 

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Technical questions & NJ: (201) 342-6518 
24 hr. modem: (201) 342-8101 


FEATURES: free-form & predefined windows, scrolling within window, import & export to files & 
screens, cut & paste, auto word wrap, time & date stamp, move &join & dup windows, mono or selectable color, definable Hot-key 
or non-resident, unloadable, LAN support, context help, extended ASCI I, smart fully adjustable windows, parallel text processing, 
progressive resolution and "and-or-not" like searching without keywords, and more. COMPATIBILITY: IBM-PC/ XT; AT/ PS2 
and compatibles; mono, CGA, 80 col EGA, and Hercules displays; 60K minimum RAM CAPACITY: Up to 500 windows and 
50K per pile - 50 piles. Not copy protected. 

LJ Yli/S, send me 

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□ 5-1,4" 

□ 3- 1/2" disk 



Dept T-160, 100 2nd St., POB 70 
Hackensack, New Jersey 07602 

© I988 Micro Logic. European marketing by Atlantex Inc. (203) 655-6980. Trademarks: IBM-PC, XT, AT, PS2-1BM 

Circle 163 on Reader Service Card 

Fast Microprocessor 

New Unilab 8620 analyzer-emulator— 


Don't waste days single-stepping through suspect code. Isolate 
trouble fast. Use our highspeed analyzer-emulator to trigger on 
symptoms— by data sequence, cycle type, address, data range. See 
program traces before and after trigger points as you record and 
display traces on the fly. Mop up via traditional breakpointing. 

• Real time 8/16 bit universal emulator 

• Advanced 48-channel bus state analyzer 

• In-Place Emulation for 150 different |xPs 

• 1 (xsec program time measurements 

• Fast parallel interface: load 64K in 5 sec 

• Stimulus generator included 

• Continuous real time viewing of registers, ports 

• Built-in EPROM programmer 

• 2730 bus-cycle trace buffer 

• Complete integrated toolkit 

Call Toll Free 800/245-8500 or 
(in CA) 415/361-8883 


702 Marshall Street, Redwood City, CA 94063 



Program development system (or Series 32000 based embedded systems running on IBM-PC/XT/A T and PS/2-30 


- Add-In board consisting of Scries 32000 chip set and ROM-residcni 

Host Hardware: 

- IBM PC/XT/AT or compatible with free half card slut 
Host Software: 

- DOS 2.0 or later 
Target Hardware: 

- Any Series 32000 based embedded system 
Target Software: 

- Runtime support Is supplied in source form 

Key Product Features; 

-This compiler enables you [o use all llie features of Modula-2 ;ls described 
in Nickluus Wirth's Programming in Modula-2 (3rd edition). 

- The target runtime support module. Supplied in source form, includes a 
floating point package which emulates the NS320N I chip, if necessary, 

- The system's command-line-hnset! user interface is on-screen supported 
ant! leads the user through the command entering process. 

- The information display makes COmtanl reference lo a manual unnecessary 
by providing the user with the information needed to run the system. 


it of up to 400 module* 

- Only a single command lir 
into an executable file. 

- Any individual application 
entirely in Modula-2. 

Key Product Benefits: 

- Manual-free use 

- Programs can be written entirely in Modula-2 

- I-asy handling of very large program packages 

- Convenient transfer of Modula-2 programs written for otlie 
Series 32IXXI environment 

- Reasonably priced developm 
32000 microjiroccssors 

it system for the entire family of Sen. 

Product Vendor: 

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Watcom C 6.0 
$495 (includes 
Express C) 


IBM PC, XT, AT, PS/2, 

or true compatible, DOS 

2.0 or higher, and 512K 

bytes of memory 


I performed some informal 
tests on the Watcom compiler, 
stacking it up against Micro- 
soft C 5.0 on my 10-MHz AT 
clone. I modified our new Sort 
benchmark to create an array 
whose elements were in re- 
verse order, and I hand-timed 
the execution speed of the re- 
sult. (I used small models for 
both compilers and set no 
compile switches— I handed 
identical copies of the source 
code to each compiler.) The 
Watcom compiler's version 
completed in 11.3 seconds, 
while Microsoft ' s took over 1 5 
seconds. However, the execut- 
able file Watcom created was 
over 12K bytes in size, while 
Microsoft C created an 8K- 
byte executable file. I figure 
it's the same old equation: 
speed at the cost of space. 

And, yes, you'll find yet an- 
other editor supplied with the 
Watcom disks. The editor is 
simple enough to use, allows 
you to work on more than one 
document simultaneously via 
multiple workspaces, can op- 
erate in either line mode or 


Watcom Express C, $125 

(if purchased separately) 

415 Phillip St. 
Waterloo, Ontario 
Canada N2L3X2 
(800) 265-4555 
Inquiry 855. 

screen mode, and supports 
editing macros. 

Watcom's answer to Turbo 
C and Quick C is Express C. 
As you might guess, you can 
operate Express C with Wat- 
com's editor in an integrated 
environment so that all devel- 
opment functions— compil- 
ing, linking, editing— occur 
in memory. 

What you might not guess is 
that Express C also includes a 
memory-resident source-level 
debugger that allows you to 
trace program execution, view 
and modify variable contents, 
set breakpoints, and display 
your program's output. If you 
launch Express C with the /d 
option, the debugger automat- 
ically fires up when you com- 
pile and run your program. 
While experimenting with the 
debugger, I stumbled onto a 
bug in the benchmark pro- 
gram I was creating . But that ' s 
what it's there for, right? 

When I pitted Express C 

against Turbo C (using yet 

another variant of the Sort 


96 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 

Circle 11 on Reader Service Card 


just not enough: 


Professional Basic 
Programming Library 

ProBas is a library of routines that kicks 
QuickBASIC and BASCOM into 5th gear and 
gives you powers and abilities far beyond 
those of mortal men. It's the greatest thing 
since sliced bread and if you don't get it today, 
your hard disk will crash in retaliatioa So 
much for the hype, now down to brass tacks: 

• 832 routines (886 in Assembly) 

• 8O0 page 3-part manual 

• Full-featured windowing 

• Screen snapshots 

• Virtual screens in memory 

• Lightning-fast file I/O 

• Access EMS as files or arrays 

• Full mouse support 

Plus 200 essential services from directory and 
equipment routines to handy string, date, time, 
and input routines. 

Sick of running out of string space? Store 
hundreds of K in numeric arrays or megabytes 
in EMS arrays. Tired of using a kludgy SHELL 
to DIR to read a directory? Scan subdirectories 
using wild-cards and store thousands of file 
names, dates, and times. Wish you could drag 
a window containing text or a menu around 
the screen with a mouse? It's easy! 

ProBas virtual screens allow you to draw full 
or partial screens to memory, and then snap 
them on in an eyeblink- faster and without 
the limitations of PCOPY. Draw and store 
hundreds of pull-down menus or help screens, 
each in its own array, ready to be displayed 
anywhere on the screen at assembly speeds - 
you just can't get any faster. 

ProBas gives you a complete set of blazingly- 
fast file routines. Read or write up to 64k 
chunks of data at a clip, with file locking and 
error handling so that you can even use them 
in subprograms. You'll never want to use 
BASICs file I/O agair! No royalty and not 
copy protected For all versions of 
QuickBASIC and BASCOM including BASCOM 
6.0 for OS/2 Just $99,001 

Add $3.00 per item ($7.00 Canada) (or shipping. 

Trademarks: ProBas. ProRef. ProScreen: Hammerly 

Computer Services , Inc . QuickBASIC , BASCOM: 
Microsoft Corp . 



The ToolKit is a collection of assembly and 
BASIC modules that use the ProBas library 
to save you even more hours of grunt work 
Call a ring, bar, pop-up, or pull-down menu 
Pop up a mini-word processor with word- 
wrap in a window. Make file I 'O faster with b- 
tree indexing You get: 

• Dozens of Menu Generators 

• Fast B-tree indexing 

• Mini-editor with word-wrap 

• Patch . EXE files 

• Protected storage areas 

• Display text files in windows 

• Julian date routines 

• Documented BASIC source 

Plus dozens of powerful, easy to use routines 
that help conserve the most valuable asset of 
all, time! Requires ProBas. Just $99. 00! 


Professional Screen 
Management System 

ProScreen is a full-featured screen generator 
/editor that will save you more design and 
coding time than you ever thought possible. 
ProScreen works with screens like a word 
processor works with text to provide 
complete control over screen characters, 
placement and colors. Edit up to 3 screens at a 
time and perform block moves, block copies, 
merge and cut and paste operations- even 
between screens - with ease 

Use ProScreen to prototype designs, create 
full or partial screens for import via ProBas, 
or create input screens that have up to 130 edit 
fields per screen You can even take snapshots 
of other applications, edit them, and produce 
demos and working tutorials. ProScreen 
comes with subroutine source, extensive on- 
line help and a 285 page manual with tutorial 
and reference. Just $99 . 001 


TeleComm ToolKit 

The ProBas TeleComm ToolKit is a 
collection of high-level communications 
modules that you plug into your code to 
provide popular file transfer protocols, 
terminal emulations, auto-dialing, phone data 
base, login scripts and more. Plug just the 
routines you need into your programs. 

• Xmodem/Modem7/Xmodem-lk 

• Ymodem (single and batch) 

• CRC-16 and Checksum 

• VT52, VTIOO, ANSI BBS etc. 

• Auto Dialer & data base 

• Script language support 

• Full terminal program 

• Documented BASIC source 

The TeleComm ToolKit comes with a 
detailed manual and a full terminal program in 
BASIC. Requires ProBas. Just $75. OOl 


On-Line Help 
For ProBast- 

ProRef is three products in one- a pop-up 
help system for the 232 routines in ProBas, 
pop-up help for your routines, and an 
extension of the QuickBASIC programming 
environment See the calling syntax and help 
for any ProBas routine, or any of your 
routines, with just a few keystrokes or mouse 
clicks. Pop-up an ASCII chart, calculator, 
keyboard scan code module or almost any 
DOS program via hot-key. Just $50. OOl 

Our money-back guarantee assures you the 
highest quality and our technical support staff 
is always ready to help. Try our BBS at 
(301 ) 953-7738 or give us a call at 

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8008 Sandy Spring Road • Laurel, Maryland 20707 




...the first completely integrated Ada Program- 
ming Support Environment priced for the individual 
programmer on a PC. Designed for the novice as 
well as the software engineer . 

-IntegrAda Compilers 

with TEXTJO; 
use TEXTJO; 
procedure TEST is 

entry TBD(_ :in out 



Set Path 

Virtual Disk — E 

Optimizing Code 

Remove Unused Subprograms 

Target = > ALL 

Software Floating Point 

Debug Compile <ON> 

CtrlF4-Check Syntax 




task body CONTROLLER is 


I Hardware 80x87 

- Ada Ge 
CREATE Ada Structure— 

CREATE Ada Type 





Change Keys 
Screen & Cursor 
Search A Replace 
Marking Lines & Blocks 
Ada Syntax Generation 
Ada Compiler & fools 
Save jl Quit Controls 
Comm Interfaces 

Withed Specs 
Library Manager 

i Validated Production Compiler 
» Use on 8086,80186,80286,80386. 

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» No Extra Memory Required 

* No Math Coprocessor required. 
t On-Line Library Management 

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t Selectable Function Keys 

Ada Subprogram and Package Generation 

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Introductory Offer $495 

98 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 

Circle 267 on Reader Service Card 
(DEALERS: 268) 

benchmark with a smaller 
array size), I found that Turbo 
C chalked up a compile-and- 
execute time of 9 seconds 
against Express C's 28 sec- 
onds. I thought I could attrib- 
ute Express C's poor showing 
to the fact that it performed 
array- and pointer-bounds 
checking unless told other- 
wise. But even when I told it 
otherwise, it still hit the wire 

Paradox Takes 
on OS/2 

f you've used the MS-DOS 

version of Paradox, Para- 
dox OS/2 will be immediately 
familiar. Except for the OS/2 
line on the opening screen, the 
actual user interface is identi- 
cal, and it works exactly the 
same; it is compatible with 
files, scripts, and reports from 
earlier versions. 

The differences showed up 
when I started doing some ac- 
tual work. Because Paradox 
OS/2 runs in 80286 protected 
mode, it directly addresses all 
your system memory. That 
eliminates the time-consum- 
ing disk reads and memory 
swapping that take place under 
the MS-DOS version. 

This immediately trans- 
lates into speed. Database ac- 
cess, moving around tables, 
and doing usual work like 
sorting and generating reports 
is noticeably faster, though 
your mileage will vary de- 
pending on the type of data- 
base you're using and what 
you're doing with it. 

You can run multiple Para- 
dox OS/2 sessions at the same 
time, and even share data and 
utilities among them. This is 
heady stuff for those of us used 
to the one-task-at-a-time limi- 
tation of MS-DOS. 

Paradox OS/2 uses the same 
concurrency controls to coor- 
dinate multiple sessions that 
Paradox 2 uses to coordinate 
multiple users on a network. 
There are, of course, some 
limitations. You can't physi- 
cally make changes to two ses- 
sions concurrently, so Para- 

at about 27 seconds. 

Watcom delivers a high 
bang-for-the-buck ratio when 
compared to Microsoft C 5.0. 
Watcom C is a class act, and 
the source-code debuggers for 
both the high-end C 6.0 and 
the integrated Express C make 
the whole package a real possi- 
bility for doing heavy-duty de- 
velopment work. 

—Rick Grehan 

dox OS/2 has the same 
abilities as its MS-DOS broth- 
er to lock tables and set what 
the program calls "private 

If you're new to OS/2, 
you'll soon find that there's a 
boundary to the apparent 
magic, especially if you have 
limited memory. Each session 
you start exacts its cost in pro- 
cessing time and RAM. While 
Paradox OS/2 can use up to 1 6 
megabytes of RAM, my PC 
AT clone had only 3 mega- 
bytes, the minimum you need 
to run the program. Things 
started to slow down apprecia- 
bly by the time I started the 
third Paradox session. 

Paradox OS/2 is far from 
the ultimate OS/2 application. 
It's really just a sophisticated 
port from the MS-DOS ver- 
sion, which already had its 
own multiple-session hooks in 
its network support. But it's a 
tantalizing glimpse of the pos- 
sibilities that OS/2 will offer. 
—Stan Miastkowski 


Paradox OS/2 


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Jerry Pournelle 

A Fond 

Is Jerry's old friend 

Zeke II retiring 

to greener pastures? 

This is a shameless commer- 
cial. As I write this, Legacy of 
Heorot by Larry Niven, Jerry 
Pournelle, and Steve Barnes is 
on the best-seller list in England. About 
the time you read this, the paperback ver- 
sion will be out from Pocket Books. If 
every BYTE reader goes out and buys 
one, it will hit the best-seller list here. If 
you all buy another for a friend- 
Well, anyway, it's a good book about 
the first interstellar colony (sent out by 
the National Geographic Society), it has 
a nice computer in it, and you can buy the 
book at your favorite bookstore. Mean- 
while, there's a lot happening at Chaos 

Writers are superstitious about all 
kinds of things. Goethe had to have a 
drawer full of rotten apples. Schiller 
wanted cats in the room. Some need a 
particular brand of coffee or a favorite 
coffee mug. 

Not all writers worry about furniture, 
but many do. I confess I'm one of them. 
Of course, I don't think of it as supersti- 
tion, just good organization. 

What I want is a big desk, the bigger 
the better, that I can get right up close to, 
and high enough for drafting work. For 
years, I used a 4- by 8-foot piece of half- 
inch mahogany plywood screwed to the 
top of an ancient student desk that stood 
on little feet to raise it; the result was 
overhangs on all four sides deep enough 
that I could scoot a chair right up to the 
desk. It was a little odd getting to the 
drawers, but the system worked. 

Of course, I didn't do my writing on 
that structure, because it was too high to 
set a typewriter on. Instead, I set my 
Selectric on a regular typing table, one 

large enough to hold not only the type- 
writer, but pages to be retyped or a few 
books. The typing table was at right 
angles to the desk, so I had only to swivel 
around to get at it. That way, I could lay 
out notes and research work on the big 
desk, turn left to the Selectric when I was 
writing, and turn back to the desk to re- 
view notes. 

When I got Ezekial, my old friend who 
happened to be a Cromemco Z80, I set 
things up the same way, with Zeke tak- 
ing the place of the Selectric. Of course, 
an S-100 system with 8-inch disk drives 
wouldn't fit on a normal typing table, 
and I ended up building a furniture sys- 
tem that had the computer itself near the 
floor, the disk drives on a counter, and 
the 15-inch monochrome Hitachi moni- 
tor on top of the disk drives. 

The keyboard first went on the Selec- 
tric's old typing table; later, I got a larger 
table that would hold the keyboard and a 
bunch of notebooks and stuff. The moni- 
tor was at eye level and 30 inches away, 
just far enough that I didn't need the 
reading element of my bifocals to read 
the large text put up by the Processor 
Technology VDM board. There were 
only 16 lines of 64 characters, but that 
was enough. 

I wrote on that system for years. Eze- 
kial himself evolved into Zeke II: a 
CompuPro S-100 "boat-anchor" box and 
CompuPro 8-inch disk drives, but the 
same Hitachi 15-inch monitor driven by 
the same VDM memory-mapped video 
board. Larry Niven bought an exact du- 
plicate of Zeke II. We wrote a number of 
books on those two machines. I also 
wrote these columns and everything else 
I did, a total of several million words. 

I tried the IBM PC when it first came 
out. I even bought one, but for research 
only . I had no temptation to use it to write 
books. PC text editors weren't good 
enough. Their only advantage was that a 
PC would put up 24 lines of text as op- 
posed to Zeke's 16, but against that the 
PC was very slow compared to Zeke. In 

particular, it scrolled slower. With Zeke 

I could instantaneously flip back and 
forth by pages, which more than made up 
for the 16-line limitation. Also, it took a 
lot longer to read and write IBM 5 V* -inch 
disks than 1.2-megabyte CompuPro 8- 
inch disks. For the first 5 or 6 years after 
the PC came out, there was just no incen- 
tive to change over from Zeke. 

Slowly, though, PCompatibles got 
faster and better. EGA video put up read- 
able text in color. New PCompatible the- 
saurus and spelling programs came 
out— although Oasis Systems' The Word 
Plus was for a very long time the best 
spelling program around (it's still the 
basis for the spelling checker in many 
well-known word processors). Writing 
utilities like Grammatik II (and now III) 
and the Readability program would work 
only with PCompatibles. Editor pro- 
grams sprouted features not available for 
my old CP/M-system. I found I was using 
the PC more and more. 

Eventually, the only things I was writ- 
ing on Zeke II were books in collabora- 
tion with Larry Niven. When we brought 
in Steve Barnes to work on Legacy of 
Heorot, we had another problem: Steve 
was using WordStar on a Kaypro PCom- 
patible, and his files had to be translated 
from PC-DOS to CP/M. 

Fortunately, we had the means to do 
it: the Golem, my big CompuPro Dual 
Processor (80286 master, Z80 slave 
board), can read and write 360K-byte 
5'/4-inch DOS disks, and it also sports a 
pair of 8-inch floppy disk drives (as well 
as a 40-megabyte Priam hard disk drive). 
We could feed Steve's disks into the 
Golem, run his files through a filter, and 
write them out on 8-inch disks that Zeke 

II could read into our CP/M text editor. 
When we finished Legacy of Heorot, I 

decided enough was enough. Niven was 
working on a new book with David 
Drake, and Drake uses a Toshiba T1000 
PCompatible with 3V2-inch disks. Get- 
ting Drake's stuff onto the CP/M system 


AUGUST 1988 • B Y T E 101 


and Larry's onto Drake's Toshiba was 
no easy job. It was time for a change. 

Niven was persuaded to go buy a 
PCompatible: a Zenith Z-386 with a hard 
disk drive, a 19-inch Electrohome moni- 
tor, and both 514- and 3 '/2-inch floppy 
disk drives. That took care of the Drake 
collaboration. I converted our latest stuff 
over to PCompatible format. Now I was 
doing all my writing on PCompatibles. 

I had long since set up a PCompatible 
on the opposite side of my desk from 
Zeke; swivel left to the PCompatible, 
swivel right to Zeke (and also to a termi- 
nal that controls the Golem). Which 
PCompatible it was changed from time to 
time: first Big Kat the Kaypro 286, then 
Fast Kat the Kaypro 386, and now Zanna 
Lee the Zenith Z-386. Zeke II sat there 
watching in silence. He had nothing to 
do, and we turned him on only when a 
visitor wanted to see him. 

Then BYTE wanted a column for the 
special Macintosh edition. Apple sent a 
Mac II. About then, Cheetah put to- 
gether the Big Cheetah, a 20-MHz 80386 
with a Priam 330-megabyte internal hard 
disk drive and a Maximum Storage APX- 
3200 WORM (write once, read many) 
drive. Commodore sent the Amiga 2000. 
Atari sent a Mega ST. Every one of those 
machines had to be set up on test stands 
far away from my desk, making it very 
inconvenient to use them— and after all, 
the point of this column is to write about 
stuff I've used for practical work. 

Something had to be done, and I did it. 

Three weeks ago, Zeke II retired. We 
had a little ceremony and wheeled him 

At the moment, the poor old fellow is 
sitting in the storeroom. All his parts are 
there— disk drives, Hitachi monitor, key- 
board, and all the cables— but they aren't 
assembled. I haven't really had the heart 
to do it. As far as Zeke knows, he was 
turned off one day and hasn't been awak- 
ened again. Suppose I connect him up 
and he sees where he is? Unthinkable. 

I confess I don't really know what to 
do with him. What I'd like is to find him 
a good home. Oh, sure, there are some 
mad hobbyists who'd like to have all his 
parts, but I can't allow that. What I want 
is someone who will use him— but who? 
Who, after all, is likely to want an an- 
cient Z80 machine that's physically 
larger than a two-drawer file cabinet, has 
8-inch disk drives that spin all the time, 
and has a 16-line by 64-character display 
driven by the world's last operating Pro- 
cessor Technology VDM board? He's a 
wonderful old guy, but he's also a mu- 
seum piece. 

I know from my mail that I have very 

clever readers, and some seem as devoted 
to old Zeke as I am. I've decided to have 
a contest: I'm soliciting the best sugges- 
tion as to what to do with Zeke, the Com- 
puPro S-100 Z80. I'm not sure what the 
prizes will be. Something appropriate, 
like dinner at a COMDEX or West Coast 
Computer Faire for the best half dozen 
letters, and something a bit more special 
for the winner. 

The rules are simple: I'll consider any 
suggestion provided that Zeke will be 
kept intact and there's some chance of 


he Mac 

has a well-deserved 

reputation for being 

easy for utter beginners 

to use. 

implementing it. If you want to tell me 
why Zeke ought to be given to you, or 
your family, or some favorite institution, 
feel free. If you think he belongs in the 
Smithsonian, you'll have to show me 
some evidence that the Smithsonian 
would be interested. If you think he 
ought to be sent to the center of the gal- 
axy, you'll have to explain how that could 
be accomplished. 

The decision of the judge— me— is 
final, all entries become part of the gen- 
eral chaos in Chaos Manor, and some 
will be returned but others won't be be- 
cause they're lost or the dog ate them. 
Contest closes on Thanksgiving Day. 

The Furniture Dilemma 

When I first got Zeke, there wasn't any 
commercial computer furniture. In those 
days, you either made do with typing 
tables or designed and built your own 
"workstation." In the early 1980s there 
was a flood of the stuff, most badly de- 
signed. Gradually, evolution and the 
market took care of the situation, so that 
now you can get quite a bit of computer 
furniture designed for PCompatibles. 
There's also some for the Macintosh. 

Alas, there is absolutely nothing satis- 
factory for the Mac II; and what has 
evolved for PCompatibles isn't going to 
be useful much longer. The problem is 

Until recently, PCompatible users 

didn't need mice. You couldn't operate a 
Mac without one, but many considered a 
mouse for the PC to be a pretentious bit of 
luxury. Slowly, though, PC users began 
to change their minds. Some programs 
require mice — it's possible to use Micro- 
soft Word without one, but you won't like 
it much. Others weren't designed for 
mice but work better if you have them: 
WordPerfect with either Mouse Perfect 
or a properly written script for Logi- 
tech's Menu mouse support package is a 
good case in point, being much easier to 
use with a mouse. 

Also, the Mac has a phenomenal (and 
well-deserved) reputation for being easy 
for utter beginners to use, and much of 
the Mac's design philosophy is drifting 
over into PCompatible software designs. 
The upshot, in my judgment, is that mice 
are taking over the computer world, and 
pretty soon none of us will feel at home 
without them. 

That's where the furniture problem 
comes in. With the exception of a few 
special items jiggered for the Mac and 
dependent on the old Mac's small foot- 
print and weird keyboard, there isn't any 
computer furniture designed for mouse 

One of the best kinds of computer desk 
starts with a more mundane item— office 
desk or credenza or even a solid counter- 
top— and puts a keyboard drawer under- 
neath. There are a number of keyboard 
drawers, and while many of them are 
overpriced, all the ones I've seen work 
quite well and are easy enough to install. 
All the keyboards I've used fit well in the 
drawer tray, and the system is solidly 
built so things don't wobble when I type. 
However, every one of those keyboard 
drawers, without exception, is too nar- 
row to hold both a keyboard and a mouse. 

I suppose it's only a matter of time 
until someone gets smart and makes a 
computer desk with a keyboard area large 
enough for both keyboard and mouse, but 
that hadn't happened by Spring COM- 
DEX; I looked at every computer furni- 
ture display in Atlanta, and except for 
one desklike system that's a full 4 feet 
wide, there wasn't a thing. Sigh. 

Amiga Progress 

One of my high points of COMDEX was 
a demonstration of new developments for 
the Amiga given by Dr. Harry Rubin, 
chief operating officer of Commodore 
America. Rubin's enthusiasm for the 
Amiga is unmatched; he reminds me of 
some of the company executives back in 
the early days of microcomputers. 
One thing they showed me was Unix 


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Circle 181 on Reader Service Card 

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running on what appeared to be an 
Amiga 2000. This was full System V 
Unix, no compromises, and, even loaded 
down with several simultaneous tasks, it 
certainly looked fast enough. Fair warn- 
ing: this is a show report. I'll have more 
on it when it's running here at Chaos 
Manor and I can turn Alex loose on it. I 
can only say that what I saw at COMDEX 
impressed the heck out of me. 

Meanwhile, at the Amiga developers' 
conference held just before COMDEX, 

they distributed new ROM chips for the 
2000. Joanne Dow was given a copy for 
installation in my machine, and about an 
hour ago she came over and did the job. 

ROM installation in the Amiga is sim- 
ple but tedious. You have to remove about 
eight screws so that you can move the 
hard disk drive, floppy disk drive, and 
power supply. The good news is that 
they're all mounted on a rigid frame that 
moves as a unit, so once the screws are 
removed, the whole assembly lifts off to 


*' ( SQ5SEI^n«ta- > *' i a>*.'"it">«^)::;< - 

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tpl> and <ftf2>; I 

The function 
indicating the i 

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Resident Expert Compiler . . . 39.95 

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expose the ROM chip. After that, things 
are simple. 

AmigaDOS is not simple. I watched 
Joanne do her magic lor a while, but I 
soon lost track. What I can say is that 
after about half an hour of work she had 
set up the Amiga 2000 so that on power- 
up you must boot it with a floppy disk— it 
still won't entirely boot from the hard 
disk drive— but that process is considera- 
bly faster than it used to be. The good 
news is that once that's done, the Amiga 
can be reset and rebooted from a RAM 
disk. That takes only a few seconds. 

I don't know of any other computer 
that can boot from its own RAM disk. 

There are other developments. There's 
a new version of the Amiga operating 
system, which is said to speed up disk op- 
erations. There were certainly plenty of 
software developers at the COMDEX 
Amiga booth. A number of "standard" 
PC programs, including WordPerfect, 
have been ported over to the Amiga and 
work fine there. 

All in all, the Amiga seems to be im- 
proving steadily. More when I learn 
more. I'm supposed to have Unix for the 
Amiga coming in the next week or so. 

Scanners Live in Vain 

Spring COMDEX wasn't very exciting if 
you were looking for something new. 
There were almost no new products, and 
not much more new technology. There 
was, however, considerable excitement 
among dealers, a general feeling that the 
doldrums are over and the computer in- 
dustry is ready to take off again. 

The most exciting new hardware prod- 
uct I saw was the Logitech ScanMan. 
This is a small hand scanner that inter- 
faces with a Logitech printed circuit 
board. You run the scanner over text or 
pictures or whatever, and it makes a bit- 
mapped image similar to a PC Paint file. 

Meanwhile, over in the Apparel Cen- 
ter — where all the newcomers to COM- 
DEX are sent— Flagstaff Engineering 
was exhibiting a program that takes 
scanned text images and turns them into 
machine-readable files. I suppose I'd 
better explain that. 

Computers can store text in two differ- 
ent ways. The most familiar way is as ac- 
tual text files, in which the machine 
"knows" what's there. Each letter, num- 
ber, and punctuation mark is stored as a 
uniquely recognizable binary number, so 
that the machine can not only reproduce 
the text, but also manipulate it in orderly 
ways. It can make alphabetic sorts, look 
at words and compare them to dictio- 
naries, and in general act as though it 


104 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 

Circle 212 on Reader Service Card 




NEC Multispeed $1348.64 

NEC Multispeed EL 1499.76 

NEC Multispeed HD w/20 Meg . . .2365.77 

NEC Powermate 2, 40 Meg NEW 

NEC Powermate 2, 66 Meg LOWER 

NEC Powermate 386, 66 Meg NEC 

NEC Powermate 386, 130 Meg . . PRICES 


XT Turbo, 512K, 1 floppy, 
P/S/G, Enhanced keyboard, 

EMS mem S699.10 

XT Turbo, 1 floppy, 20 Meg . .969.34 
XT Turbo, 1 floppy, 40 Meg .1194.22 
XT Turbo, 1 floppy, 70 Meg .1345.75 


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1100 Plus $1484.10 

3100 w/20 Meg ....2998.50 

1000 759.41 

1200 2237.55 



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SAMSUNG S-300 4/8 MHz, 512K, 6 Slots S/P/C, 
Monographics board, DOS, Keyboard 

S-300, 1 Floppy $749.50 

S-300, 20 Meg 989.95 

S-300, 40 Meg 1117.82 

S-500 AT Compatible 8/10 MHz, 8 Slots, 
S/P/C, Monographics Board, DOS, Keyboard 

S-500, 1.2M Floppy $1095.45 

^S-500, 20 Meg 1469.80 

S-500, 40 Meg 1624.45 




MDL 70 $1312.20 MDL 170 S2988.36 

MOL 80 1619.70 MDL 300 3490.40 

MDL 90 1916.15 MDL 340 3945.65 

MDL 120 2260.05 MDL 390 5589.40 

MDL 140 2629.55 

I1M PS2 

MDL 30. 2 dr . .S1272.20 MDL 50Z. 30 Meg . . NEW 
MDL 30, 20 Meg .1725.17 MDL 50Z. 60 Meg . .IBM 
MDL 60. 40 Meg .3340.15 MDL 70, All Mdls. . PS2s 
MDL 60, 70 Meg .3469.60 MDL 80, 40 Meg .4497.67 
MDL 80. 111 Meg 5995.80 MDL 80. 70 Meg .5330.30 

comma ™ 

286, Model 1...S2095.55 386. Model 300.S9168.20 
286, 40 Meg . . . .2580.19 Port. II, Mdl 2 . . .1896.10 
286, 70 Meg ....2895.20 Port. II, Mdl 4... 2797.00 
386, Model 60... 5579.30 Port. Ill, Mdl 20 .3577.85 
386. Model 130. .7059.92 Port. Ill, Mdl 40 .4159.33 

(J AT&T 

6300 WGS S1099.42 

6312 WGS 1692.12 

6386 WGS 3187.78 


JJ100 Plus . . .S1484.10 T1000 S749.41 

T3100, 20 Meg 2998.50 T1200 S223755 

T3200 . . .SPECIAL BUY T5100 .... NEW MODEL 






FX850 BEST LQ1050 IN 


HtSgllW by Kodak 
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Pro Printer II . .$429.95 Quietwriter III . .$1295.62 


P560XL S914.75 5200 S532.25 

P2200 369.65 5300 696.47 

3550 744.12 8850 1080.75 



ML 182S $279.76 

ML 182P 232 50 

LASERLINE 6 .1286.69 
ML 292 Plus... 377. 44 
ML 293 Plus... 516.55 
ML 294 737.10 

ML 320 . 
ML 321 . 
ML 390 . 
ML 391 . 
ML 393 . 
ML 393 Color .1057.60 

. .469.96 



I (XT Turbo) . 


PB88 w/1 (loppy. 20 Meg 956.80 

VT286 1299.36 

VT286 w/20 Meg 1573.50 

VT286 w/40 Meg 1724.10 


MDL 2108 ...S1082.50 MDL 2214 ... .$1868.30 
MDL 2112 1568.20 MDL 3216 2658.05 

Supersport Model 2 ALL ZENITH 

Supersport Model 20 MODELS IN 

Supersport 286 MoOel 20 STOCK CALL 

Z-183. 20 Meg FOR PRICE 

Other Computers Available U pon Request 


1/2 height floppy drive $99.00 

MINISCRIBE 20 Meg 1/2 height w/cont. .329.14 
MINISCRIBE 30 Meg 1/2 height w/RLL ..345.95 
SEAGATE 20 Meg 1/2 height hard drive .289.69 

SEAGATE 30 Meg 1/2 height w/RLL 309.72 

SEAGATE 40 Meg 1/2 height 399.50 

GENOA 60 Meg int. tape/«t. lape . .734.60095.10 

GENOA 125 Meg int. tape 995.85 

IOMEGA 20 + 20 External 5V« 1795.73 

IRWIN 20 M/40 M Internal Tape . . .399.10/539.20 

MINISCRIBE 40 Meg 28ms 609.40 

MINISCRIBE 80 Meg 28ms 795.45 

MOUNTAIN 4440 int. /Ml 368.80/547.75 

PRIAM 40 Meg/60 Meg 669.55/777.95 

PRIAM 130 Meg hard disk 1967.68 

SEAGATE 30 Meg/40 Meg 479.80/558.98 

SEAGATE 4096 80 Meg hard disk 645.10 


PLUS DEVELOPMENT 20 Meg $555.55 


WESTERN DIGITAL 30 Meg 416.30 



1080i S179.60 1091i S219.85 

1092i 334.28 1592 433.44 

1595 459.45 3131 274.32 

3151 409.52 1524 579.10 


120D $169.55 MSP55 $489.66 

MSP50 385.64 Premiere 35 ...477.17 


P321SL $494.85 P351-2 Color .S1199.95 

P341SL„.... .634J7 P351SX . 1019.46 

H-P Laser Jet Model 2 51699.40 

AST Turbolaser P/S IN STOCK 

H-P Deskjet 689.00 

NEC LC86U/LC890 1982.44/3295.60 

PANASONIC Laser 1605.35 



8087-2/8087-3 $159.33/122.50 

80287-6/-8 M0 174.30/299.55/339.25 

80387-16/80387-20 497.68/777.44 

■ I ill 1 ! Mil MINI 

SANTA CLARA Diskless Workstation . . . .S640.40 



w/Western Digital software S720.34 

Entry-level 286 Starter Kit, 4 Users 489.90 

Entry-level 286 Starter Kit. 8 Users SAVE 

NOVELL 286 Software w/Keycard 1569.09 

NOVELL SFT Netware Level I 2148.66 

NOVELL SFT Netware Level II V2.1 2757.60 

Nondedicated Netware Software 286 

w / Keycard 1495.09 


ARCNET PC110 LANBoard $199.27 

ARCNET PC210 LANBoard 249.50 

ETHERNET Interface Connector 329.80 

ETHERNET Plus Board (for 286) 709.74 

G-NET Interface Card w/cable 299.52 

WESTERN DIGITAL Ethernet Cards 269.10 


ARCNET Passive Hub S85.00 

ARCNET Active Hub 499.98 

Ethernet Terminators 37.50 

Novell trained and authorized sales and support. 
Call CDW for all new Software versions. 



1023 S3838.38 1043 S6535.15 

1042 7539.95 1044 10,305.06 

DXY-885 . . $1149.79 DPX-2000 . $3464.12 
DXY-990 . . . 1457.82 DPX-3300 . . 4689.52 


■ .'.M.H.'.H:H .|H,MI|'IM.i.JM'IM 

AST 5251-11 Plus $619.04 

EVEREX 1200B /2400B 109.90/199.50 

IRMA 3278/79 695.17 

PACKARD BELL 2400 lnt/2400 Exl . .169.95/199.22 


HAYES 1200 .. . $289.60 2400 $424.68 

1200B 269.20 2400B 379.65 


1200B S108.45 2400B 5199.70 

1200 External . .129.10 9600 HST 665.20 


1200 Int $194.50 2400 Int S299.10 

1200 Plus 228.88 2400 Ext 389.44 


PERMA POWER 6 Outlel Surge Supp S29.40 


BC-450 . 
4 outlet 

.$376.30 12x18 $632.50 

HP7440A ....$968.30 
HP7475A ....1417.44 

HP7550 2926.56 



HI DMP-42 

HI DMP-52/52MP 


HI DMP-61/62 

500 Watt 
800 Watt 

$419.78 LC-1200 $136.85 

748.55 LC-1800 189.75 



....$560.05 1200 Watt ....$994.75 
638.50 6 Outlet Surge ...27.85 

I I f I'l I II i I II I IM 



SHAHP FO-300S1220.10 TOSHIBA 3010. $1314.44 

SHARP FO-420 .1399.95 GBC-1656 1459.80 

SHARP FO-500 .1599.95 GBC-1236S 915.44 

A-B Switching Box (par. or serial) S39.95 

BASF 5 Pack of 10 DS/DD w/case 49.00 

KENSINGTON Masterpiece 99.99 

KENSINGTON Masterpiece Plus 118.40 

KEYTRONICS 5151 IBM or AT&T 149.95 

KEYTRONICS 101 104.65 

Printer Cable (IBM to Centronics) 6 ft 19.99 

XT Power Supply 150 Watt 69.95 

■i.M.i:im.i:ii;m ; iJ:TH*^ ; T^M 

CDW"' color card S 99.00 

CDW™ monographics card w/p 99.00 

GENOA Spectrum (color monographic w/p)168.75 

HERCULES color card w/p 146.16 

HERCULES monographics plus w/p 179.84 


m.'.m.'[.h:i ; m.'.h.'.m,'ih.1:i-m 

AT&T Monochrome Monitor S189.40 

AMDEK 310A/410A 119.99/149 99 

AMDEK 1280 679.78 

COMPAQ monochrome monitor 188.46 

COMPAQ VGA Mono 193.10 

IBM PS2 8503 187.90 

NEC Multisync GS 184.52 

NEC Monograph 1297.25 

PGS MAX 12E amber color 139.40 

PACKARD BELL Green or Amber 86.95 

TAXAN 123 Green/ 124 Ambe r ...119.50/124.05 


AMDEK color 600T/722 $349.24/444.49 

IBM PS2 8512 Color 428.40 

IBM PS2 8513 Enhanced Color 498.20 

SAMSUNG RGB Comp 238 60 

PGS HX-12 Plus 417.15 

TAXAN 650/720 469.90/299.80 

MAGNAVOX 8762 259.05 


COMPAQ VGA monitor $548.68 

MAGNAVOX 943EGA 387.40 

MITSUBISHI Diamond Scan 522.20 

NEC Multisync ll/PLUS 609J6/888.10 

NEC Multisync XL 19 inch ™. . 1974.46 

PACKARD BELL VGA Monitor 389.95 

PGS Ultrasync 515.33 

SONY Multiscan 1303/1302 599.45/54925 

TAXAN 770 PLUS 499.40 

ZENITH Z-1490 768.31 


ATI VGA VIP S307.24 

GENOA VGA 289.70 


ORCHID VGA 278.14 

VIDEO-7 VGA 299.15 


ATI Wonder Card S199.95 

GENOA Super EGA Hi-Res 800 x 600 . . .234.40 

NECMVA 1024 960.50 

NEC GB-1 640x480 239.43 

PARADISE Auto Switch EGA 480 169.65 

VIDEO 7 Vega Deluxe 249.74 


MITSUBISHI 6905, 19 inch $2295.96 

MITSUBISHI 6922, 19 inch 1974.60 

HITACHI 4119, 19 inch 2310.65 


VERMONT Cobra 1977.75 

METHEUS 1104 948.65 


LOGITECH HIRez $99.95 

LOGITECH C7/Bus 89.95/109 06 

LOGITECH Logimouse C7 w/publisher ...124.85 

MICROSOFT Mouse (Bus Version) 119.34 

MICROSOFT Mouse (Serial Version) 131.26 

MOUSE SYSTEMS (Serial Version) 99.55 

MOUSE SYSTEMS (Bus Version) 108.77 

MOUSE SYSTEMS Omnimouse 59.70 


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"knows" what the files contain. 

The other way machines can store text 
images is as bit-mapped images. In this 
case, the computer doesn't know that 
what it has stored is text; as far as the ma- 
chine is concerned, this may be a picture 
of the planet Jupiter, a random drawing 
made with a paint program by a 3-year- 
old, a line drawing of the Washington 
Monument, a Gary Larson cartoon, or 
anything else. The machine isn't ex- 
pected to know anything about the 
image: its only obligation is to faithfully 
reproduce it when called upon. The fact 
that this particular image happens to be a 
picture of a page of text is completely 

As an example: Mrs. Roberta Isdell 
Pournelle's father, the late Frank Isdell, 
was one of the early union organizers in 
the copper mines in Idaho. Those were 
rough times: his house was dynamited by 
the Pinkertons in retaliation for his union 
activities. Frank Isdell kept a journal, 
handwritten on yellow lined paper. It 
makes fascinating reading. Mr. Isdell 
died long enough ago that most of his 
grandchildren don't remember him well, 
and Mrs. Pournelle and I have decided to 
use our considerable computer resources 
to publish that diary so the kids will 
know just what their grandfather was 

The first part of that job is easy. We 
simply use an image scanner to make 
copies of his manuscript pages. Once we 
have those, we can reproduce them in any 
way we like, on paper with a laser printer 
or even as page images to be stored on a 
CD-ROM. What we'll have is the elec- 
tronic equivalent of photocopying or 
photographing those pages. 

The problem with that is, you can't do 
anything with the images other than re- 
produce them. Since the machine can't 
read those notes, it can't do spelling cor- 
rection. It can't index. We can't search 
for key words. Like a camera, it can only 
produce a new image copy; and that's not 
quite what we had in mind. Our intent is 
to produce an annotated work embedding 
Frank Isdell in his times, with notes and 
maps. To properly do what we want, 
we'll need true text files. The only way 
to get those is to have someone type them 
in. No computer is smart enough to take 
handwritten text and turn it into ma- 
chine-readable text. 

The Trouble with Kerning 

If Frank Isdell had typed his notes, we 
wouldn't have such a problem. There are 
hardware scanners with programs that 
recognize typescript letters, one letter at 
a time. If they encounter a typeface they 

haven't seen before, they can be taught 
that one, too. These machines are called 
optical character readers (OCRs). 

When an OCR sees the symbol ' ; ' , it is 
clever enough to recognize that as a 
semicolon and store it in memory as the 
binary equivalent of number 59. Simi- 
larly, an A is assigned the number 65, a 
is stored as 97, and so forth. The num- 
bers are ASCII. ASCII is an arbitrary 
scheme that assigns a unique number to 
every letter, number (from to 9), and 
punctuation mark. ASCII isn't the only 
such scheme — IBM sometimes uses a 
system called extended binary-coded 
decimal interchange code (EBCDIC), 
which assigns quite different numbers to 
each letter and punctuation mark— but 
it's the one used by all microcomputers. 

OCRs have been with us for a long 
time, and they're quite good for what 
they're intended for, which is typescript. 
The trouble arises with printed text. 
Whereas typescripts (with exceptions 
like the IBM Executive, but let's not 
complicate matters) allow the same 
width to each letter— the i takes up just as 
much room as the m — printed text 
doesn't work that way. Not only is the 
space allocated to the i less than that 
given the m, but some letters actually 
overlap, as for example when they type- 
set the letter combination WA. This pro- 
cess is known as kerning, and it has been 
around for centuries, because kerned text 
is more readable and just plain looks bet- 
ter than typescript. The trouble is that 
kerning confuses the computer. 

For years, we've heard announce- 
ments of OCR scanners that could read 
kerned text, and every now and then one 
comes out; but none of them has been 
worth much. At COMDEX, Flagstaff 
Engineering was demonstrating the Spot 
program that can take image-scanned 
text from either the Hewlett-Packard or 
the Panasonic scanner and turn that into 
machine-readable ASCII files. 

The program isn't perfect. It has to be 
taught each typeface, and every time it 
runs into a kerned pair it has never seen 
before, it complains until you teach it 
what it means. You have to tell it that the 
symbol WA is to be interpreted as two 
ASCII characters rather than one. Once 
it learns that, it remembers. Eventually, 
it will know all the kerning pairs in that 
particular book, after which it can read 
the book. 

I have a bunch of books I wrote on a 
typewriter before I got old Zeke. I either 
don't have the typescripts of those books , 
or they were so marked up in editing as to 
be unscannable; in any event, I have no 


106 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 

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detined as objects. Actor makes it easier to include 
and control windows in application programs. 
List:$495 Ours:S439 

SMALLTALK/V NEW V.2.0 — New version is a 
high-performance, production quality, object- 
oriented programming environment. Includes: 

• Advanced user interface leaturing windows, 
pop-up — menus and optional mouse. 

• A set of tools for organizing and browsing the 
Smalltalk — source code. 

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• Bitmap graphics with optional color support. 
List:S100 Ours:S85 
PFORCE + + — This C + + library provides 
everything necessary to build complete applications. 
Includes high-level classes for windows, databases, 
B-trees, fields, menus, rings, lists, communication 
tasks, time/dale stamps, BIOS and DOS access, etc. 
Complete source code included. 

List:J395 Ours:$215 

has MS Window's Support and gives you the 
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large complex programs with fewer bugs. Latest 
version supports MS C 4.0/5.0 and QuickC faster. 
List:$495 Ours:S479 


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EUREKA 167 119 

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A Division of Hudson Technologies, Inc. 
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AUGUST 1988 • B Y T E 107 


Items Discussed 


. $2675 


Maximum Storage 


5025 Centennial Blvd. 

Reference Software 

Colorado Springs, CO 80919 

330 Townsend, Suite 123 

(719) 531-6888 

San Francisco, CA 94107 

Inquiry 937. 

(415) 541-0222 
Inquiry 941. 


Traveling Software 


18702 North Creek Pkwy. 

Scandinavian PC Systems 

Bothell.WA 98011 

51 Monroe St., Suite 707A 

(206) 483-8088 

Rockville, MD 20850 

Inquiry 938. 

(800) 628-2828 ext. 982 
(301) 738-8826 

Cheetah 386 Motherboard . . . 


Inquiry 942. 

Cheetah International 

107 Community Blvd. , Suite 5 
Long view, TX 75602 



Borland International, Inc. 

(800) 243-3824 

4585 Scotts Valley Dr. 

Inquiry 939. 

Scotts Valley, CA 95066 
(408) 438-8400 



Inquiry 943. 

Print Shop 

. $34.95 

Broderbund Software 



17 Paul Dr. 

Flagstaff Engineering 

San Rafael, CA 94903 

1 120 Kaibab Lane 

(415) 492-3200 

Flagstaff, AZ 86001 

Inquiry 940. 

(602) 779-3341 
Inquiry 944. 

machine-readable copies of my early 
works, and no easy way of making any. 

That's all changing. Flagstaff Engi- 
neering has enough confidence in their 
programs that they're arranging to get 
me the loan of a Hewlett-Packard scan- 
ner, which they say will work with their 
software so that when we put printed 
copies of my old books in, we'll get ma- 
chine-readable language out. 

I can't wait to try that. 

Traveling Strikes Again 

Mark Eppley of Traveling Software 
doesn't seem to know the rules: he held a 
press conference (his first ever) at COM- 
DEX to announce a product they're actu- 
ally shipping. I understand that seven 
different PR agencies were so horrified 
they tried to straighten him out: you hold 
press conferences to announce stuff that 
you're going to ship Real Soon Now, not 
something that you've actually got out 
the door. 

Anyway, Traveling has a small mem- 
ory-resident program for laptops that 
keeps track of battery use. By doing 
Shift-Alt-B, you get a "fuel gauge" 
display that estimates the time remaining 
before the batteries in your particular 

laptop (you tell it which one you have 
during setup) go dead. 

This is one of those utilities Traveling 
developed largely for their own use, then 
partway through decided it was a salable 
product. You can live without it— I have 
for several years— but it's certainly a 
convenience if, like me, you have a faulty 
memory. I have several times got on an 
airplane with a partially charged Z-183 
and run out of juice before the flight was 
over. My fault, but very annoying. Trav- 
eling's Battery Watch program would 
have prevented that. 

I can't testify to its accuracy for all 
laptops, but I did test a prerelease version 
on my Z-183, and it's pretty good on 
that: it reported I had 2 hours left when in 
fact the machine ran for 2 hours and 10 
minutes. An hour later it reported 1.1 
hours remaining, so it was in fact updat- 
ing its prediction by watching my use 

Battery Watch has a "deep discharge" 
option designed to really run down your 
nickel-cadmium battery. Running it 
down until it's complete discharged and 
then recharging it maintains the capacity 
and increases the life span of the battery. 
Otherwise, the battery develops a "mem- 

ory"; if not completely discharged, it 
only partially recharges. The deep dis- 
charge option may be useful for some 
laptops, but it certainly isn't needed for 
the Z-183. When I tried the program, it 
did continuous reads on both the hard 
disk and floppy disk drives. 

Moreover, after I'd been running the 
deep discharge option and listening to it 
grind my hard disk and floppy disk 
drives for a while, the backlit screen 
turned itself off. The prerelease version 
of Battery Watch didn't know how to take 
control of that, which is odd, because you 
set the time-out constant (how long the 
screen will stay lit between keystrokes) 
in software, meaning that number has to 
be stored somewhere in the machine's 
memory. The backlit screen uses plenty 
of power, and if you can keep it on, that 
surely would be the most harmless way to 
deep discharge your battery. As it hap- 
pens, Norman Spinrad discovered a way 
to do just that on the Z-183: simply give 
the machine the SHIP command. 

SHIP is supposed to park the hard disk 
drive head in a landing zone, after which 
you turn off the computer. If you don't 
turn it off after issuing SHIP, the Z-183's 
screen backlighting stays on until the bat- 
tery is gone, which is surely a more be- 
nign way than grinding the disk drives. 

Mark Eppley says that the production 
version of Battery Watch does keep the 
backlight on during a deep discharge. 
And, although using SHIP is a gentler 
method to discharge the batteries, using 
the deep discharge option speeds up the 
entire discharge/recharge operation. 

The fuel-gauge part of Battery Watch 
works fine, and anyone who does a lot of 
traveling with a portable will be better 
off for it. 

Peep Shows 

One reason COMDEX wasn't very excit- 
ing was that about half the new stuff on 
display has been vaporware for a very 
long time: products announced but not 
yet demonstrated, much less shipping. 
No matter how exciting a product is, 
after you hear about it long enough you 
lose interest. 

Some companies know this, and they 
have a policy of not making public an- 
nouncements until they've really got a 
product. On the other hand, they also 
know that writers have an insatiable ap- 
petite for new things to write about, 
which presents them with something of 
a dilemma. 

One way out of that is what's known in 
the trade as a peep show: your booth on 
the show floor has only shipping prod- 


108 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 

Why build a printhead that 
can punch through aluminum, 
when all you need is a clear 
impression on a 5-part form? 

The answer is uncompromising quality. 

We built our new 300 Series 9-pin and 24-pin printers 
tougher and more reliable than they have to be. 
With printhead pins of carbaloy/tungsten, one of 
the hardest metals known, they're tough enough to 
make a crisp impression on a sheet of aluminum. So 
you can imagine how sharp they'll look driving clear 
to the bottom of a 5-part form. 

Even after printing on aluminum, 
we look this good on paper. 

Our engineers call this "championship specs." More 
than 3 million loyal users call it rugged reliability. 
And it shows in the quality and performance of 
every printer and modem we make. 

Call 1-800-OKIDATA for the dealer nearest you. 

Circle 160 on Reader Service Card 

Demonstration above made using a 24-pin M1CROLINE 391 
printer without ribbon on a sheet of .005 inch gauge aluminum. 
Actual, unretouched photograph. 

OKIDATA is a registered trademark of Oki America, Inc. 
Marque deposee de Oki America, Inc. 


m an OKI AMERICA company 

We put business on paper. 


ucts, but you also have a hotel suite where 
you bring selected distributors, dealers, 
and customers for private showings; and 
if there's any time left over in your 
schedule, you bring in reporters and col- 
umnists you can trust to respect informa- 
tion-release embargoes. As an example, I 
saw the Zenith laptop computers almost 
a year before they were announced to the 
public— I'm rather proud that they incor- 
porated a couple of my suggestions into 
the final product— and the Zenith Flat 
Technology Monitor long before it was 
shown to the industry in general. 

When I first began writing for BYTE, 
there was a full 4-month delay between 
my draft and the actual publication. Over 
the years, they've whittled that down a 
lot: I'm writing this on May 20, just be- 
fore the Science Fiction Writers of Amer- 
ica's annual Nebula Awards banquet, and 
it will be in the August issue, meaning 
that it will be on the stands in mid- July. 
Of course, I should have had this in a 
week ago. . . . 

Anyway, one of the COMDEX peep 
shows was held by Intel, and I have their 
permission to say this much: Intel has a 
new PCompatible communications sys- 
tem, hardware and software, that will 
knock your eye out. I've been saying for 
years "one user, at least one CPU," and 
Intel has taken that to heart. I guarantee 
you'll hear more about this one. 


I first saw Broderbund in San Francis- 
co's Brooks Hall at one of the early West 
Coast Computer Faires. They had a tiny 
booth over against one wall, and they 
were showing the best computer games 
I'd ever seen. The next year they had a 
larger booth, and the year after that they 
had one of the biggest in the show, all 
built around computer games. 

If you know computer games, you're 
likely to know something about com- 
puter graphics, and the temptation for 
games companies is to use that expertise 
in an attempt to penetrate the business 
market. Sometimes that doesn't work- 
few even remember the name of Info- 
com's business programs— but some- 
times it works spectacularly, as witness 
Broderbund's Print Shop low-end desk- 
top publishing programs and utilities for 
the IBM PC. 

I recently received a report that Print 
Shop was the best-selling PCompatible 
program of 1987, and I've no reason to 
doubt that. I've covered it in other col- 
umns; in the unlikely event you don't 
know about it and you have the slightest 
interest in using a PC for simple bread- 
and-butter print work, check it out. It's 

not as elegant as some of the high-end 
programs, but it's easy to get into and 
good enough for a heck of a lot of jobs . 

Anyway, Broderbund hasn't aban- 
doned games, but they have become a se- 
rious contender in the business and edu- 
cation markets. 

One of their better efforts is ForCom- 
ment: (despite the cutesy-pie name). 
This is a program that lets from a few to a 
whole bunch of people take text files, ex- 
amine them, and make editorial com- 
ments complete with date and initial 
stamps. The commented version can 
then be sent on to someone else, either by 
disk or through a local-area network 
(LAN). Either way, there are simple 
ways for the final editor to collate the 
comments and either implement or re- 
move them. One of the neatest features is 
selectivity: if one of the people making 
comments turns out to be a complete id- 
iot, you can set the system so that you'll 
never see those remarks. 

Despite the fact that Niven and I are 
about the most successful writing team 
since Nordoff and Hall, I'm no great fan 
of collective writing; realistically, 
though, most corporate documents are 
necessarily collaborative efforts. Policy 
memos have to be vetted by several de- 
partments. Letters often must be re- 
viewed by a number of specialists. All 
this can be expensive, especially if it's 
done in face-to- face meetings. 

ForComment: can take up some of that 
burden. It's easy to learn and easy to use, 
and it's not overdeveloped for the job it's 
supposed to do. It supports about a dozen 
word-processing programs (including, of 
course, straight ASCII text files). My 
only complaint about ForComment: is 
that it doesn't recognize Q&A Write, 
which is the editor Niven and I are using 
for our next novel. 

SideKick Plus 

Readers of this column will know that 
I'm a longtime addict of SideKick; in- 
deed, one of the reasons I abandoned old 
Zeke was that there was nothing like 
SideKick for CP/M. I can't imagine 
there's anyone out there who doesn't 
know what SideKick is, but just in case: 
it's a memory-resident program that 
gives you instant access to a notebook, 
calendar/datebook, desk calculator, 
phone book and dialer, and ASCII con- 
version table. It's a program you can get 
totally dependent on, as Mrs. Pournelle 
discovered after I installed a copy on her 
AT&T 6300 Plus machine. 

The only real problem with SideKick 
was that it ate too much memory; and 
since it was one of the earliest of the 

memory residents, it didn't cooperate too 
well with other such programs. If you 
loaded it last, though, it worked quite 
well; and if you used it in its own DESQ- 
view window, the memory requirements 
were no problem at all. Consequently, 
although I've had SideKick Plus for some 
time, I was in no hurry to install it. Bet- 
ter is the enemy of good enough, and 
SideKick was good enough. . . . 

That was foolish of me. SideKick Plus 
does a lot more than address SideKick' s 

It does take care of those. True, it uses 
more memory than SideKick did, but un- 
like its predecessor, SideKick Plus 
knows how to load most of itself into 
Lotus/Intel/Microsoft EMS 4.0 ex- 
panded memory. Of course, you must 
have an expanded memory board, but 
that's no problem: a whole bunch of ven- 
dors will be happy to sell you one. Alas, 
that will be expensive. A year ago, mem- 
ory was essentially free. Now, given the 
U.S. Department of Commerce's suc- 
cess in creating and enforcing a memory 
chip cartel— I guess the government 
thought Japan, Inc. , was at a competitive 
disadvantage and wanted to level the 
field— I don't know what a good ex- 
panded memory board will cost. 

The important thing is that SideKick 
Plus has a whole bunch of new features, 
including an outline processor that com- 
petes with Ready! . For the past couple of 
years, I've used both SideKick and 
Ready! (Ready! has always had the abil- 
ity to stuff most of itself into expanded 
memory, so it doesn't take up too much 
prime memory space); now, I'll prob- 
ably eliminate Ready! entirely. 

There are also alarm clocks, lots of 
enhancements to the calculator, real im- 
provements to the calendar/scheduler, 
and enough more that it's pointless to go 
on. If you liked SideKick, you'll love 
SideKick Plus. If you don't use Side- 
Kick, you probably ought to rethink your 
situation. It was that good, and SideKick 
Plus is even better. 
Strongly recommended. 

Developer's Dreams 

There's been a recent spate of news about 
a design defect in the Intel 80386/80387 
chip combination; sometimes when 
doing 32-bit calculations, the two chips 
get into an Alphonse/Gaston situation, 
each expecting the other to do something 
first, and the system is locked up. 

The latest major system here is a big 
20-MHz Cheetah 386, with a Priam 330- 
megabyte hard disk drive. The neat thing 
about the Cheetah 386 motherboard is 


110 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 

Mainframe Power for your PC! 

If you need or are accustomed to the 
throughput of a 32-bit mini, including any of 
DEC'S VAX series, MicroWay has great news 
for you. The combination of our NDP compilers 
and our mW1 167 numeric coprocessor gives 
your 386 PC, VAX speed! Jf you don't own a 
386 PC, we provide a number of economical 
PC and AT upgrade paths. 

Many of our NDP Fortran-386 users are 
reporting turn around times that are two to six 
times faster than their VAX. The exact times 
are a function of the VAX processor being used, 
the speed of the 386, the number of users being 
served by the VAX, and the coprocessor being 
used with the 386. There are currently over 400 
developers using our NDP tools to port 32-bit 
applications. To help the 386/1 1 67engineering 
standard emerge, MicroWay is co-marketing 
several mainframe applications that have been 
ported by our customers. In addition, this ad in- 

Dr. Robert Atwell, a leading defense scientist, 

calculates that NDP Fortran-386 is currently 

saving him $12,000 per month in rentals of 

VAX hardware and software while doubling 

his productivity! 

FredZiegler ofAspenTech in Cambridge, 

Mass. reports "I ported 900,000 lines of 

Fortran source in two weeks without a single 

problem!" AspenTech's Chemical Modeling 

System is in use on mainframes worldwide 

and is probably the largest application to ever 

run on an Intel processor. 

Dr. Jerry Ginsberg of Georgia Tech reports 

"My problems run a factor of six faster using 

NDP Fortran-386 on an mW1167 equipped 

386/20 than they do on my MicroVAX II." 

traduces the first of many utilities that will ease 
the porting of your favorite in-house programs. 
These include tools like NDP-Plot, which 
provides CalComp compatible screen and 
printer graphics, and NDP Windows. 

MicroWay has mW1 1 67 boards in stock that 
run on the Compaq 386/20, IBM PS2/80 
Tandy 4000, AT&T 6386, Acer 386/20 Everex 
Step 386/16(20), H.P. Vectra RS/16(20) and 
others. We now have a new board for the Com- 
paq 386/20 which combines an 1 167 with VGA 
support that is register compatible with IBM — 
the "SlotSaver". It features an extended 
800x600 high res mode that is ideal for 386 

Finally, we still offer the 1 6-bit software and 
hardware which made us famous. If you own a 
PC or AT and are looking for the best 
8087/80287 support on the market, call (508) 
746-7341 and we'll send you our full catalog. 

32-Bit Compilers and Tools 

NDP Fortran-386™ and NDP C-386™ Com- 
pilers generate globally optimized mainframe 
quality code and run in 386 protected mode 
under PharLap extended MS-DOS, UNIX, or 
XENIX. The memory model employed uses 2 
segments, each of which can be up to 4 
gigabytes in length. They generate code for the 
80287, 80387, or mW1 167. Both compilers in- 
clude high speed EGA graphics extensions 
written in C that perform BASIC-like screen 
operations $595 each 

• NDP Fortran-386™ Full implementation of 
FORTRAN-77 with Berkeley 4.2, VAX/VMS 
and Fortran-66 extensions. 

• NDP C-386™ Full implementation of AT&T's 
PCC with Microsoft and ANSI extensions. 

NDP Package Pricing: 
387FastPAK-16: NDP Compiler, PharLap, 
and 80387-16 Coprocessor $1299 

1167FastPAK-16: NDP Compiler, PharLap, 
and mW1 167-16 Coprocessor $1695 

NDP Windows™ — NDP Windows includes 80 
functions that let you create, store, and recall 
menus and windows. It works with NDP C-386 
and drives all the popular graphics adapters. 
Library $125, C Source $250 

NDP Plot™ — Calcomp compatible plot pack- 
age that is callable from NDP Fortran. It in- 
cludes drivers for the most popular plotters and 
printers and works with CGA, Hercules, EGA 
and VGA $325 

NDP/FFT™ — Includes 40 fast running, hand 
coded algorithms for single and double dimen- 
sioned FFTs which take advantage of the 32- 
bit addressing of the 386 or your hard disk. Call- 
able from NDP Fortran or NDP C with 1 167 and 

387 support $250 

387FFT for 1 6-bit compilers $250 

387BASIC™ — A 16-bit Microsoft compatible 
Basic Compiler that generates the smallest 
.EXE files and the fastest running numeric code 
on the market $249 


MicroWay 9 
80386 Support 

Parallel Processing 


The world's most popular Transputer develop- 
ment product runs all MicroWay Transputer 
software using either a T41 4 or T800. The T800 
processor has built-in numerics and provides 
performance comparable to an 80386 running 
at 20 MHz with an mW1 1 67. The new 3L Paral- 
lel C and Fortran Compilers makes this an 
especially attractive porting environment. Can 
be upgraded to 2 megabytes. 

Monoputer with T414 (0 MB) $995 

Monoputer with T800 (0 MB) $1495 


This board for the XT, AT, or 386 can be pur- 
chased with 2, 3 or 4 Transputers and 1 , 4 or 8 
megabytes of memory per Transputer. Two or 
more Quadputers can be linked together to 
build networks with mainframe power which 
use up to 36 Transputers. One customer's real- 
time financial application has gone from 8 
hours on a mainframe to 16 minutes on a sys- 
tem containing five Quadputers from $3495 

Transputer Compilers and Applications 

MicroWay and 3L offer Parallel languages for 
the Monoputer and Quadputer. 

MicroWay Parallel C $595 

MicroWay Occam2 $495 

3L Parallel C $895 

3L Parallel Fortran $895 

uPield — A specialty finite element analysis 
package targeted at Transputer networks. 
Ideally suited to take advantage of the 6 
Megaflop speed of the Quadputer $ 1 600 

Call (508) 746-7341 for our 
free catalog! 

Numeric Coprocessors 

mW1167™ — Built at MicroWay using Weitek 
components and an 80387 socket. 

mW1 167-16 $995 

mW1 167-20 $1595 

mW1 167/VGA-20 "SlotSaver" $1995 

8087 $99 

8087-2 $154 

80287-8 $239 

80287-10 $295 

80387-16 $475 

80387-20 $725 

287Turbo-1 2 (for AT compatibles) .... $450 


(All of our Intel coprocessors include 87Test.) 

PC and AT Accelerators 

MicroWay builds a number of 8086 and 80286- 
based PC accelerators that are backed up by 
the best customer support in the industry. 
Number Smasher™ (8087 &512K) . .$499 

FastCACHE-286/9 MHz $299 

FastCACHE-286/12 MHz $399 

SuperCACHE-286/12 MHz $499 

Intel Inboard™ PC (1 MB) $950 

Intelligent Serial Controllers 

MicroWay's AT4™, AT8™, and AT1 6™ are the 
fastest 80186-based intelligent serial control- 
lers on the market. They come with drivers for 
AT4...$795 AT8...$995 AT16...$1295 

32-Bit Applications 

COSMOS-M/386 — SRAC's finite element 
package for the 80386 with an 80387 or 
mW1167 provides mainframe speed and 
capacity. Turn around times rival the VAX 8650 
and are 6 to 15 times that of an AT: from $995 

PSTAT-386 — This mainframe statistics pack- 
age has been used by government and in- 
dustry for 20 years. The full version was ported. 
Requires 4 to 6 megabytes of memory: $1495 

NDP/NAG™ — Features a library of 800 en- 
gineering and scientific numerical algorithms. 
Callable from NDP Fortran $895 

The World Leader in PC Numerics 

P.O. Box 79, Kingston, MA 02364 USA (508) 746-7341 

32 High St., Kingston-Upon-Thames, U.K., 01-541-5466 

St. Leonards, NSW, Australia 02-439-8400 

Circle 151 on Reader Service Card 

AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 111 




• Auto Dimensioning 

• Do! Plot 

• Drafting ENH 1 
t Drafting ENH 2 


^tyyvVl^ products NOT 

TO 70% ^ 

^M»# SINCEm4 

C AD . . . etc. 


UPS ShipMate'" Manifest 


ASTTwbol.asei/PS Call 

Citizen t?0-l) SI39 

1800 S157 

MSP-15E 3295 

MSP-40 3269 

MSF-4S S3B9 

MSP-50 3359 

MSP-55 J449 

Premiere 35 3439 

Tribute 124 3439 

Tribute 224 J579 

Diconi* 160 S3D9 

K-P Laser Jel Series I! 


. Call 

HEC P-6 3425 




Panasonic IDSOi-M? 3155 

CHIPS 64k 256tf. 8087. 80287/387 






Personal User [Mad . 
Slar Micronics 






Toshiba 321 SL 3465 

341 SL 3609 

351 SX 3888 

351 C-2 HOIS 

. 3399 

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. 1419 

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Amdek 1280 w/GSKJ 3639 

Hilachi Call 

Lagilcch Mulliscan 1449 


Samsung Call 

Sigma Designs 

l.asoiVtew 15/ 19" Call 

Sony Mti Iti scan 1303 3549 

Diamond Scan 3475 Taxin Call 

Others Call Viking . 

NEC Multisync 3539 Mil 

Zenith 1490 Flatscruen . 



AtrtoCad Call 

Antobkcich 359 

Bneirii]G<,ipli3D 3195 

Can'/.is, (Macl 393 

Carbon Copy Plus SID3 

CPA- lor Loins 123 3199 

Clipper 3355 

Copy ll PC 319 

dBase Ml Plus 3355 

[)«M|VfLrt 369 

Dratix I Plus 3149 

Dratix 30 Mod/Options . . . Call 

DS flack-Up Plus 333 

Excel Mac/PC SI 76/3281 

FastBack Backup 375 

Fox Base Plus 3179 

GEM Draw Plus 3159 

Generic Cadd 3.0 355 

Generic & Dal Plot 3 371 

Generic Editor Chuice . .. 3119 

Generic Options Call 

Harvard Graphics 3255 

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Lighting HO Speedup 354 

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M,i!lii"..td2 3199 

MS-DoS 3.3 395 

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pfs Professional Plan ... 355 
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Q&A 3177 

QSA Write 3115 

Ouallro 3145 

R. Base tor DOS 3416 


iUPS Manliest) 3249 

S,f|s.:i Spool (Maci 336 

Tups (IBM or Mad 3101 

I in ho Basic 357 

Turbo C 357 

Ventura Publishing 11... 3454 

VersaCad/Lihtarles Call 

WordPerfect 3187 

X-Trec S35 

X-Tree Pro 363 


Calcomp 10-13 Gl 36195 

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Enter Sweel-p 600 3589 

Others Call 

Houston Instruments 

DMP 41/42 31999 

0MP51MP 33550 

DMP51/52MP 33150 

DMI'52 32680 

DMP56A S36B5 

DMP 61 33295 

DMP 62 34550 


MP Options 


11*11 lahlei ... 

15-15 Pro I ablet . 

HP Plotters Call 

laline Call 

JOL 350 Call 

KurtalS 12-12 3299 

IS 12*17 3499 


l?*12Plus 3344 

18-12 Professional . . . 3569 


AST Premium 286 1 1200 32380 

& 386 Call 1 1100(13100 

NEC Mullispeed 31289 Modem H.M $179 

Mullispeed EL 31545 13100/20 33050 

Toshiba TiOOO 3759 13200 33769 

T1100* .31359 [5100 S4879 


AST Boards Call 

ATI EGA Wonder 3169 

VIP VGA 3249 

Control Sys Artist Call 

Genoa SuperEGA 3195 

VGA 600-800 3269 

VGA 760-1024 1389 

Grappter C/Mac/GS 371 

Hercules Graphics Plus . 



Novell Network 286 .. . 

Number 9 

. . Call 
. 3259 

Paradise AiitoSwileh 

EGA 460 3145 

VGA Plus 3229 

VGA Pro 3349 

ProGrappler J7I 

Sigma Designs VGA 3199 

Tups Flashcard 3143 

Ultimate EGA- 

Autosw. P-port 3129 

Verllcom Call 

Video 7 Vega 

Deluxe w/VGA S177 

. Vega VGA 3259 


Hayes Call 

Mitsubishi -40/70 M!>1/2rtt 

AT 23-28ms Drive .... S499 
Seagate ST225 

20w/Card 3260 

ST238 30w/Card 3289 

SmarlModem 1200B & 

SW int 359 

24008 & SW 

Toshiba 3.5" XT/AT 

/20k Drive 

350k Drive 5 25 


US Robnllcs 

Courier 2400 


Logitech G7 

Serial/Bus 365 

Mi-Res Bus 185 Logimouse & 

Lugimouse Bus & Publisher . . . 

Paint 384 Microsoft lAmw . 


MHI Warehouse, Inc. 

P.O. Box 10261 -Phoenix, AZ 85064-0261 
TOLL FREE credit with order 


5 602-861-1090 

Customer Service Hrs 10-3 PT M-F 
Ordering Hours 7-5 PT M-F 9-2 SAT 

Crtf-aporoved t'O 5 sre AC'ii'ini: r'::CCS- r-;licr1 uash C!£rr..iii« sin-.!" '_u[>|(-.-r liul-jru;. A'UlHiut nonet Pinrjuct | 
COfinaiiWiiy wartam « I. cii'iK v: -■■■'.,)'>:'? l«-\j a I 'w-ilj ti,v-\ •)<■ y 6:1 renins ye stltiiccl lo a 
'CSiocJong fee ftrser«i/Cc ct!«*.s Celay Sft^Mifl W WOW 0"!v aCo 6 7 


that the Cheetah designers saw the 
80386/80387 lockup problem in ad- 
vance, and they are pretty sure they've 
designed around it. This kind of hard- 
ware arcana is a bit out of my league, but 
I do know this much: I've got a program 
said to invoke the Intel lockup bug, and it 
certainly doesn't do anything to the 
Cheetah. Since the bug is probabilistic, it 
could be that I just haven't run the lockup 
program long enough, or, who knows, 
there may be a bug in the bug program. 
But I don't seem to be able to do anything 
to that Cheetah that can hurt it. 

In fact, this machine is a developer's 
dream. It's blindingly fast. The Priam 
hard disk drive is large enough to store 
nearly every program I have. I have both 
1.2-megabyte high-density and 360K- 
byte "standard PC" floppy disk drives. 
The Cheetah links to everything else 
through a serial port: so far, I've tried 
Brooklyn Bridge, Traveling Software's 
LapLink and DeskLink, and Artisoft's 
LANtastic. All work fine, so I've had no 
problems transferring data into and out 
of the system. 

The real kicker is the Maximum Stor- 
age WORM drive. I seem lately to have 
developed a love affair with this thing. 

I talked about WORM drives last 
month. Now I'm ready to make a flat 
statement: any software developer or se- 
rious writer who doesn't have a WORM 
drive has rocks in his head. 

Well, OK, I know better than to say 
things like that. There are probably cir- 
cumstances I don't know about. How- 
ever, for serious software developers, 
money is not a good reason to avoid get- 
ting a WORM. If you're really serious 
about your software development or your 
writing, you can't afford not to have one. 
If your work is worth money, it's worth a 
good backup system; and the WORM is 
darned near the ultimate in backups. 

A WORM drive lets you save— and re- 
cover—every version of your work. A 
WORM cartridge holds between 200 and 
300 megabytes, and it costs a bit more 
than $100. You won't need more than one 
per software project. (Two if you're 
really a worrier: use them on alternate 
days, and keep one in a safety deposit box 
well away from your house or office. 
That way, a fire can't do you in.) 

I've used half a dozen WORM drives 
in the last couple of months; of those, the 
Maximum Storage WORM drive has 
been the simplest to install and easiest to 
use. One caution: WORM drives and the 
DOS program XCOPY do not work well 
together. I've had problems with it, and 
when I was out to Colorado Springs I 
found that the Air Force Academy com- 

« — Circle 154 on Reader Service Card 

puter science people had the same 

XCOPY sometimes does not save sub- 
directory information, even though it re- 
ports that it did. Later on, when you try 
to recover the files and can't find them, 
the tendency is to blame the WORM 
drive; but in fact the fault lies with 
XCOPY, which sometimes just plain gets 
lost in subdirectories. Microsoft says 
they're aware of this and will fix it. 

Enough about WORMs. What I'm 
really gushing about is the big Cheetah 
machine. Back in S-100-bus CP/M 
days, Dr. William Godbout's CompuPro 
machines dominated the development 
market: the major software developers 
had CompuPro machines, and most of 
those who didn't, wished they did. 

There's no similar situation in the 
PCompatible world. There may never be. 
I will say this: Cheetah has the potential. 
Their machines are reliable, fast, simple, 
and well designed. Combine a Cheetah 
386 motherboard, Priam 330-megabyte 
hard disk drive, and Maximum Storage 
WORM, and you've got something ap- 
proaching a software developer's dream 

Winding Down 

Once again I'm out of space, and there's 
still a huge pile of stuff on my "ready" 
table. One of the most important items is 
Artisoft's LANtastic, which is just pos- 
sibly good enough to make 1988 the year 
of the LAN. 

The game of the month is FTL's Dun- 
geon Master for the Atari ST. I warn you: 
this game is addicting. 

The book of the month is Infinite in All 
Directions by Freeman Dyson (Harper 
and Row). In 1887, Adam Gifford left a 
bequest to establish a series of lectures on 
natural theology. Since then, Gifford 
lecturers have included William James 
and Alfred North Whitehead. The 1985 
Gifford Lectures were given by Dyson. I 
certainly don't agree with him on many 
of his points, but Freeman Dyson is one 
of the sanest people I've ever met. ■ 

Jerry Pournelle holds a doctorate in psy- 
chology and is a science fiction writer 
who also earns a comfortable living writ- 
ing about computers present and future. 
Jerry welcomes readers' comments and 
opinions. Send a self-addressed, stamped 
envelope to Jerry Pournelle, do BYTE, 
One Phoenix Mill Lane, Peterborough, 
NH 03458. Please put your address on 
the letter as well as on the envelope. Due 
to the high volume of letters, Jerry cannot 
guarantee a personal reply. You can also 
contact him on BIX as "jerryp. " 

Microstat-ll will have you up and running in 5 minutes 

or your money back. 


perating Microstat-ll couldn't be 
easier. No matter what your 
statistical needs are. Simply select 
the options you need from the menu system 
with a keyboard or a mouse and your 
answer is available instantly. No complex 
command languages to learn. On-line help 
is only a keystroke away! Plus, it only 
takes three disks to operate the program. 
Microstat-ll is simple to use and fast! 

The #1 Selling Micro Statistical 
Package is Even Better! 

Microstat is by far the most popular 
micro statistics package of all time. Tens 
of thousands of satisfied customers have 
relied on Microstat since 1979 for all their 
statistical needs. Microstat has been used 
for every application imaginable from check- 
ing the brine content of tuna fish to keeping 
game statistics for an NFL football team/ 
Already 64 of the Fortune 100 companies 
have purchased Mictrostat Virtually every 
major university is presently using Microstat 
and over 10.000 copies have been sold to 
the US government. Microstat-ll is even 

The Coverage You Need 

Microstat-ll has the statistical tests you 
need. Just some of the areas of coverage 
are descriptive statistics, ANOVA. correla- 
tion and regression (with stepwise), time 
series, hypothesis testing, nonparametrics. 
crosstabs and chi-square. probability distri- 
butions, scatterplots, plus a lot more! 

Easier Installation 

Microstat-ll provides all this power with 
only 3 disks and can run on a hard disk or 
a floppy disk system with two drives. Our 
competitors use up to 21 disks and most 
require a hard disk. Plus Microstat-ll is not 
copy protected. 

Even Greater Flexibility 

We have completely redesigned the data 
management section to include features our 
users have requested. You can have unequal 
cases in the same file, aliased variables, 
missing data, range checking, and built-in 
scalars on data entry, plus other new fea- 
tures. You can even use a mouse! 

Improved Speed and Interface 

Microstat-ll is 8 times faster than our 
own Microstat version 4.0 and almost twice 
as fast as the competition. This exceptional 
speed was achieved without any loss of 
accuracy. When running descriptive sta- 
tistics the results were staggering (can be 
even faster with a numeric co-processor): 

Microstat-II 88 seconds 

Leading Competitor 160 seconds 

Microstat 4.0 . .731 seconds 

In seconds. Tests on an 8 MHz AT-type machine, [no co- 
processor). File with \ 2.800 cases. 

The user interface has also been greatly 
improved. A full-model regression on the 
infamous Longley data takes only 9 strokes 
with Microstat-ll. One competing package, 
which claims to have the easiest command 
structure, requires 88 strokes. Plus, a 
specifically designed reversable scrolling 
feature has been added to save you even 




Organization . 

more time. You don't have to rerun a test 
to see output that has scrolled off the 

Introductory Price Just $395 until 
September 1, 1988 

Microstat-ll is being offered at the low 
introductory price of just $395 complete. 
Want just a peek at Microstat-ll? We'll send 
you a demo disk and manual forjust 519.95. 
Also, a generous update program is available 
lor our loyal Microstat customers. Just 

Absolutely Guaranteed 

We are so sure that Microstat-ll will 
satisfy all your statistic needs that we will 
offer a 30-day no risk money-back guarantee. 

Make statistics easy, order 
Microstat-II today! 


Ecosoft Inc. Circle 83 on Reader Service Card 

6413 N. College Ave.. Suite 101. 
Indianapolis. IN 46220 

□ Please send me copy(s) of Microstat-ll and a complete 

manual at the low introductory price of $395.00 

□ Please send me copy(s) ol Microstat II Demo Disk and 

summary manual forjust $ 19.95. 

Add S4 per package for UPS shipping charges. Indiana residents add 5% 
sales tax. 

Format: D 5 \n "IBM D3VIBM [J5'x 1.2 meg 
D Please send me a Microstat-ll brochure. 

□ Please send me information on upgrading my Microstat 
package to Microstat-ll. 


State . 

Zip . 


□ Bill my credit card. 
Account Number 

VISA □ MC T 1 American Express 
Expiration Date 


see here 


. -timiitsa'iiiMttPki 

1 2 MH i80286 

1Mb onboard DRAM 

Full set of AT- 
compatible controllers 

Hercules compatible 


HD/FD controllers 
... and more 

Big power 

for smaller systems. 

Little Board/286 is the newest 
member of our family of MS-DOS 
compatible Single Board Systems. It gives 
you the power of an AT in the cubic inches 
of a half height 51/4" disk drive. It requires 
no backplane. It's a complete AT-compat- 
ible system that's functionally equivalent to 
the 5-board system above. But, in less than 
6% of the volume. It runs all AT software. 
And its low-power requirement means 
high reliability and great performance in 
harsh environments. 

Ideal for embedded & dedicated 
applications. The low power and tiny 
form factor of Little Board/286 are perfect 
for embedded microcomputer applica- 
tions: data acquisition, controllers, 
portable instruments, telecommunica- 
tions, diskless workstations, POS terminals 
. . . virtually anywhere that small size and 
complete AT hardware and software 
compatibility are an advantage. 

you see here* 


Compare features. 

Both systems offer: 

• 12MHz CPU 

• 5 12K or 1Mbyte on- 
board DRAM 

• 80287 math co-processor 

• Full set of AT-compatible 

• 2RS232Cports 

• Parallel printer port 

• Floppy disk controller 

• EGA/CGA/MDA/Hercules 
video options 

• AT-compatible bus 

• A wide range of 
expansion options 

• IBM-compatible Award 

But only Little 
Board/286 offers: 

• 5.75 "x 8" form factor 

• EGA/CGA/MDA/Hercules 
on a daughterboard with 
no increase in volume 

• SCSI bus support for a 
wide variety of devices: 

I lard disk to bubble drives 

• On-board 1Kbit serial 
EPROM. 512 bits available 
for OEMs 

• Two byte-wide sockets 
NOVRAM expansion 

( usable as on-board solid- 
state disk) 

• Single voltage operation 

• Less than 10W power 

• 0-60 c C operating range 

Trademarks: ATS PC— IBM Corp.; 
Hercules — Hercules Comp. Tech., 
Inc.: MS-DOS— Microsoft Corp.; 
(itilc Board— Ampro Computers, Inc. 

Better answers for OEMs. 

Little Board/286 is not only a smaller 
answer, it's a better answer . . . offering 
the packaging flexibility, reliability, low 
power consumption and I/O capabilities 
OEMs need ... at a very attractive price. 
And like all Ampro Little Board products, 
Little Board/286 is available through 
representatives nationwide, and world- 
wide. For more information and the name 
of your nearest Rep, call us today at the 
number below. Or, write for Ampro Little 
Board/286 product literature. 


Fax:408-734-2939 TLX: 4940302 

Reps: Australia-61 3 720-3298; Belgium-32 87 46.90.12; Canada-(604) 438-0028; Denmark-45 3 
lsrael-972-3 49-16-95; llaly-39 6 811-9406; Japan-81 3 257-2630; Spain-34 3 204-2099; Sweden-46 I 

114 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 


1 1 30 Mountain View/ Alviso Road 
Sunnyvale, CA 94089 

66 20 20; Finland-358 585-322; France-331 4502-1800; Germany, Wesl-49 89 611-6151; 
8 55-00-65; Switzerland -41 1 740-41-05; United Kingdom-44 2 964-35511; USA, contact AMPRO. 


Ezra Shapiro 



The column and 
a shareware classic 
get a "Plus," and 
GrandView defines a 
new class of software 

Understanding why we've 
changed the name of the col- 
umn from "Applications 
Only" to "Applications 
Plus" requires a little historical perspec- 
tive. When I began writing it, BYTE had 
no equivalent of today's Short Takes, 
and application reviews in general were 
in short supply. The name "Applications 
Only" was a signal to readers interested 
in software that here, at least, they could 
find reactions to lots of programs. 

Times change, and BYTE's coverage 
of software has expanded noticeably. 
There is no longer quite the pressing need 
for short reviews. I've also found that the 
name has caused me grief when I've 
found myself writing about hardware 
or— heaven forfend!— programming. 
Every time I've digressed into those 
areas, I've had to concoct some strained 
rationale for the excursion. 

So we've borrowed a gambit from the 
software business by giving the column a 
"Plus." It sounded better than "En- 
hanced. " The major change will be a lit- 
tle breathing room for the author, yours 
truly. The core material will remain 
software-oriented, but I won't feel 
sheepish if I write about industry issues 
or trackballs. I'm also hoping to add 
more head-to-head comparisons of prod- 
ucts and maybe a few application proj- 
ects. Expect any changes gradually, and 
let me know if they work. 

Beyond ThinkTank 

When I first heard about GrandView 
(Symantec, $295), I had no idea what to 


expect. The name sounded more appro- 
priate for a street, or possibly a suburb, 
than it did for software. Also, I had been 
betting that the next product from the 
Living Videotext Division of Symantec 
would be an MS-DOS version of More, 
the state-of-the-art Macintosh outliner. 
So when I plugged in GrandView, I was 
wondering whether I would find More 
. . .or less. 

In fact, GrandView could probably be 
called "too much of a good thing." It's 
billed as "Desktop Planning, Writing, 
and Information Management," and 
there's a lot to it. It is not merely an up- 
grade to ThinkTank. This is a new type 
of software, and on first glance it com- 
bines aspects of an outliner with solid 
word processing, project tracking, and 
categorization. It strikes me as being a 
comprehensive blend of ThinkTank, 
Q&A Write, InstaPlan, and possibly 
SideKick Plus, though it does not borrow 
all the features of each of those products. 

If you're familiar with the long devel- 

opment history of Living Videotext out- 
line packages, you've noticed a steady 
movement from pure outlining to, well, 
information management (for want of a 
more precise term). The company has 
done a superb job of listening to its cus- 
tomers, and GrandView represents the 
latest attempt to serve the needs of the 
business executive. ThinkTank users 
have been crying for better word process- 
ing, and they have slavered at More. 
They've used the outliners to develop to- 
do lists, plan projects, store databases of 
names and addresses, develop agendas, 
and so on. 

Living Videotext staffers have been 
amazed at the odd tasks their programs 
have been forced to perform. And gradu- 
ally, the sample files included with the 
rest of the product line have changed to 
reflect this trend, to the point where the 
examples could be called "A Manager's 
Guide." If you were to develop generic 
documents by sweeping all the paper off 


AUGUST 1988 'BYTE 115 


an executive's desk and analyzing the 
contents, you'd get the idea. 

'Anyway, you start by developing an 
outline, but you can switch instantly to a 
document view with full-power word 
processing (and spelling checking, I 
might add), or to a category view, where 
you can attach keywords and priorities to 
items. Thus, you can produce a more 
personally styled output document than 
you could with ThinkTank, and you can 
easily home in on important tasks. 

The outliner, which can be seen as the 
organizing spine of the program, lets you 
perform all the usual Living Videotext 
operations: cloning, hoisting, marking 
and gathering, time stamping, and so on. 
You've got keyboard macro capacities, 
and GrandView lets you construct instal- 
lable templates so you can quickly zap a 
preset form into your outline. 

Aside from a few minor annoyances, 
such as the fact that once you've asked 
the installation program to set up a sec- 





Public Domain & Shareware for IBM and Compatible* - DOS 2.1 or higher 
Program! and utilities for all your computing needa 

■ :|IMIJI4H-H 


3 EZ-FORMS Rew D15 (66) - Menu driv- 
en forms generator, misc. skeleton forms. 
3 SBAS V1.3 (270) - Small Business Ac- 
counting System. Menu-driven. Best avail 

□ PRO PC-ACCT V3.0 (526) - integrated 
G/L.A/R & A'P. Menu-driven. Help. 

□ EAST PROJECT V 1.2 (440) -Complete 
project management system. Excellent. 

driven, mortgages. Interest, etc. 

Q CK • CHECKBOOK V3. 1 (79) ■ Full fea- 
tured checkbook program with reports. 
3 BIDS Tf gUOTES V0.9 (463) - Prepares 
cost estimates & proposals. Does labor, 
material, sub -con tract or costs, etc. 

□ BUSINESS LETTERS (303 & 304) - 12 
disk set! 650 business letters to fit all 
your needs. Edit WJ any word processor. 
3 MR. BILL V3.2 (311 ft 312) ■ (2 disk 
set) Time & billing package; costs, credits, 
reports, audit trail, etc. 

□ PC-PAYROLL V2.3 (464) - Menu driv- 
en payroll system; 100 employees or less. 

□ RENTAL PROPERTY (318) - Keeps 
track of rental activity. Menu driven. 

□ SLICWORKS (321) - Framework clone. 
Integrated database, spreadsheet, word 
processor, & communications. 

Tracks Inventory of a parts & service 
business; qty. ordered, supplier, etc. 

3 DOCKETMTNDER V1.2 (448) - Main- 
tain docket for lawyer or law firm. 
3 FINANCE MANAGER V4.0 (77) Ac- 
counting package for business or person- 
al finances. Double entry system. 
3 SOAR VI. 92 (449 ft 450) 12 disk set) 
Accounts receivable program. Handles a 
variety of services or products. 


292) - 13 disk set) Turn your computer 

Into a RBBS. Industry standard. 

3 QMODEM V3.1 (293 ft 294) - (2 disk 

set) Full featured modem program. 

3 PROCOMM V2.42 (53 ft 54) (2 disk 

set) Menu driven modem program. 

3 FILE EXPRESS V4.14 (33 ft 34) - (2 
disk set) Menu driven, easy to use data- 
base for beginners to experienced. 
□ WAMPUM V3.1B (37 ft 38) - [2 disk 
set) Menu driven dBase 111 clone, supports 
functions of dBase. Knowledge of dBase 
suggested. Latest update. 
3 PC-FILE + V2.0 (493 - 490)- 13 disk 
set) Full-featured database; help screens, 
menus, macros. One of the best. 
3 dGENERATE V1.0 (511) - Screen & 
source code generator by Tom Rettlg. 
dBase Hi required. 

□ COMPOSER (3) - Create, save. edit, 
play. & print your music. Nice... 
3 LETTERFALL VI. 1 (119) - Improve 
your touch typing skills; 16 levels. 


□ THE WORLD 3D (127) - Display 

of the world. CGA required. 

□ FUNNELS ft BUCKETS V 2.0 (130) 
Great learning game; add. subtract, multi 
ply. fit divide. Ages 5 - 10. 

□ ERYN-8 ABC'S (131) - Teaches alpha 
bet & numbers. Computerized Etch-a 
Sketch. Ages 2 -6. Basic required. 

3 AMY'S FIRST PRIMER (133)- Alpha 
bet, numbers, counting, shapes, match 
Ing. etc. Ages 4 - 8. CGA & Basic req. 
3 POLYGLOT V6.01 (139) - Vocabulary' 
builder. Grades 7 .college. Excellent. 

3 BLACKJACK (95) - Advanced black 

Jack game with tutor, multiple players. 

Best one yet. CGA or Hercules, 

■J MONOPOLY V6.7 (106) - Just like the 

board game. 2 to 4 players. CGA req. 

3 DUNGEONS ft DRAGONS VI. 1 (205) 

The Classic Game. Can you survive 1 ? 

Q LAS VEGAS (116) - Craps. Roullete. 

Poker. & more. CGA req.. Basic on some. 

3 3D CHESS VI. 01 (215) - Excellent 

chess game. Switch between 2D & 3D. 

3 SOLITAIRE (211) 4 different games. 

Nice graphics. CGA required. 

3 SUPER PDTBALL (212) 5 different 

games. CGA required. 

3 WORDPLAY (367) - Wheel of Fortune 

clone. You provide the prizes. CGA req. 


Pick your team S players. Nice graphics. 

□ MINIATURE GOLF (505) IS hole golf 
course with graphics. 

3 FINGERPATNT V2.0 (282) - Paint pro 

gram: 6 fonts. 81 sizes . Desktop publish- 
ing & slide-show. CGA. EGA. or Hercules. 
3 CALENDAR CREATOR (350) - Create 
& print your own monthly calendar. 
3 DANCAD 3D V2.0B (424 ft 425) - 12 
disk set) Advanced 2D<3D drafting pro 
gram. Stereoscopic 3D wire frame anima- 
tion. EGA. CGA. Hercules. 640k req. 
3 CITY DESK V6.0 (197) - Desktop pub 
Usher with graphics capabiliy. 

□ TURBO "C" TUTOR (489 & 490) - 12 
disk set) 1 4 lesson tutorial : learn to pro- 
gram In "C" language. 

3 "C" LANGUAGE V2.1 (299 ft 300) - 12 

disk set) Complete programming environ 
ment. Source, compiler, samples. 

□ TURBO PASCAL TUTOR (20) 1 7 les- 
son tutorial with samples, etc. 

3 STRESS ft SHRINK (74) - Stress 

stress test. Shrink - personality analysis. 

3 FASTBUCKS (191) - Menu driven 

home finance package. Easy to use. 

3 HEALTH RISK (331) Diagnose your 

own ailments. 

3 LITTLE BLACK BOOK (441) Creates 

pocket sized address book. Prints mini 

alphabetized pages. 

3 TIMESAVER (442) Create daily 

monthly calendar of appointments. 

3 LOTUS 123 PROGRAMS (28 - 32) - (5 

disk setl Contains as many applications 
and utilities that we could find. Requires 
Lotus 123 program. 

Beginning tutorial for Lotus 123. 

3 AS EASY AS V3.0 (302) - Lotus clone. 
52 column sheet, graphing, supports 
functions or 123. "WHS" dies. etc. 

3 DOS HELP (265) - Help screen for DOS 

commands, functions & batch files at your 
fingertips. For DOS 3J0C. 

□ DOS TUTORIAL V4.2 (256) - Menu 
driven, learn to use your computer. 

3 LQ V2.1 (509) - Produces high quality 
text on dot matrix printers. Multiple fonts 
with print spooler. 

□ LASERJET FONTS / II (471 ft 472) - 12 
disk set) More downloadable fonts for HP 
Laserjet Plus 'II. Helvetica, Script, etc. 


Contains 'Pamphlet' (sideways printing) & 

misc. other utilities Sc fonts. 

3 PRINTPROV1.2 (468) -Change printer 

operation from within ANT application at 

ANY time. 

3 DESKMATE8 V1.01 (278) - Sidekick 

like utility plus more features. 

3 AUTOMENU V4.01 (280) - Access pro 

grams, batch tiles, commands, etc. 


3 SIDEWPJTER (6) - Sideways" printing. 
3 PC-WRITE V2. 71 (9 A 10) - 12 disk setl 

Full featured word processor; all the fea- 
tures of the expensive one's. 
3 LETTERHEAD (89) - Create and print 
your own letterhead on letters and enve- 
lopes. IBM 'Epson comp. printer req. 
3 GALAXY V2. 3 (11) - Easy to use word 
processor; menus & quick keyboard com- 
mands. Lots of features. 
3 PC TYPE + (373 - 375) - (3 disk set) A 
powerful word processor. Buttonware. 







I H of 5.25'disks Jf82.99= 

! CA Res. Sales Tax [6.5% 1= 
| Shipping* Handling = 


| Mall order fort 

116 BYTE • AUGUST 1988 

1 466 Sprlngllne Drive Dept. B7 
Palmdale.CA 93550 

or write for fret catalog containing o- 

500 disk, of quality software. 

Hours: M-F 9am - 5pm PST 

3.5" media - S3.99 ea. 

Sorry, no Credit Card Ordera. J 

Circle 172 on Reader Service Card 

ond printer you can't back down from 
that decision, the program is as solid as 
Living Videotext' s other offerings, and 
the company has one of the best records 
in the business for shipping hassle-free 
products. I encountered no oddities, but 
the 3 weeks I've been testing have been 
far from enough to hit all the options. 

But I have found the program rather 
Byzantine. You can't just plug it in and 
go; gotta read the manual or you're lost. 
Good documentation and on-line help 
provide a big assist, but you won't learn 
the program without a few hours of hard 
study. While the integration is smooth 
and painless— you can switch quickly 
among the various views— it's also con- 
fusing at first go. Once they've mastered 
it, GrandView enthusiasts will spend 
most of their time living in the software, 
only coming up for air to fiddle with a 
spreadsheet or database. 

For the quick-and-dirty outline per- 
son, like me, who likes to have Ready! 
around so that I can jot quick notes, 
GrandView is simply overkill. But I have 
to say that this is a first impression. I'm 
still flustered by the category view, and I 
need to experiment in depth. 

One of the problems facing people 
who evaluate software is the need to 
write about new products as soon as pos- 
sible after they hit the street. GrandView 
demands much more study. I suspect 
that, as with any complicated piece of 
software, I'm going to have to ease into it 
and work with it for a while before pass- 
ing final judgment. Think of WordStar, 
Xy Write, dBASE, or most spreadsheets; 
you can get the rudiments in a few 
weeks, but the programs seem tough at 
that point. It's not until you've explored 
the nooks and crannies that you appreci- 
ate their real power. 

Though my first reaction is somewhat 
negative, I'm positive that the product 
will succeed in management applications 
and that anybody who is looking for a 
tool that goes beyond simple outlining 
will be delighted by GrandView. So I'm 
going to hold off, take some time, and 
give you an extended-use report in a few 
months. GrandView is intriguing and 
important enough to demand at least that 
much attention. 

A Way with Words 

It certainly isn't the greatest word pro- 
cessor ever sold, but Professional Write 
2.0 (Software Publishing, $199) is 
without question a solid and workable 
MS-DOS program. There's something 
comfortable about the Software Publish- 
ing interface; you know what you're 




for speed, 





Bay Technical Associates, Inc., Data Communications Products Division 

200 N. Second St., Bay Saint Louis, MS 39520 USA 

Telex 910-333-1618 BAYTECH, Telephone 601-467-8231 or toll-free 



• The Data Exchange System, 
Model 24, allows high speed 
exchange of data between 
computers, printers and other 

• Powerful 16-bit CPU plus 
multiple high performance I/O 
processors allow super high 
speed transfer of data 
demanded by new faster 
computers and software. 

• Optimum flexibility: Select 
the right combination of serial 
and parallel ports, and set any 
of these ports as a peripheral 
port or as a computer port. 

• Basic unit expandable to 24 
ports by 4-port modules offered 
in serial/parallel combinations. 

• Standard 512KB buffer 
expandable to 4V2 megabytes, 
to handle big print/plot jobs 
and many small ones. 

• Buffer memory dynamically 
allocated to maximize buffer 

• Simultaneous data input and 
output on all ports, so no 
devices are kept waiting. 

• Computer-to-computer 
communication concurrent 
with all other operations. 

• Full duplex communication 
allows file transfer capability 
with many communications 
software packages. 

• Compatible with virtually all 
computers, printers, plotters, 
modems and other peripherals. 

• Pop-up RAM resident PC 
support software allows 
peripheral selection via hot key. 

• Super fast throughput allows 
data to pass through with no 
apparent processing delays. 

• Many user-definable 
parameters including separate 
baud rates, flow control and 
parity for each port. 

• Internal serial-to-parallel and 
parallel-to-serial conversion. 

• Cascading capability to 
increase available number 
of ports. 

• Unlimited hotline tech 

• Designed and manufactured 
in the U.S.A. 

Circle 23 on Reader Service Card 


doing from the start, and you rarely have 
to consult the excellent manual. 

I had almost forgotten how pleasant it 
is to work with this company's products. 
Software Publishing is another of the few 
big companies that rarely releases buggy 
software, and it aims at the businessper- 
son who ' s intent on getting to work rather 
than the computer guru who's in love 
with technicalities. 

By now, the interface itself has be- 
come something of a standard. You've 
seen it in PFS:Write, Q&A, and a host of 
imitators. Function-key menu bar across 
the top of the screen, boxed center area 
for your typing, ruler and two status lines 
across the bottom. Hit one of the function 
keys, and a longer menu pops down. De- 
fault selections in menus are always 
highlighted, and the default choices 
make sense. 

Most commands can be selected either 
from the menus or by hitting a Control 
sequence (Alt combinations are reserved 
for macros). Nothing fancy, and good 
correlation with printed output. It will 
probably offend the purists who prefer an 
absolutely blank screen, but the rest of us 
will find it unobtrusive. You've got three 
pleasant color schemes to choose from, 
and all of them are easy on the eyes (es- 
pecially on an EGA monitor or better). 

Here's what you get with Professional 
Write 2.0: a spelling checker with a 
77,000-word main dictionary and a 
5000-word personal dictionary. A 
20,000-word thesaurus. A built-in calcu- 
lator and column math. An address book 
for mail merge that has a nice entry 
screen and room for 2000 entries. Auto- 
matic envelope printing (nice, if your 
printer can handle it). Macro recording. 
Line drawing, and access to the extended 
character set. Support for expanded 
memory. File encryption. A wide selec- 
tion of printers and multiple font capabil- 
ity, including PostScript. Context-sensi- 
tive help. 

Nothing spectacular in that list, but 
Professional Write does offer a couple of 
tricks worth mentioning. Not only can 
you save a 40-character description of 
each file, but you can search the com- 
plete text of all your Professional Write 
documents, directory by directory, look- 
ing for a specific search string. And the 
program imports files from major word 
processors, Lotus 1-2-3, and dBASE III 
without any headaches. 

Using the program takes absolutely no 
brains, and I couldn't break it as hard as I 
tried. My quibbles with it are relatively 
minor: I'd prefer a larger user dictio- 
nary, and the 2000-entry limit on ad- 
dress books seems low, even though you 


GrandView $295 

Symantec Corp. 

Living Videotext Division 

117 Easy St. 

Mountain View, CA 94043 

(415) 964-6300 

Inquiry 934. 

ProcommPlus $75 

Datastorm Technologies, Inc. 
P.O. Box 1471 
Columbia, MO 65205 
(314) 449-7012 
Inquiry 935. 

Professional Write 2.0 $ 1 99 

Software Publishing Corp. 
P.O. Box 7210 
Mountain View, CA 94039 
(415) 962-8910 
Inquiry 936. 

can create as many as you require. 

I do, however, question the use of the 
word "Professional" in the program's 
name. This product strikes me as a basic 
word processor, fine for everyday use 
but probably not the best available for 
industrial-strength applications. You 
could probably write a book with it, but I 
wouldn't want to use it for a doctoral dis- 
sertation in math or physics. Likewise, it 
lacks legal line numbering and multiple- 
column printout. So it's not really a top- 
echelon package. 

Professional Write 2.0 is a good 
answer to Q&A Write, with a few fea- 
tures not available there, but I do rec- 
ommend checking out the Symantec 
product if Professional Write sounds in- 
teresting to you. In fact, you probably 
ought to get demonstrations of a few 
other midlevel word processors at the 
same time. You won't be disappointed 
with Professional Write, but it's kind of a 
Ford. Depending on taste, you might do 
just as well with a Chevrolet. 

Shareware to Commercialware 

This column is not the only thing to add a 
"Plus" to its name; Procomm, that ven- 
erable shareware workhorse, has gone 
commercial and has become Procomm 
Plus (Datastorm, $75). The only way to 
get your hands on this new revision of the 
product is to buy it from a dealer or order 
it directly; you won't find the Plus ver- 
sion on your local bulletin board. Tom 
Smith and Bruce Barkelew, the authors 

of the program, are two of the nicest guys 
in the business, and I hope the change in 
the program's status lets them earn a de- 
cent living at last. 

Procomm was definitely one of my fa- 
vorite telecommunications packages: 
full-featured, clean, and fairly easy to 
understand. Procomm Plus adds some 
new stuff: support for more file-transfer 
protocols than I knew existed (including 
Kermit and a couple for error-correcting 
high-speed modems), emulation of any 
terminal you'd ever want to emulate, 
split-screen mode for CB-style on-line 
chat, host mode for interactive dial-in 
operations, and a simple text editor. 

The neatest addition is a decent script 
language that can be mastered easily; the 
team's earlier efforts required you to 
write in gibberish. The program already 
had a good interface for setting keyboard 
macros, exit to DOS as a shell operation, 
automatic session logging if desired, and 
a one-keystroke screen capture. 

There are two other advantages to buy- 
ing the private version. The first is the 
printed manual. Procomm Plus has some 
complex aspects, and step-by-step docu- 
mentation is a big help. The second ad- 
vantage is the support files you get in the 
package, which include scripts for every 
major on-line service and widespread 
bulletin board software; and dialing di- 
rectories for bulletin boards in Atlanta, 
Austin, Boston, Chicago, San Francisco, 
and Washington, DC. The package also 
includes long lists of both U.S. and inter- 
national bulletin boards. This is the kind 
of nicety that is almost never provided 
with shareware. 

The program is certainly the equal of 
many packages already on the market, 
and it can legitimately compete with the 
category leaders. Note, however, that 
there is no provision for background op- 
eration, and that the script language falls 
short of some of the more extensive pack- 
ages, like Mirror II, the latest Crosstalk, 
and Framework. 

But on the whole, you won't go wrong 
purchasing and using Procomm Plus 
unless your requirements are sophisti- 
cated in the extreme. For day-to-day tele- 
communications, this is highly recom- 
mended. ■ 

Ezra Shapiro is a consulting editor for 
BYTE. You can contact him on BIX as 
"ezra. " Because of the volume of mail he 
receives, Ezra, regretfully, cannot re- 
spond to each inquiry. 

Your questions and comments are wel- 
come. Write to: Editor, BYTE, One 
Phoenix Mill Lane, Peterborough, NH 

118 BYTE' AUGUST 1988 




... "Makes building PS/2 boards simple" 


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PS/2 and Micro Channel are trademarks of International Business Machines 

ONE CHIP PLUS is a trademark of Capital Equipment Corp. 

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Circle 40 on Reader Service Card 

AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 119 

Make your programs 

millions of times 


More and more, programmers and work- 
station builders are using DESQview 2.0 as a 
development tool. The reason is simple. 
They can create powerful, multitasking 
solutions today for the millions of DOS PCs 
in use today. Solutions comparable to those 
promised for tomorrow by OS/2. 

The API Advantage 

Programmers who take advantage of DESQview's API 
(Application Program Interface) get access to the powerful 
capabilities built into DESQview-multitasking, window- 
ing, intertask comunications, mailboxes, shared programs, 
memory management, mousing, data transfer, menu- 
building and context sensitive help. 

Bells and Whistles 

A program taking advantage of the DESQview 2.0 API can 
spawn subtasks for performing background operations or 
new processes for loading and running other programs 

Some of the applications under 
development right now using 
DESQview 2.0 API Tools: CAD, 
Medical systems, insurance, 3270 
mainframe communications, 
network management, real 
estate, typesetting, point of sale, 
education, commodity trading, 
stock trading and online voting. 

80386 Power 

80386 programmers can take advantage of 
the 80386' s protected mode for large 
programs, yet run on DOS and multitask in 
DESQview-side by side with other 80386 
and DOS programs. The breakthroughs that 
make this possible: DOS Extenders from 
PharLap Software and AI Architects and 
DESQview support of these DOS extenders. 

DESQview Developer Conference 

So if you are a developer, looking to create programs with 
mainframe capabilities, but wanting to sell into the existing 
base of millions of DOS PCs, come to Quarterdeck's first 
DESQview API Developers Conference, August 16-18, 1988 
at the Marina Beach Hotel, in Marina del Rey, California. 
For more information call or write us. 

Come learn about the DESQview 2.0 API and 80386 DOS 
Extenders. Meet 80386 experts as well as those smart 

concurrently. It can schedule processing after an interval or people who are creating DESQview 2.0 API workstations 
at a certain time. It can use DESQview's intertask commu- 
nications to rapidly exchange data between programs, 
share common code and data; or interrupt at critical events. 
It can use DESQview's menuing and mousing capabilities 
to create menus. And there's lots more it can do. 


And if you want to get a leg up before the conference, ask 
us about the DESQview API Tools for assembler or C 

New Pdwer to DOS. 
ew 2.0 API Toolkit. 

Quarterdeck Office Systems 150 Pico Blvd.,Santa Monica, CA 90405 

(213)392 9851 

120 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 

Circle 197 on Reader Service Card (DEALERS: 198) 


Wayne Rash Jr. 


Staking Out 
the Territory 

What's best for 
your office? This 
new column offers 
real-world answers. 

In many ways, business users of 
small computers are just like any 
other user. We have the same prob- 
lems with hardware that breaks, 
software that isn't shipped when prom- 
ised, and salespeople who know less than 
we do about the machines they sell. 

But there are differences. We may buy 
hundreds of computers, risking hundreds 
of thousands of dollars if we make the 
wrong decision. We may have an office 
floor with 60 people who need to share 
the same information. Or we may have a 
VAX in the basement that we need to con- 
nect our personal computers to. 

This is why I'm writing a business col- 
umn about small computers for BYTE. It 
will approach personal computers from a 
business viewpoint, but without the bias 
you find in the "single machine" maga- 
zines. No one type of computer is the 
solution to all problems, so no one com- 
puter will dominate this column. 

That's not to say that I won't write 
about IBM and clone machines or about 
Macintoshes. They are the most heavily 
used by the BYTE readership, and I will 
devote a lot of space to them. On the 
other hand, I won't ignore the Unix 
world or the less popular, specialty ma- 
chines either. All these areas show great 
promise, and the future of your business 
may lie with one of these machines. 

The PC Guru 

If you're reading this magazine, there's a 
good chance that you're the person in 
your organization who is the "Corporate 
Techie," or the "PC Guru." While you 
may or may not be in the organization 
chart as a computer staff resource, you 

serve as one. When people find out that 
they can't format a floppy disk, or that 
they did format their hard disk, you're 
the person who gets the call. You're also 
the person who seems to have a constant 
stream of visitors to your desk, all asking 
the same question: "I've been thinking 
about getting a personal computer. What 
kind should I get?" In many companies, 
you're also the person who wields a lot of 
the influence about what the company 
buys and how it uses small computers. 

One of the best ways to decide what 
will work in your office is to look at the 
experiences of others. It's a lot cheaper 
to let someone else take the risk while 
you learn from their experiences. Some- 
times you can't do that, though, so the 
next best thing is to read about them. 

For this reason, I'll try to illustrate my 
examination of the business small com- 
puter user with case histories where 
they're appropriate. I'll also tell you 
about trends I see that are important to 
business users, and I'll report on hard- 
ware, software, and services that might 
affect your business. What I won't do is 
give conventional, safe answers where 
another answer is better, nor will I deal 
with information you can find out from a 
quick read of the manual. 


One question that inevitably crops up 
each week or so concerns networks. Now 
that local-area networks (LANs) are 
known to exist, everybody wants one. 
Usually, the rationale is as simple as, 
"We have to be able to talk to each 
other." This means that there is a need 
for some portion of an organization to 
share some common data. Normally, the 
first application that comes to mind in- 
volves a database, although word 
processing tends to follow closely. 

Often, the request for a LAN comes 
without a full understanding of whether 
that is the correct solution. Your col- 
league or client has read about these won- 
derful networks and thinks a LAN is the 

answer to the organization's information 
flow. It can be, of course, but it can also 
do a lot to impede that flow. 

The software you choose can play a big 
role in making the LAN work properly— 
especially when many users on the LAN 
need to use the same database. Choosing 
the wrong database can make your net- 
work seem to come to a stop. 

I ran across an example of this prob- 
lem with a network that was using 
dBASE III Plus on a number of worksta- 
tions to access a single large database on 
the file server. At the same time, other 
users were trying to use WordPerfect. As 
soon as more than three or four people be- 
gan to use the database, performance 
dropped drastically. 

This happened, of course, because all 
the database users were trying to use the 
file server's disk at the same time. The 
first user to try got control, and the 
others waited in a queue. Since many 
single-user databases running on a net- 
work, including dBASE, treat the LAN 
as a disk channel, all the work for all the 
stations was being done by a single drive. 
The drive churned away, searching and 
indexing, while the other users waited. 
Of course, the repeated disk accesses 
added to the network traffic, slowing 
things even more. Response time was 
well over a minute on some screens. 

Clearly, a number of actions can be 
taken to improve response time when 
using a database on a network. Some net- 
work operating systems, including 
Novell NetWare, allow very flexible ar- 
rangements of hard disks. Likewise, add- 
ing more network server cards to the file 
server can help improve throughput. 
Probably the best solution, though, is to 
pick a DBMS that's designed as a multi- 
user system in the first place. 

The Database Server 

Network performance problems with 
databases that were originally designed 
for single users have led a few manufac- 


AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 121 


turers to develop new solutions. One of 
the best is the database server. This is a 
database engine that resides on a CPU 
dedicated to database use. Queries come 
to the database engine, and results are re- 
turned to the users. Ashton-Tate, devel- 
oper of dBASE, has announced that, with 
Microsoft, it will develop just such a 
database server, but it has yet to deliver. 

Meanwhile, a few other companies 
have said that they will bring out server- 
based database engines. XDB Systems of 
College Park, Maryland, has one. 

A server database engine such as XDB 
works by dividing the DBMS into a front- 
end processor and the data engine itself. 
The front-end processor resides on the 
user's workstation. It provides the user 
interface and translates the user's actions 
into SQL commands. These commands 
are then sent to the database server. 

When the database server receives an 
SQL command from a workstation, it 
performs the requested operation and re- 
turns the result. The constant traffic of 
disk accesses is removed from the net- 
work, and the file server is freed from 
the need to support the database as well. 
As a result, functions not related to data- 
base management continue unimpeded, 
and your file server can be smaller. 

Powerful Engine 

There is a down side to all this, of 
course. In the first place, XDB requires 
that you dedicate at least one CPU as the 
database server. Although you can use 
any IBM PC clone as the server, the ca- 
pability of the server directly affects the 
speed of the database operations. Dr. 
Bing Yao, president of XDB, told me that 
an 80286-based machine should be con- 
sidered for serious database use, and that 
he would tend to recommend an 80386. 

There's also the need for disk space. 
In addition to buying a large-capacity 
disk for the file server, you also need one 
for the database server. Because this disk 
will be doing all the network's database 
work, it should be pretty fast. If perfor- 
mance gets to be a problem with a single 
database server, XDB allows you to add 
additional servers. 

Fast and Easy 

There is a silver lining. XDB uses indus- 
try-standard SQL to communicate with 
its database engine. This means that you 
can move your mainframe data to your 
microcomputer and take along the que- 
ries that you used with DB2 as well. You 
can also go in the other direction, using 
queries from XDB to extract information 
from a mainframe database. 

Setting up most applications is quick 


XDB Server $1995 


Developers $495 

Run-time $195 

XDB Forms 

Developers $295 

Run-time $95 

XDB Systems, Inc. 
7309 Baltimore Ave., Suite 220 
College Park, MD 20740 
(301) 779-6030 

Inquiry 846. 

and easy. XDB provides a fourth-genera- 
tion query language for writing custom 
applications. In addition, there is a forms 
manager that allows you to define the 
database as you design the forms. Expe- 
rienced developers can make use of C 
and COBOL libraries for creating appli- 
cations that can't be developed in other 
ways. Finally, experienced SQL users 
can enter queries directly into an interac- 
tive SQL system. 

Once the applications are developed, 
the user has no way of knowing whether 
the system is using the database engine 
on the network, or a single-user database 
on the local workstation. Indeed, XDB 
will work equally well in either case 
without changing the applications. That 
way, you can create an application for all 
your users without worrying whether it 
will ultimately find itself on a network or 
a stand-alone computer. 

If you've already made the decision to 
invest in the hardware, software, physi- 
cal plant, and personnel necessary to op- 
erate a LAN that carries a significant 
database processing load, the additional 
server and disk capacity you need to as- 
sure adequate performance is worth the 
cost. When you couple its fast operation 
and industry-standard query language, 
XDB is a good deal for the serious data- 
base installation. 

What's New for Business? 

The network version of XDB was one of 
the pieces of good news at Spring Com- 
dex. In some ways, though, this does not 
look to be an exceptional year for innova- 
tion in the world of IBM-compatible 
computers. When I checked with the 
firms claiming to have OS/2 products at 
Comdex in May, only 22 products were 
shipping. A few more were due out this 

summer, but many will not arrive until 
after Comdex in the fall, or even into 
1989. If you use IBM PCs or compatibles 
and need software, you probably should 
plan on looking to the DOS world in- 
stead. There, products seem to be gain- 
ing maturity and functionality. 

A number of Comdex vendors told me 
they were still waiting to see what would 
happen to the market before they com- 
mitted resources to OS/2. Hardware de- 
velopment likewise seems stunted, with 
most manufacturers simply creating new 
versions of add-on boards that already 
exist for PCs or PC ATs and clones. 
There were some significant efforts 
demonstrated to give the PC/AT world 
the same capabilities as the PS/2. These 
included VGA cards and hard disks and 
controllers with 1-to-l interleave. 

The Macintosh II continues to woo 
business buyers away from manufac- 
turers of IBM and compatible machines. 
Informix promised that its new super- 
spreadsheet, Wingz, would finally make 
it to market. WordPerfect for the Macin- 
tosh finally shipped just before Comdex. 
Autodesk announced a version of its 
AutoCAD for the Mac. Bolstered by the 
widespread belief that the Mac is faster 
and easier to use, these products are 
gaining interest from executives, espe- 
cially now that Presentation Manager for 
OS/2 seems to be so far away. 

Unix is making a push as the business 
standard for microcomputers. While at 
Comdex, I watched as Commodore's 
chief operating officer Henri Rubin used 
a mouse to click open windows on Unix, 
MS-DOS, and Amiga DOS on his Amiga 
2000 equipped with a 100-megabyte 
disk. Dr. Rubin told me that the Amiga 
would soon be available with additional 
ports to support multiuser operation. He 
also showed me an Amiga with a screen 
resolution of 1008 by 800 pixels. I won- 
der if Commodore is aiming at the lucra- 
tive workstation market. 

On the IBM side of business, things 
have slowed down a little just now. Per- 
haps this is the time for a breather. On 
the other hand, perhaps it will give some 
of the other architectures a chance for a 
little more market share. ■ 

Wayne Rash, Jr. is a member of the pro- 
fessional staff of American Management 
Systems, Inc. (Arlington, Virginia), 
where he consults with the federal gov- 
ernment on microcomputers. You can 
reach him on BIX as "waynerash. " 

Your questions and comments are wel- 
come. Write to: Editor, BYTE, One 
Phoenix Mill Lane, Peterborough, NH 

122 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 

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Software Development Tools 


ADVANTAGE Disassembler, Lifeboat ... S 279 

Microsoft MASM 105 

OPTASM, SLR Systems 179 


Flash-up, Software Bottling Co $ 80 

MS Basic Comn. 8.0 229 

MS QuickBASIC 69 

QuickPak, Crescent Software 60 

T BASIC, TransEraCorp 453 

Turbo Basic, Borland 69 

Turbo Basic Toolboxes, Borland 69 

AZTEC C-Comrnercial, Manx $ CALL 

C-terp, Gimpel 232 

LatticeC V. 3.3 289 

■■/Source 499 

Microsoft C 299 

QuickC, Microsoft 69 

TurboC, Borland 69 

C TOOLS PLUS 5.0, Blaise S 101 

C Utility Library, Essential 125 

Essential Communications 125 

Greenleaf Turbo Functions 79 

Greenleaf Comm Library 155 

Greenleaf Functions 145 

PforCe, Phoenix 215 

TimeSlicer, Lifeboat 279 

TurboCTOOLS, Blaise 101 


Micro Focus Products 

MS COBOL, Microsoft 

Realia COBOL 







$ 199 

Pascal-2, Oregon Software 

Turbo Pascal, Borland 




L'.l WUI !:M:II4HMU:1 MI^IMi 

Turbo Pascal Dev. Lib. .Borland S 289 

Metrabyte Data Acq. TOOLS, Ouinn-Curtis 90 

Turbo Pascal S S E Tools, Quinn-Curtis .. 69 

Turbo HALO, Media Cybernetics 80 

Turbo MAGIC, Sophisticated Software ... 90 

Turbo ASYNCH PLUS, Blaise 101 

Turbo Power Tools Plus, Blaise 101 

LOGITECH Modula-2 

Compiler Kit $ 81 

Development System 199 

Toolkit 141 

SOLID B+ Toolbox, Solid Software 89 

StonyBrook Modula-2 1 79 

386-Max, Qualitas $ 66 

ADVANTAGE 386 C, Lifeboat 839 


FoxBASE + /386 459 

Hijh C, Metaware 839 

NOP FORTRAN, Microway 553 

Pharlap 386IASM/UNK. 422 

DESQview, Quarterdeck $ 115 

Microport— Sys. V/386 Comp 799 

MS Windows/3BB. Microsoft 130 

PC MOS/386, Software Link 1B1 

VM/386, IGC 182 

SCO XENIX-Complete 1279 

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Periscope II $ 141 

OTHER Periscope Products CALL 

Advanced Trace-86. Morgan Computing.. 121 

Breakout, Essential 89 

TdebugPLUSV.4.0, Turbo Power Soft ... 41 

w/Source 79 

Pfix86plus, Phoenix 215 

BRIEF. Solution Systems $ CALL 


EDIX, Emerging Technology 169 

EMACS, Unipress 268 

Epsilon, Lugaru 151 

KEDIT, Mansfield 129 

MULTI-EDIT, American Cybernetics 90 

Norton Editor 70 

PC/EDT + , Boston Business Computing 269 

Pmate, Phoenix 115 

SPF/PC, Command Technology 185 

VEDITPLUS, CompuView ....... 131 

XTC, Wendin 


Btrieve, Softcraft $ 185 

Xtrieve 189 

Report Option 109 

CBTfiEE, Peacock System 141 

c-tree, Fairconi 318 

r-tree 241 

dBC III, Lattice 172 

dBC lll/llw Source 363 



XQL, Softcraft 599 

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Essential Graphics 229 

Graphic, Software Endeavors 322 

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HOOPS, Ithaca Software 554 

MetaWINDOW.Metagrapnics 162 

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Turbo WINDOW/C 80 

Turbo HALO (Turbo CI, Media Cybernetics 80 

ACTOR, White Water Group $ 423 

ADVANTAGE C + + , Lifeboat 479 

PforCe+ + , Phoenix 215 

Smalltalk/V, Digitalk 85 

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Microport DOS Merge $ 219 

Microport Sys V/AT 579 

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Wendin-DOS 80 

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MS Windows, Microsoft 69 

MS Windows Dev. Kit, Microsoft 329 

PANEL Plus, Lifeboat 395 


Vitamin C, Creative Programming 162 

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ScreenStarw/Source, Essential 169 

SoftCode, Software Bottling Co 119 


Dan Bricklin's Demo Program, 

Software Graden 5 60 

MKSToolkit 139 

MS OS/2 Programmer's Toolkit 239 

PC lint, Gimpel 101 

Plink8GPIus, Phoenix ....... 279 


Pre-C, Phoenix 159 

SEIDL Version Manager 269 

Source Print, Aldebaran Labs 81 

Science & Engineering Software 


HiWIRE, WmtekCorp $ 849 

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PSpice, MicroSim 899 

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Probe graphics post-processor 399 

Parts parameter estimator 399 

Monte Carlo Analysis 309 

Digital Files 309 

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Tango PCB, ACCEL Tech 469 

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Asyst Modules 1,2, 3 1989 

Asyst Modules 1,2, 4 1,989 

Asyst Module 1.2 1,609 

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Asystant, Macmillan 469 

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OADISP-488, DSP Systems 175 

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LABTECH Acquire, Lab Tech. Corp 179 


LABTECH Notebook, 759 

LABTECH Real Time Access, 269 

Lotus Measure 445 

Q.E.D. D.A. and Control, Hart Scientific 799 

SNAP-CALC, HEM Data Corp 350 

SNAP-FFT, HEM Data Corp 295 


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RM/FORTRAN,Austec 479 

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AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 123 

Hi * 


for. ihe 


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124 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 

Circle 221 on Reader Service Card 




with Apple? 

Late shipments, 
abandoned products, 
and blown promises 
are driving the 
rest of us crazy 

As I write this column, it is the 
third week of May. I am still 
waiting for Apple to release 
L its System Tools 6.0 software 
for the Mac. I had hoped to report on the 
updated released versions of the System, 
Finder, and MultiFinder. Apple prom- 
ised members of the Apple University 
Consortium (AUC) in March that the re- 
vised System software would be available 
on AppleLink, CompuServe, GEnie, 
MacNET, and elsewhere by the end of 
April, with complete shrink-wrapped 
kits (a la System Tools 5.0) and printed 
documentation soon after. 

Late, incomplete, and confused distri- 
bution has plagued the release of Mac 
system software since the first update in 
1984. In the last year, though, the confu- 
sion and problems have spread to other 
Apple software products, growing almost 
in parallel with Apple's impressive fiscal 
performance. As Apple has grown from 
an entrepreneurial enterprise to a more 
traditionally managed technology com- 
pany, several important products have 
either fallen between management cracks 
or been released woefully incomplete. 

The fact is, Apple has blown a lot of 
promises lately. Two more examples will 
serve to clarify my point: MacPascal and 


Ever wonder what happened to MacPas- 
cal? Did you know that you can't current- 
ly buy it from Apple (or anyone else)? I 
first discovered the "MacPascal prob- 
lem" in January. It was then that I had 

Apple's new System Tools 5.0 software 
installed on our laboratory Macs. One of 
the primary uses for these machines is to 
teach introductory programming. Be- 
cause of its friendly interface and novice- 
centered development environment, 
along with its multiple- window approach 
to interpreted execution and debugging, 
MacPascal is a perfect environment for 
learning. It's safe to say that MacPascal 
helped sell a lot of Macs to universities. 

Almost as soon as the System Tools 
5.0 was installed, we started having seri- 
ous problems with MacPascal 2.1 (the 
latest version). Program files became cor- 
rupted, printing failed, working pro- 
grams refused to run, and so on. To 
make an excruciating story short, after 
considerable effort I found that Apple 
had simply dropped MacPascal. No more 
versions. No bug fixes. No more Mac- 
Pascal. Nothing. Apple recommended 
that we either run MacPascal 2.1 with 
old system software or migrate to another 
Pascal. What was even more frustrating 

was that no one at Apple could point to 
whose decision it was to drop MacPascal. 
It's now 5 months later, and the only 
good news is that Apple is near an agree- 
ment with Symantec/Think Technol- 
ogies (the original authors) to take Mac- 
Pascal back into its fold for an eventual 
rewrite and rerelease next fall. Are they 
kidding? People who are using MacPas- 
cal can't put their work on hold until the 
autumn of 1989. Most Pascal users will 
probably adopt our strategy: migrate to 
Think' s Pascal compiler, Lightspeed 
Pascal, even though it's not as good a 
product for learning programming. 


Apple's much-ballyhooed Unix for the 
Mac II, A/UX, is another of Apple's 
software mistakes. The product missed 
its initial ship date (August 1987) by 
more than 6 months. When it finally 
shipped in February of 1988, Apple had 
not done its homework in addressing one 



AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 125 


of its largest groups of potential A/UX 
customers: users of System V and BSD 
4.2/4.3 Unix. 

As announced, A/UX was simply not 
competitive with Unix offerings from 
Sun, Apollo, and AT&T. It was too ex- 
pensive, and could be purchased only on 
an Apple 80-megabyte hard disk; tape 
distribution was not available. Apple had 
made no provisions for distributing the 
source code for A/UX. Dedicated Unix 
users simply must have the source code. 

And despite earlier promises to the con- 
trary, A/UX deflated the hopes of a large 
segment of its intended market by being 
mostly plain vanilla System V. A/UX 
definitely was not Unix for the rest of us. 
To be fair, we should be able to forgive 
Apple for this last failing, especially 
since A/UX 1.0 is its first Unix release. 
Apple got a lot of technical things right 
with 1.0. It also broke new ground by 
making it easier to recover from Unix 
file-system errors and install new de- 



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vices. But the other A/UX problems 
point to a larger management problem: 
an inability to announce and deliver soft- 
ware on schedule and as described. 
Apple's spin-off company, Claris, will 
help somewhat (by taking applications 
like Mac Write away from Apple), but the 
management difficulties remain for 
Apple's languages and system software. 
Apple's mistakes make a disturbingly 
long list; I hope the folks there are learn- 
ing from the errors. All the lawsuits in 
the world won't help retain or increase 
market share if the way it has handled 
A/UX, MacPascal, and system software 
becomes a trend. 

System Tools 6.0 

I've worked with a beta version of System 
Tools 6.0 for several weeks. About all I 
can say is that it lives up to its beta desig- 
nation. It didn't work properly on the 
Mac II, SE, or Plus I used for testing. 
Whether I copied the files to clean hard 
disks or used the Installer to update an 
existing System, the stuff just didn't 
work right. Screens froze for no reason, 
the mouse went dead, and bombs with 
just about every ID number known to In- 
side Macintosh cropped up. Since this is 
labeled an "early beta," I hope the prob- 
lems are fixed before release. 

The new software included a couple of 
interesting new features worth remem- 
bering: a notification manager and a new 
font format. The notification manager is 
supposed to notify foreground applica- 
tions running under MultiFinder when a 
background application (e.g., a telecom- 
munications program) needs direct at- 
tention. As it stands now, the notification 
manager should be useful if you expect 
to upload or download several files in the 
background while working on something 
else in the foreground. I hope software 
publishers will take advantage of this ca- 
pability to allow other functions that 
need occasional attention to operate in 
the background (e.g., program compila- 
tion or hard disk backup). 

The new font format, NFNT, allows up 
to 16,000 fonts to be loaded into a sys- 
tem, up from the 256 you can load now 
(without using a third-party DA/font 
manager like AlSoft's Font DA/Juggler 
Plus). You can also install up to 32,000 
individual fonts in your system with the 
new format. The increased limits come 
from NFNT assigning font numbers to en- 
tire font families rather than to individ- 
ual fonts. Unfortunately, NFNT fonts are 
not compatible with the existing ones, 
and Apple does not yet have any software 
to convert the old fonts to the new format 


126 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 

Circle 175 on Reader Service Card 

An inside look at 
386 value around 

The more you look into 386 compatibles, the more 
you realize that well thought-out design innovations 
(that really work) are few and far between. 

That's why our engineers set out to design the 
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(the beta version of the Font/DA Mover 
3.8 that I tested in the System 6.0 pack- 
age lacked a conversion feature). 

The beta 6.0 System disks I tested, de- 
spite taking up four 800K-byte disks, 
also lacked any NFNT fonts. Still, Apple 
would not have created the new font for- 
mat if it didn't plan to use it, so NFNT util- 
ity software and fonts might appear as 
early as the Boston '88 Mac World Expo. 
I expect that vendors like Adobe, who 
have substantial investments in existing 
libraries of typefaces, will eventually 
convert some or all of their fonts to the 
new NFNT format. 


I've been working with FoxBASE + / 
Mac, a relational database, since De- 
cember 1987, when it was a low-num- 
bered beta. I've had the initial released 
version (1.0) for about a month now, and 
I'm impressed. FoxBASE+/Mac is fast. 
Not just a little bit fast, but a lot fast. In 
the 1000-, 10,000-, and 50,000-record 
flatfile tests I've run, it's faster than any 
other Macintosh database, relational or 
not. The same blazing speed held up in 
the limited multifile relational tests I 
tried (relating 3 files of 10,000, 5000, 
and 2500 records each). FoxBASE + / 
Mac outruns 4th Dimension, McMax, 
dBASE Mac, FileMaker Plus, Reflex 
Plus, Omnis 3 Plus, Double Helix II, and 
others at the basic tasks of creating, im- 
porting, modifying, sorting, retrieving, 
and deleting database information. 

FoxBASE+/Mac is a dBASE III Plus- 
compatible database for the Mac. It can 
run any dBASE III Plus code directly 
(once you've ported it over to the Mac 
using TOPS, or through a serial connec- 
tion, or by using the Apple File Exchange 
software and a PC-compatible Mac disk 
drive). It can also read dBASE data files 
without modifications. FoxBASE + /Mac 
also read the PC FoxBASE files I tried. 

FoxBASE+/Mac, however, is not the 
first software to offer complete dBASE 
III Plus compatibility on a Mac. The 
dMacIII program, first published by 
Format Software (a West German com- 
pany), and rewritten and rereleased in 
1987 by Nantucket Software as McMax, 
claims that honor. McMax is fast too, al- 
though slower than FoxBASE. 

If FoxBASE + /Mac were just a faster 
version of McMax, its market would be 
limited primarily to developers who 
want to port their dBASE III applications 
over to the Mac. Happily, speed is just 
part of the appeal of FoxBASE + /Mac. 

Unlike McMax, FoxBASE + /Mac in- 
cludes a set of command extensions and 
additional features that go way beyond 

128 BYTE* AUGUST 1988 

Circle 125 on Reader Service Card 


dBASE. FoxBASE can build applications 
that incorporate many familiar Macin- 
tosh software features, such as pull- 
down menus, radio buttons, scrollable 
and editable text windows, dialog and 
alert boxes, resizable and scrollable out- 
put windows, font and font-size control, 
icon-style menus, and color on the Mac 
II. These features give FoxBASE + /Mac 
much more utility as a Macintosh-only 
database applications development sys- 
tem than McMax. FoxBASE + /Mac's 
direct competition is Acius's 4th Dimen- 
sion. It easily beat 4D 1 .04 in my bench- 
mark speed tests (4D 1.04, the current 
release as of May 1988, suffers from a 
number of speed problems), and I sus- 
pect that even the improved 4th Dimen- 
sion, version 1.1, will still be drubbed by 
FoxBASE in speed testing. 

FoxBASE + /Mac also costs $300 less 
than 4D. But speed and price are not the 
only concerns for database developers 
and users. The total development and 
user environment is just as important as 
any performance and value rating based 
only on speed and list price. In this more 
complete comparison, FoxBASE still has 
a lot of catching up to do. 4D provides 
more features, more development aids, 
and a better overall environment than 
does FoxBASE + /Mac. 4D also offers a 
run-time version for developers, and it 
supports multiple users (with proper file 
and record locking) over AppleShare. 

Fox Software expected to release a 
run-time version of FoxBASE + /Mac in 
June for $300. By that time, the company 
should also have released a LAN version 
compatible with the file and record lock- 
ing utilities of AppleShare and 3Com's 
3 + Share. 

Given how rapidly Fox Software has 
gotten a serious Mac relational database 
into the market, I'd keep a close eye on it. 
I expect version 2.0 will keep its speed 
and add more development tools. 

FullWrite Professional 

Here's a program that looked like quint- 
essential vaporware. First announced at 
the January 1987 Mac World by Ann 
Arbor Softworks (the FullPaint people), 
its release was repeatedly postponed. 
Ashton-Tate finally bought it in Febru- 
ary and began shipping it at the end of 
April. I've tried version 1.0 for a week 
and have some initial impressions. 

At $395 it's competitively priced with 
Microsoft Word 3.02, although Micro- 
soft's aggressive volume and educational 
discount purchase program often drops 
Word's price to less than $90. In con- 
trast, I paid $219 for my copy of Full- 
Write Professional from a local Chicago 

Items Discussed 

Apple Macintosh 



System Tools 6.0 


Fox Software, Inc. 

Apple Computer Inc. 

118 West South Broadway 

20525 Mariani Ave. 

Perrysburg, OH 43551 

Cupertino, CA 95014 

(419) 874-0162 

(408) 996-1010 

Inquiry 908. 

Inquiry 905. 

FullWrite Professional 


A/UX 1.0 

Ashton-Tate Corp. 

Apple Computer Inc. 

20101 Hamilton Ave. 

20525 Mariani Ave. 

Torrance, CA 90502 

Cupertino, CA 95014 

(213) 329-8000. 

(408) 996-1010 

Inquiry 920. 

Price not set at press time 

Inquiry 906. 

computer store (not a chain franchise). 

Version 1.0 is slow. In fact, as a basic 
editor, it is annoyingly slow. I tried writ- 
ing this column using FullWrite but gave 
up because the screen scrolled too slow- 
ly, and search-and-replace operations 
creeped along (I finished the column 
using MindWrite 1.1). I used a 1 -mega- 
byte Mac Plus in these tests. Brief testing 
on an 8-megabyte Mac II showed that 



impressed. FoxBASE is 

not just a little bit fast, 

but a lot fast. 

FullWrite performed well. Therefore, on 
a fully configured Mac II, FullWrite is a 
good editing choice. 

There's no question about FullWrite's 
credentials as a high-end word proces- 
sor, though. It surpasses Word's desktop 
publishing (DTP) features by adding 
page-layout and drawing functions (al- 
though it's no match for the page-layout 
capabilities of a complete DTP program 
like PageMaker 3.0). Besides the basic 
DTP capabilities, FullWrite has a slew of 
editing and formatting features just like 
Word: a spelling checker, an outliner 
(yes, a usable integrated outliner, unlike 
Word's useless one), automatic hyphena- 
tion, automatic indexing and table of con- 
tents creation, and floating footnotes. 
FullWrite also has some nice editing fea- 

tures that Word lacks, such as review 
notes and revision journaling. 

Like many beta testers, I had problems 
with FullWrite reading Word files, but 
my system didn't crash. Instead, the file 
would open with corrupted text. The re- 
leased version doesn't have this problem. 

Despite FullWrite's slowness com- 
pared to Word and MindWrite, I still 
liked the program. It's very easy to fig- 
ure out and use. If I was in the habit of 
creating long structured documents with 
some graphics elements in them, I'd 
probably choose FullWrite over a combi- 
nation of PageMaker and Word, because 
it would be simpler to learn and use and 
still produce an acceptable result. 

As a basic full-screen editor/word pro- 
cessor, though, FullWrite Professional is 
just too slow on a 1 -megabyte Mac Plus, 
and it requires too many machine re- 
sources (at least 1 megabyte of memory, 
preferably 2 megabytes, and as fast a 
hard disk drive as you can afford). For 
my basic writing needs, I'll stick with 
MindWrite 1. 1 and Word 3.02, because I 
don't need all the DTP features of 
FullWrite. MindWrite's wonderful out- 
liner is reason enough for me to rely on 
it, while Word's scrolling speed and 
global updating acumen more than make 
up for its other flaws. ■ 

Don Crabb is the director of laboratories 
and a senior lecturer for the computer 
science department and the college at the 
University of Chicago. He is also a con- 
sulting editor for BYTE. He can be 
reached on BIX as "decrabb. " The views 
expressed are his own. 

Your questions and comments are wel- 
come. Write to: Editor, BYTE, One 
Phoenix Mill Lane, Peterborough, NH 

AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 129 



This card is what you need to TURN ON & OFF lights, machinery, and other electrical or 

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INPUT CHANNELS- tour differential 


unipolar or bipolr. 




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130 BYTE' AUGUST 1988 

Circle 142 on Reader Service Card 


OS/2 AND YOU B Mark Minasi 

Why Os/2? 

It was the El Dorado 
of DOSes, lying 
beyond multitasking, 
beyond 640K bytes. 
This new column takes 
a practical approach 
to understanding— and 
living with— the reality 
of OS/2. 

One of the big selling points of 
the original 1981 IBM PC 
was its large (for the time) 
256K-byte memory and 
greater speed. Several microcomputers 
in the PC's price class, like the North 
Star Horizon II and the Altos machines, 
offered multiuser and multitasking capa- 
bilities. These capabilities were offered 
on machines with slower CPUs and less 
memory, so multitasking capabilities 
seemed (to me and to other IBM PC buy- 
ers at the time, that is) a reasonable fea- 
ture for the PC's operating system. In 
fact, at the time, Digital Research of- 
fered a multitasking version of CP/M for 
the PC. DOS 1.0 wasn't multiuser or 
multitasking, but at $40 it was the cheap- 
est available operating system, so 96 per- 
cent of the early PC owners chose it over 
the other options, CP/M or the p-System. 
By late 1982, everyone at the local PC 
user's group had heard of a rumored 
DOS 2.0. Some of the rumors said that it 
would be multiuser and multitasking. 

DOS 2.0 arrived, sans multiuser and 
multitasking. Ah, well, we told our- 
selves, the next version would redress 
these deficiencies. In 1984, IBM fired 
our hopes by offering a new and more 
powerful computer. The initial press re- 
leases showed a computer with dumb ter- 

minals on it and made reference to a 4- 
megabyte memory capacity. The new 
"multiuser" AT had powers and abilities 
beyond that of the PC, we were told. A 
new DOS, version 3.0, came with it, but 
it didn't really do anything new save take 
up an extra 10K bytes or so. IBM said 
that a DOS to exploit this new machine's 
powers would be released "soon. " 

The rumors continued. DOS 4.0 
would be bypassed altogether for DOS 
5.0, the El Dorado of DOSes: Beyond 
multitasking, and memory beyond 640K 
bytes— the once-monstrous 640K bytes 
had become a straitjacket. The trade rags 
said Microsoft figured that it could 
knock it out by early 1986. DOS 5.0 then 
tried to go undercover, assuming new 
names seemingly each week: CP-DOS, 
A(dvanced) DOS, 286DOS. We didn't 
care what they called it. We wanted more 
memory and multitasking. 

Finally, on April 2, 1987, IBM an- 
nounced a whole slew of new hardware 
and software. DOS 5.0 was finally an- 
nounced, calling itself OS/2. 

The attractive features of OS/2 are 
multitasking, access to larger memory, a 
graphical user interface, an improved 
local-area network manager, legal termi- 
nate-and-stay-resident programs, better 
harmony among programs, a rich system 
interface, and compatibility with many 
familiar DOS commands, and, with the 
Presentation Manager, OS/2 provides a 
device-independent platform. I'll exam- 
ine the first three this month and take the 
rest up next month. 


OS/2 is designed to be a single-user, 
Unix-like operating system for 80286 
and 80386 PCs. A dozen or more (12 for 
OS/2 1.0, 17 for OS/2 1.1) programs can 
run at the same time, all loaded into 
memory and executing. 

This concurrent multitasking goes be- 
yond many simple systems currently 
available under DOS that load several 
programs into memory but give actual 

CPU attention only to the one that you are 
currently interacting with. In these sim- 
ple systems, no background processing 
occurs. Such systems' main values are 
that they let you cut and paste between 
applications and that they eliminate the 
time required to load and unload a pro- 
gram. A good and inexpensive example 
of these programs is Software Carousel 
from SoftLogic Solutions. 

Gordon Letwin, Microsoft's chief ar- 
chitect of OS/2, says that it is fundamen- 
tally different from minicomputer oper- 
ating systems like Unix. Multiuser 
systems, he says, must appear to fairly 
allocate computer resources among 
multiple users. OS/2, on the other hand, 
need not appear fair to the multiple pro- 
grams running in the system. In fact, 
Letwin argues, you really want to give 
the lion's share of the CPU time to the 
program in the foreground— the one the 
user is currently interacting with. Letwin 
claims that OS/2 does this. 

OS/2 has a relatively sophisticated 
task-switching algorithm, incorporating 
a 189-level priority scheme and a dy- 
namic adjustment algorithm for those 
priorities that takes into account things 
like how long a task has been CPU- 
starved and whether or not the task is just 
waiting for I/O. In a future column, I'll 
show you how to manipulate these priori- 
ties for optimum performance. 

Large Memory 

"Breaking the 640K-byte barrier" has 
become a cliche, but OS/2 does it. The 
80286 and 80386 have, of course, always 
had the ability to address large amounts 
of memory, but not while in the "real 
mode" (are the other modes "unreal"?) 
that DOS requires. Access to more mem- 
ory is allowed under "protected mode" — 
16 megabytes of memory, in fact. 

OS/2 even goes beyond 16 megabytes. 
It can use extra disk space where there is 
insufficient RAM. If you try to run, say, 
a 3-megabyte program where only 2 


AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 131 


megabytes of RAM are free, OS/2 will 
transparently store 1 of the 3 megabytes 
on disk, treating it as if it were RAM. 
This scheme, called "virtual memory," 
is OK in a pinch, but access to disk is so 
much slower than access to memory that 
you'll want to avoid this one where 

Another reason to avoid virtual mem- 
ory under OS/2 is that the virtual mem- 
ory manager is buggy. The process of 
moving memory blocks temporarily to 
disk and back is called "swapping." The 
swapper program will use all the free 
space on your hard disk drive— you can't 
tell it to use only x megabytes for swap- 
ping. The swapper under 1.0 is moder- 
ately stable, although I've crashed it a 
few times. The swapper under the cur- 
rent 1.1 beta release is very fragile. If 
you want a stable OS/2 platform for your 
programs, disable the swapper by adding 
SYS file. Bugs like this are fairly com- 
mon in a new system, and they will no 
doubt be fixed in a future release. 

As the largest disk addressable by 
OS/2 is the familiar 32 megabytes (yes, 
the old DOS limitation on disk size is still 
with us), and the maximum RAM ad- 
dressable by OS/2 is 16 megabytes, a 
program using both RAM and virtual 
memory could theoretically be as large 
as 48 megabytes. 

The virtual memory scheme could be 
very useful were it not for the fact that 
OS/2 seems unable to swap itself. An 
IBM PC AT with 2.5 megabytes of RAM 
cannot boot the Presentation Manager 
code that Microsoft shipped to develop- 
ers in April, as it must have at least 2.7 
megabytes to boot. Apparently, all of 
OS/2 must reside in RAM. 

Another disappointment about OS/2's 
use of large memory is not Microsoft's 
fault, but Intel's. Even in protected 
mode, the 80286/80386 chips are de- 
signed to address the 16 megabytes in 
terms of 64K-byte segments. Going 
across segments requires more code and 
is slower. Many compiler writers, dis- 
mayed at how much more slowly a pro- 
gram runs when doing a lot of segment 
swapping, have simply limited static data 
areas to 64K bytes— one segment. 

It would be a real shame if inexpensive 
compilers maintained this now antedilu- 
vian constraint. There are, of course, no 
inexpensive compilers for OS/2 cur- 
rently. But an expensive one, the BASIC 
compiler, still has the 64K-byte limita- 
tion on static data. 

For OS/2 to get beyond the 64K-byte 
segments, it would have to put the chip in 
a different, incompatible mode, the "32- 


Microsoft OS/2 System 

Development Toolkit $3000 

Microsoft Corp. 
1601 1 Northeast 36th Way 
Redmond, WA 98073 
(206) 882-8089 
Inquiry 945. 

Software Carousel 

SoftLogic Solutions 
One Perimeter Rd. 
Manchester, NH 03103 
(603) 644-5555 
Inquiry 946. 


bit" protected mode, but this is only 
available on the 80386 chip. 

Graphical User Interface 

Whether you like them or not, WIMP 
(windows, icons, mice, and pointers) in- 
terfaces are chic these days. The Mac has 
established a solid market, and the well- 
dressed PC these days looks like a Sun 
engineering workstation with a small 
screen. The hardware for WIMP is now 
in place— VGA is as good as Mac graph- 
ics , and the PS/2 comes with a rodent in- 
terface built right in. OS/2 supports EGA 
and VGA, as well as a variety of mice. 
Unfortunately, the current OS/2 releases 
do not support Hercules graphics. 

The "point and click" ease of a graph- 
ical user interface makes using applica- 
tions easier and reduces training time. 
The Mac can be described as not an ap- 
plication platform, but rather an applica- 
tion funnel in the sense that all Mac ap- 
plications not only can look the same, but 
pretty much must look the same. The 
downside of this uniformity is that it 
grinds programmers' gears: All of us 
who have ever touched a compiler to code 
fancy ourselves artists in the field of user 
interface design. 

The graphical user interface is han- 
dled by an optional program called the 
Presentation Manager (PM). The PM is 
to OS/2 as Windows is to DOS: Windows 
is not necessary under DOS, and the PM 
is not necessary under OS/2. Including 
Windows/PM, however, opens the doors 
to some interesting applications. 

It's hard to say too much good or bad 
about the PM, as the current beta code 
(early June 1988) is very, well, unstable. 
In his letter to developers, Microsoft's 
Steve Ballmer basically said, "Here's 
what we've got so far, it's not reliable, 

better stuff is coming. ..." 

I can't see how Microsoft will have a 
shippable final product by October— the 
date Microsoft and IBM have promised 
release to the general public— but I wish 
them luck. It's easy to take potshots at 
Microsoft for everything being so late, 
but I don't see how it couldn 't have been 
late. According to Microsoft, it took 35 
programmers 4 years to write OS/2. 
That's a mighty large programming proj- 
ect to manage— larger, I'd guess, than 
anything the company has tried before. 

If you know Windows, you'll spot a lot 
of it in the PM. The Control Panel is the 
same, the Alt-spacebar character does 
similar things, and, as in Windows 2.0, it 
can be managed without a rodent by 
using Alt keys. Applications can still 
communicate via the Clipboard. 

However, you'll also miss a few 
things. As of this writing, Microsoft 
does not provide the desk accessories that 
Windows has— the clock, calculator, Re- 
versi game, notepad, paint program, and 
terminal. This is a serious flaw, and it 
points to a major deficiency in OS/2: The 
frills are gone. Where DOS generally 
came with a BASIC interpreter and the 
all-purpose DEBUG, neither is supplied 
with OS/2 despite its $400 price tag. 
Come on, now. Would giving us DEBUG 
and GWBASIC really hurt sales of those 
$500 compiler/CodeView combinations? 

OS/2 Tip of the Month 

If you're going to use a serial printer 
under OS/2, OS/2 won't talk to the 
printer if it doesn't see some activity on 
the CTS line of the serial port, line 8 on 
an AT's 9-pin port or line 5 on a standard 
25-pin port. The following minimum 
cable worked to let me "print" from my 
desktop OS/2 machine with a 9-pin serial 
connection to my 9-pin laptop (a sneaky 
way to capture screens for use in text): 

Side 1 Side 2 

2 3 

3 2 

5 5 

7 7 

Mark Minasi is a managing partner at 
the firm ofMoulton, Minasi & Company, 
a Columbia, Maryland, which special- 
izes in technical seminars. He can be 
reached on BIX as "editors. " 

Your questions and comments are wel- 
come. Write to: Editor, BYTE, One 
Phoenix Mill Lane, Peterborough, NH 

132 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 


Look at DOS. It looks back at you. 

It makes you do all the work. 
You need the Norton Commander. 

See this user-defined menu. 

It runs your favorite programs and 

routines at a keystroke. 

View two directories— from one or 

two disks— at once. 
And move your files around quickly. 


Pulldown a menu for quick, 

easy access to the full power and 

features of the program. 

ijsm .;azB ism ^ism '-sum "Hee ? tnn tijann ^sbji nani 

Want a tree view? Just pop 

up a window. You can scroll, mouse 

or Speed Search for directories. 

7o see your files, pick a 

directory on the left and see the 

contents on tlie right. 


:\U3\ra«ltg.Uk1 ^ 

> c 



IB 11 IMrl 




ii 3 

17 TO 

18 IT;-'-.: 

:> jn 



Remember your last 15 commands? 

Our Command History does. 
Take your pick and run them again. 

View your dBASE" II or M data 

without having to run dBASE. 

It's as close as a keystoke. 

Another keystroke shows Lotus *' 
1-2-3" or Symphony® files— with- 
out running 1-2-3 or Symphony. 

See DOS run like you've never seen it before. Like you won't see it run with any 
other DOS enhancement shell. See version 2.0 of the Norton Commander"'— 
a dramatically advanced version of the program Infoworld called "tops in its 
class ... a new level of convenience for MS/DOS users!' The new Norton 
Commander combines the functions of a hard disk manager with all the 
features you need to support and enhance the DOS command line. Yet it's 
flexible enough to get out of your way when you don't need to see it. 
Novice or expert, you'll want to see your dealer <^u/- \J .t. 
right away. And see how fast DOS can run. Jj^CTvf iyiffttfrt^ 



Circle 176 on Reader Service Card (DEALERS: 177) 

Di.-siKnuil tortile IBM" PSA!" ami I'C families, and lOO'Micumpatibles. Available at most software dealers, or direct from Peter Norton Computing 1 
2210 Wilslure lilvtl. #186. Santa Monica, CA 0.0403.^-319-2000. Visa ami MasterCard Wetcome.©1988 Peter Norton Computing. 



Tomorrow's LAN Solutions - Today. 

EtherLAN Plus/ The Affordable Ethernet Solution 

In today's LAN world, every new 
LAN manufacturer seems to have a 
new idea of what a network should 
be. Standards for the industry are 
few and far between, but are there 
if you want to pay for them. 
Wouldn't it be nice if for once you 
could buy a LAN system, at a price 
you can afford, and be fully 
compatible with the ethernet 
standard? Well now you can! 

Turn Key Ethernet 

EtherLAN is here to give 
you everything you need to 
set up an ethernet LAN 
system. You'll receive the 
EtherLAN network adapter, 
25 feet of thinwire ethernet 
coax cable, T connector 
and easy to understand 
Installation and User's 
Guides, all for one low 
price. In addition to this, 
you'll also receive 
complete software needed to get 
your new EtherLAN system up and 
running quickly. You'll get 
NETBIOS software and also a 

Even better yet, you can use 
standard DOS commands to 
control your network, so you are 
not stuck spending hours to learn a 
new set of commands. The 
operating system functions 
transparently, so you won't even 
know you're on a network. 

Features You Can Rely On. 

• Fully ethernet and cheapernet 
compatible (IEEE 802.3). 

• Fast — a full 10,000,000 bit per 

EtherLAN 6 Node Comparison 

500 Kbytes Read and Write 

EtherLAN 11 and 10 seconds 


3Com® 14 and 12 seconds 


Novell SFT® 10 and 9 seconds 


'Figures from PC Magazine, 


complete network operating system 
to make using your new EtherLAN 
system even easier. 

SimpleWARE " Makes 
EtherLAN Unbeatable 

The operating system you'll get 
works as a shell above DOS, so all 
your normal DOS programs will run 
on EtherLAN as well as locally. 

134 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 

• NO dedicated servers are 

• Transparent operation —operates 
as a shell above DOS. 

• Easy to use DOS type 
commands or pop up menus. 

• Share disks, subdirectories, 
printers and plotters. 

• DOS file and record locking. 

• Up to 5 printers per server. 

• Time and Date sharing. 

• Electronic Message System. 

• Low memory requirements. 

• NETBIOS compatible. 

• Everything you need is included 
at one low price. 

The best news of all is 
the price. 

At only $699.95 per node, you 
get all hardware, software, cabling 
and manuals needed. 

Introductory Offer 

Four Node Kit for only 
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With features like 
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per node, how can 
you lose? 

Call Toll Free 


-714-529-8850 (in CA) 

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Prepaid orders accepted. 

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545 W. Lambert Rd., Suite A 
Brea, CA 92621 
FAX: (714) 529-2413 

Requires IBM PC/XT/ AT or compatible, running DOS 3.10 or 
higher. EtherLAN is a registered trademark of Simple Net 
Systems, Inc. Other brand and product names are trademarks 
of their respective holders. 

Circle 17 on Reader Service Card (DEALERS: 18) 

C0M1: ■ Brock N. Meeks 

The Wired 

Surveying the 

Cyrus Field never imagined in 
his wildest dreams the global 
effect of his accomplishment 
in 1866: the laying of the At- 
lantic cable. Ten years later, Secretary of 
State William Evarts spoke the following 
words at a ceremony commemorating 
that event: 

"Columbus said, 'There is one world, 
there shall be two.' Cyrus W. Field said, 
'There are two worlds— there shall be 
one.' " 
Welcome to the wired society. 
Telecommunications is the infrastruc- 
ture of the computer industry, the lifeline 
of a wired society. Whether you're push- 
ing binary files across the country on a 
dedicated line or simply typing in a com- 
ment on BIX over voice-grade telephone 
lines at 1200 bits per second (bps), some 
form of communication is taking place. 

Consider this electronic communica- 
tions landscape: Local-area networks 
(LANs) are the city streets; computer 
conferencing systems are the interstate 
highways; packet-switched networks are 
the global trade routes; and bulletin 
board systems are the rambling country 
roads that stitch communities together. 

A Technological Misfit 

The world's economy flows across an 
electronic global highway every day, 
much of its information base at the beck 
and call of a simple carrier tone. Yet, for 
all its importance, telecommunications 
is a bastard child: merely acknowledged, 
begrudgingly accepted, never quite fit- 
ting in. 

For example, a BYTE survey shows 
that 60 percent of you own a modem and 

18 percent plan to buy a modem in the 
near future. However, use of communi- 
cations software ranks a distant fourth 
behind the "big three" of applications: 
word processing, spreadsheets, and data- 
base programs. 

My love affair with PC-based commu- 
nications began with a Commodore Vic- 
20, a 9-inch black-and-white TV, and a 
300-bps direct connect modem. After 
some 6 years on-line, half of that spent 
writing about telecommunications topics 
ranging from pirate bulletin boards to se- 
curity issues to governmental attempts to 
strangle free access to public informa- 
tion, my blind love affair has matured 
into a clearer understanding of and a 
healthy respect for telecommunications. 

A good friend and fellow communica- 
tions writer, Art Kleiner, told me he hit a 
"curmudgeon stage" with the technol- 
ogy a couple years back. This stage en- 
tailed an uneasy satisfaction with the 
overall environment of "being on-line." 
So, instead of merely defending the tech- 

nology to critics, he began asking ques- 
tions. And demanding answers. 

Why is the technology so difficult to 
understand? Why is it so difficult to get a 
modem and communications software 
package to successfully dial a remote 
computer? Why, why, why? 

My own curmudgeon stage shortly 
followed Art's. But this isn't a bad thing. 
As Art told me, "It's made me look for 
answers and explore ways to push the 
technology, instead of just accepting 
whatever came along as well and good. " 
His philosophy is an information-age 
extension of the old dictum "Question 

So I'm a bit skeptical when I hear that 
telecommunications is just about to take 
off, poised to become the "next wave" of 
computer productivity. It hasn't hap- 
pened, folks. And for good reasons. 

For example, people still oversell the 
technology. It's good for some things, 
but bad for others. And there are built-in 



AUGUST 1988 • B Y T E 135 


problems with every application, but that 
should come as no surprise; few things 
more technologically advanced than a 
disposable lighter work dependably. 

For all the above grousing, however, I 
believe the real advancements and advan- 
tages of telecommunications are indeed 
just around the corner (the trouble comes 
in defining just how far up the street that 
corner lies). 

In this column I'll look at the complex 
factors driving the communications in- 
dustry today and tomorrow. To do that, 
I'll examine three broad areas of the in- 
dustry: technology, issues, and effects. 


For the purposes of this column, com- 
munications technology deals with the 
nuts and bolts of pumping bits and bytes 
from the desktop to other intelligent de- 
vices. Access may be via a direct connec- 
tion, a local-area network, or dial-up 

My discussions will focus on topics 
such as modem technology. Modems are 
becoming more sophisticated, capable of 
pushing data faster and more efficiently. 
How is this being accomplished, and why 

isn't it being done on a larger scale? 

The burgeoning modem market is be- 
ginning to demand dial-up 9600-bps 
modems, and the industry is starting to 
respond. One small catch, however, is 
compatibility, the plague of the computer 
industry. For example, many 9600-bps 
modem manufacturers use the Microcom 
Networking Protocol (MNP) for error 
correction, but each implements it in a 
slightly different way. 

The telecommunications environ- 
ment, as a whole, is no different. The 
drive for faster, faster, faster creates a 
fractured marketplace with incompatible 
implementations of "standards" in a 
kind of free-market "to each his own" 

There are signs of a "coming togeth- 
er" on these issues, however, and I'll 
keep a close watch on those develop- 
ments. One good sign is the growing ac- 
ceptance of the X.400 electronic message 
exchange standard among providers of 
electronic mail services. 

Then there's communications soft- 
ware, which is like any other piece of 
software: The one you're reared on is the 
one you'll most likely die for. Trying to 

get people to change their brand of com- 
munications software is like trying to get 
the Dalai Lama to change his religion. 

When are communications software 
developers going to learn that the quint- 
essential user isn't the quintessential pro- 
grammer? And that the user doesn't want 
to learn a programming language that 
may as well be Urdu, just to write ad- 
vanced script files? 

For telecommunications to become as 
indispensable as the word processor, pro- 
grammers are going to have to concen- 
trate on truly seamless approaches to 
telecommunicating. The program should 
take care of most of the work so you can 
just boot up and go on-line. 

I'll be looking at the best and brightest 
of the future communications packages 
here. I don't expect miracles right away, 
but I'm impressed with rumblings I hear 
coming just over that horizon. 

Another aspect of the technology is 
the systems— the networks and informa- 
tion services— with which the modems 
and communications software interact. 
These include computer conferencing 
systems like BIX, consumer information 



The WorldPort 2400™ and the WorldPort 1200™ 
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WorldPort 1200 and WorldPort 2400 are trademarks of Touchbase Systems. Inc., Carbon Copy PLUS is a trademark of Meridian Technology Inc. 

136 BYTE' AUGUST 1988 

Circle 242 on Reader Service Card 





which would you like to see first? 

The worlds fastest dBASE compiler or the most 

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Surprise. Now you get both in the same package. 
New Clipper™ from Nantucket!" 

Our latest version — Summer '87- is still the best- 
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Because new Clipper is one of the most powerful, 
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Instead of designing Clipper as an add-on, we've 
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As a result, you get dBASE compatibility and an 
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And with Clipper's open architecture, you can 
write functions in Clipper, C, Assembler or other 
languages, and integrate them into one seamless 
application. Which helps you create more sophisti- 

© Nantucket Corporation, 1988. Nantucket is a registered trademark and Clipper is a 
trademark of Nantucket Corporation. dBASE is a registered trademark of Ashton-Tate. 

Circle 155 on Reader Service Card 

cated applications in less time. And by using our 
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We also give you source code security that 
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sophisticated record and file locking capabilities that 
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If you haven't tried Clipper yet, just call (213) 
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Los Angeles, CA 90066 Telex: 650-2574125 

AUGUST 1988 'BYTE 137 


utilities like CompuServe, LANs, elec- 
tronic mail (E-mail), and international 
packet-switched networks. It's in these 
"hot spots" of telecommunications that 
the technology comes alive, or should 
come alive. 

Tom Mandel, a futurist and senior an- 
alyst at the Stanford Research Institute in 
Palo Alto, California, is completing a 
landmark study entitled Interactive Tele- 
communications Services: Precursors of 
the Wired Society. He says, "Direct con- 
sumer access to information through elec- 
tronic means is going to grow dramatically 
in the next 5 years. I think we'll see a 
growth rate, in terms of users, of anywhere 
between 25 and 30 percent. " 

Although Mandel is optimistic about 
the growth of interactive systems like 
BIX, CompuServe, and E-mail, he says, 
"We won't see a true mass market 
emerge." Instead, several niche markets 
will spring up and profit. 

Such niche markets include services 
like NewsNet, which offers the full text 
of some 300 specialized newsletters and 
publications; on-line services like BIX, 
which cater primarily to a more techni- 
cal crowd; or Quantum Link, an on-line 
entertainment service for owners of 
Commodore computers. In essence, 
there isn't likely to be one service for all 
people in the near future. 

"To create sufficient demand for a 
mass market, people are going to have to 
be given a reason to go outside their nor- 
mal media requirements: TV, the news- 
paper, and magazines," says Mandel. 
"To create sufficient demand for new 
services at levels attractive to the every- 
day Joe, the design, delivery, and pricing 
of consumer services will have to im- 
prove significantly." 

Here, I'll examine these "niche mar- 
kets"— what's hot, what's not, and why. 


Congress, in grappling with the effects of 
new technologies on today's society, has 
issued several reports out of the Office of 
Technology Assessment (OTA). The 
bottom line for the OTA is that any kind 
of electronic communications systems, 
with the possible exception of E-mail ser- 
vices, is actually a publishing medium. 
When you place something on-line, you 
become an author; the system becomes 
the publisher. 

This author/publisher relationship 
raises issues of copyright, intellectual 
property rights, free speech, and the 
rights of privacy. A 1986 OTA report 
states, "Electronic dissemination creates 
some very complex issues with respect to 
the public interest, and involves the intel- 

lectual property system in other issues 
such as communications, antitrust, and 
freedom of speech." A broad brush, 



had students from 

around the world take 

my class, and I've never 

set foot in a classroom. 

Beyond these thorny issues are those of 
governmental regulation and legislation. 
Earlier this year, the Federal Communi- 
cations Commission (FCC) withdrew a 
proposal that would have dramatically 
increased the rates that on-line service 
subscribers would have to pay. The FCC 
withdrew it, in large part, because of a 
tremendous grass-roots coalition be- 
tween service providers and their sub- 
scribers: you and me. 

It was an issue near and dear to all 
users of on-line services. And they won. 
But only because the entire issue was 
hashed out on every imaginable system 
from the basement BBS to BIX. 

In 1986 Congress saw the need to pass 
the Electronic Communications Privacy 
Act, an amendment to the Wiretap Act of 
1968. This landmark legislation gave at 
least some basic privacy rights to private 
electronic correspondence. And earlier 
this year, the first lawsuit under the 
ECPA was filed in an Illinois court. 

Such issues can't be separated from 
discussions about communications, be- 
cause after the smoke of technological 
advancement clears, the issues are still 
smoldering. I'll look at these, too. 


Any technology that directly affects the 
way humans interact creates unexpected 
results. A historical example is the tele- 
phone. Thought of as merely a business 
tool when first brought into the public, a 
way for the boss to stay in touch with the 
remote worker, it quickly became a social 
tool and has largely remained so, relegat- 
ing its original intent to a secondary level. 
Electronic communications change the 
way people work, how they work, and 
the very structure of organizations that 
implement such systems (ask Oliver 

North— who destroyed paper documents 
but didn't understand that deleted E-mail 
messages on a PROFS system are ar- 
chived—about the effects of electronic 
communications). For example, commu- 
nications technology is changing how edu- 
cational systems accomplish tasks, and 
new methods of teaching are springing up. 

I teach graduate-level courses for Con- 
nected Education, a program for the 
Media Studies department under the aus- 
pices of the New School for Social Re- 
search in New York. And although I've 
had students from around the world take 
my courses, I've never set foot in a class- 
room; the courses are all taught via the 
EIES conferencing system located on the 
campus of the New Jersey Institute of 

Nonprofit organizations are beginning 
to use computer communications to ex- 
tend their effectiveness— and their bud- 
gets. And the presidential candidates are 
relying on telecommunications to help 
them coordinate campaigns and keep 
statewide campaign offices informed of 
new strategies. 

These effects are crucial to the success 
of communications because they offer 
tangible results that you can point out to 
the critics of the technology. 

This column will also highlight note- 
worthy applications of communications 
and keep you informed on how they af- 
fect various segments of the world. 

Future Stock 

In the coming months, I'll take a look at 
aspects from each of these various areas. 
From the bumpy back roads of BBSes to 
the superhighways of computer confer- 
encing systems, the global highway will 
be well traveled. 

My regular "watering holes" are: BIX 
("brock"), MCI Mail ("bmeeks"), and 
CompuServe (7036,1355). For those of 
you who are hooked into the more eso- 
teric Usenet (you know who you are), I 
can be reached on the WELL via the path- 
way "ihnp4!ucbvax!cogsci.berkeley.- 

As well-traveled as I am across this 
electronic landscape, I don't stop every- 
where. If there's an issue, a topic, or a 
technology that you think deserves a stop 
along the way, let me know. ■ 

Brock N. Meeks is a San Diego-based 
freelance writer who specializes in high 
technology. You can reach him on BIX as 
"brock. " 

Your questions and comments are wel- 
come. Write to: Editor, BYTE, One 
Phoenix Mill Lane, Peterborough, NH 

138 BYTE* AUGUST 1988 

Introducing REMOTE 2 
It's never been so easy to do so much 
in distant PC operation. 

Until now, to have this kind of flexibility and control 
over a host PC, you'd have to be in the same room. 

Now, even if you're thousands of miles away, REMOTE 2 
allows you to operate a host PC's application software with 
total control and exact mapping of the host keyboard . . . fast 
file transfers even while an application program is running 
. . .remote printer redirection. . .an error-checked, data- 
compressed link even with conventional modems. . .and 
CGA color graphics. 

REMOTE 2 comes in two parts-R2HOST and R2CALL- 
available together or separately, so you can create the 
combination to meet your exact needs. R2H0ST is also 
accessible from most terminals and terminal emulators. 

Circle 65 on Reader Service Card 

REMOTE 2 is packed with features users have asked 
for. A choice of three distinct automatic and manual 
answering modes. Directory-to-directory file transfers 
using a half-screen display of host files. Proprietary file 
transfer protocol with redundant file skipping and partial 
file recovery (other popular protocols also supported). A 
"Phone Book" that facilitates one-entry calls from listings 
of names, numbers, and passwords. Host call-back capa- 
bility. Integrated, context-sensitive help system. LAN 
access. Mainframe access to an IBM host with IRMA. 
And more. 

Discover the new remote control program from the 
makers of CROSSTALK. Ask your dealer about REMOTE 2 
or write us. ^.^ 


CROSSTALK COMMUNICATIONS/1000 Holcomb Woods Parkway, 

Roswell, Georgia 30076/(800) 241-6393 

A Division of Digital Communications Associates, Inc. dcci 

CROSSTALK is ;i registered trademark of Digital Communications Associates, Inc./CASL, IRMA and Smart 
Alec arp trademarks of Digital Communications Associates, Inc./CompuServe is a registered trademark of 
CompuServe, Inc., an II&R Block Company 

AUGUST 1988 • BYTE 139 


Rick Grehan 




She Canna Go 

Much Faster Than This, 


The 80386 system builders have 
cranked the dial up another 
notch. And from Compaq, 
Everex, Intel, and SimpleNet, 
here they come: the first of the 25-MHz 
80386-based AT clones. Several other 
companies, including IBM, Advanced 
Logic Research, and Everest Computer 
have also announced 25-MHz machines. 
Judging from the preproduction sys- 
tems I just looked at, "AT clone" is not a 
precise term. It's probably more accurate 
to say that these machines have AT parts 
grafted onto them. Like the Six Million 
Dollar Man, with his frail, biologic 
human parts stitched together with 
superhuman bionic limbs, these ma- 
chines marry a significant portion of an 
8-MHz AT that limps alongside a high- 
speed, 32-bit 80386 system. Each ma- 
chine accomplishes this dual personality 
in different ways, yet there are striking 
similarities— at least on the surface. 

All four machines 
have a number of 
8-MHz AT- 

Deskpro 386/25 

slots that you can feed from the market's 
never-ending supply of peripheral 
boards. Each machine also has a 32-bit 
expansion bus for a high-speed memory 
board supplied by the company (sort of a 
similarity and a difference— since each 
machine's 32-bit expansion bus is propri- 
etary). This leaves you in a predicament: 
If you want to upgrade memory beyond 
what you can place on the motherboard, 
you can either buy a slow, less-expensive 
AT-bus memory board from any number 
of sources, or a fast, more expensive 32- 
bit memory board from the company that 
made your machine. 

Compaq Deskpro 386/25 

Compaq's Deskpro 386/25 looks so 
much like the Deskpro 386/20, you'd 
swear all the company did was jack up 
the CPU to 25 MHz and jack up the price 
to over 10 grand. But if you examine the 
motherboards, there has been some re- 
design: Most of the remaining dual in- 
line package (DIP) chips have been re- 
placed with surface-mount technology. 

However, Compaq refers to most of 
the design and options of the Deskpro 
386/25 as "current technology." Cur- 
rent, that is, with respect to the 386/20. 
(For a review of the Deskpro 386/20, see 
the February BYTE.) 
The only new options for 
the 386/25 are 
new hard disk 

drives (up to 600 megabytes in an expan- 
sion unit), a new 80386 hardware techni- 
cal manual, and sockets for the new 25- 
MHz versions of the 80387 and Weitek 
1167 coprocessors. Interestingly, you 
can install both coprocessors in the same 
machine. They will coexist peacefully, 
and your software can choose between 
them. (A 25-MHz Weitek processor was 
not available at the time I was writing 
this. I did, however, benchmark the ma- 
chine with a 25-MHz 80387). 

The Flex architecture is still there (see 
the February review for details), only 
now it's running at a higher clock speed. 
As with the 386/20, you can download 
the BIOS (including the video BIOS) to 
RAM for faster execution. The CPU and 
math coprocessor sit on a local high- 
speed bus with cache memory and are 
managed by an 82385. Compaq contin- 
ues to deliver the high level of quality the 
company is famous for. The chassis is 
well built, with plenty of attention to 
radio-frequency-interference shielding. 

My test system was loaded: a 300- 
megabyte ESDI (enhanced small device 
interface) hard disk drive, 3 megabytes 
of RAM, a 1.2-megabyte 5 U -inch flop- 
py disk drive, a 135-megabyte tape back- 
up unit, Compaq's Video Graphics Con- 
troller board (VGA- 
compatible) and 
more stan- 
dard periph- 
erals than I 

Step 386/25 

140 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 

have space to mention. You can purchase 
the Deskpro 386/25 in one of two models 
that differ only in mass storage. The 
Model 300 has a 1.2-megabyte 5 V* -inch 
floppy disk drive and a full-height 300- 
megabyte hard disk drive and sells for 
$13,299; the Model 1 10 has a half-height 
1 10-megabyte hard disk drive and a price 
tag of $10,299. You can add combina- 
tions of 1- and 4-megabyte memory- 
expansion boards to bring the system's 
total memory up to 16 megabytes. 

Everex Step 386/25 

What really attracts me to the Everex is 
the tinted-glass window on the front 
panel that slides open to reveal a minia- 
ture starship's control panel. This 2'A by 
5-inch area is a tiny paradise of switches 
and lights. Across its top is an amber 
alphanumeric LED panel that keeps you 
abreast of equipment checks at boot-up 
(it says things like "DMA OK") and 
which disk, cylinder, and head is ac- 
cessed during normal operation 
("C:0017 0" means drive C, cylinder 
17, head 0). Beneath the LED is a power 
light and a hard disk access light. Farther 
down is a three-position toggle switch be- 
side three lights, one each for 8-, 12-, 
and 25-MHz operation. The next panel 
down holds the turnkey lock for locking 
your keyboard, and moving lower you 
come to a pair of push buttons: one for 
shutting off the speaker and another for 
rebooting the system. 

Inside, the Everex is all business. It 
houses eight expansion slots: six AT- 
style, one 8-bit "drop-slot," (for 8-bit 
boards that have added to their real estate 
by extending below the lip of the connec- 
tor) and one 32-bit slot. The 32-bit slot in 
the review machine held a 2-megabyte 
RAM card. On the motherboard were 
eight 256K-byte single in-line memory 
modules (SIMMs) (filling all the SIMM 
slots available) and 
256K bytes of 
static RAM 
(SRAM) for 

the cache. The review system also had an 
80-megabyte full-height hard disk, a 1 .2- 
megabyte 5 14 -inch half-height floppy 
disk drive, and a 1 .44-megabyte 3 '/2-inch 
floppy disk drive. For video, Everex 
supplied one of its EGA boards and an 
Evervision MN-200 monitor. 

Everex also provides extensive utility 
software, including a hard disk utility 
package and RAMdisk software. The 
hard disk utility software includes an ex- 
tensive diagnostic section, as well as 
software for creating either Extended 
DOS partitions, which allow you to 
create logical drives of up to 32 mega- 
bytes each on a single physical drive, or 
Super DOS partitions, which allow you 
to create a single partition of up to 285 
megabytes on one drive. 

You must be careful about one thing on 
the Everex, though: The configuration 
program (you get to it by a hot-key se- 
quence—I stumbled into it via a bug in 
the ROMs that an engineer at Everex as- 
sured me would be eliminated on future 
machines). The program asks you a lot of 
questions. Unless you have the manual to 
explain what they all mean, and unless 
you are intimately familiar with the op- 
tions you have tacked onto your system, 
you can really bunge things up. 

The cost for a minimum Everex 
386/25 system— case, power supply, 
motherboard, keyboard, 1 megabyte of 
memory, DOS 3.3, and a 1.2-megabyte 
floppy disk drive and controller— is 
$5999. The configuration I tested has a 
price tag of just over $9500. 

Intel SYP302 

Here's a machine for OEMs only. I've 
included it here because it will show up 
on the shelves as the basis for systems 
from other manufacturers. The System 
SYP302 from Intel's OEM Platform di- 
vision gets you a motherboard (populated 

with a range of memory amounts), power 
supply, and hard and floppy disk drives 
(optional). The OEM has to supply the 
frivolities of computing . . . such as a key- 
board, video boards, CRTs, and what- 
ever additional peripherals you need. 
(For a motherboard with 2 megabytes, a 
chassis, and a power supply, an OEM 
can expect to pay $6449.) 

My Intel system came with a half- 
height 44-megabyte hard disk drive, with 
a pop-out to either add another one or re- 
place the current one with a full-height 
drive. It also had a 1.2-megabyte 5Vt- 
inch floppy disk drive and pop-outs for 
three more half-height drives under that. 
Between the power supply and I/O sock- 
ets, I found 4 megabytes of memory in 4 
SIMM packages, with room for 4 more. 
(You can take the machine to 24 mega- 
bytes with plug-in memory cards.) Hid- 
den somewhere on the motherboard (I 
looked, but couldn't find it— I suspect it 
was in the darkness beneath the drives) is 
64K bytes of 35-nanosecond SRAM used 
as processor cache memory. There's also 
a socket for a 25-MHz 80387. Fortunate- 
ly, the socket was occupied on the ma- 
chine I tested. 

There is no Intel 82385 cache control- 
ler chip on the SYP302, though I fully 
expected to see one. In conversation with 
an Intel engineer, I was told that this is 
because at the time the engineers were 
designing the SYP302 system, Intel was 
unsure that a 25-MHz version of the 
82385 would be available in time for the 
SYP302. Consequently, the engineers of 
the 302 set about creating a cache con- 
troller from discrete components. The 
caching system is posted write-through 
(more on this later) and uses a direct- 
mapping scheme; that is, there is no so- 
phisticated algorithm— such as a least- 
recently used formula— used to update 
main memory from the cache. 

Arranged along the back of the 


is a lineup of 

eight I/O 


Intel SYP302 

Netpro 386/25 

AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 141 

25-MHz 80386 MACHINES 

connectors. You can use seven of these as 
16-bit AT slots (they operate as though 
attached to an 8-MHz AT machine), and 
the eighth as an 8-bit drop slot. Two of 
the seven AT-compatible slots are lined 
up with 86-pin AT32 32-bit expansion 
slots that operate at full 25-MHz proces- 
sor speed. Currently, the AT32 slots will 
accept only an Intel AT MEM8 8-mega- 
byte expansion board. 

The Intel SYP302 uses the Phoenix 
BIOS. You can have the BIOS down- 
loaded to RAM at boot-up time (the 
BIOS routines execute faster out of RAM 
than out of ROM), and a jumper on the 
motherboard chooses either DOS or 
Unix operation. Unix operation maps the 
ROM to the very top of the physical mem- 
ory-address space so that Unix sees a 
large contiguous RAM space. 

The Intel machine has to take the prize 
for being the most unattractive of the 
group. Its left front panel juts out in a way 
that suggests either a design afterthought 
or an engineering kludge and is actually 
an artistic attempt to hide the intake 
vents that span the front underside of the 
chassis. Keep in mind, however, that this 
is an OEM machine. Anything that 

might be even remotely mistaken for a 
frill took a back seat to function. 

Netpro 386/25 

SimpleNet's Netpro 386/25 is one of the 
first systems based on the Intel SYP302 
box. On the outside, the Netpro 386/25 
looks just like the Intel system. When 
you remove the cover and look inside, the 
Netpro 386/25 looks just like the Intel 
system. Then, when you run the bench- 
marks, the Netpro 386/25 performs— if 
you allow for statistical errors in tim- 
ings—just like the Intel system. 

The only possible performance differ- 
ences you will see depend on the periph- 
erals you plug in. In the case of my Net- 
pro machine, I received an Orchid 
Designer VGA board and a combination 
hard/floppy disk drive controller hooked 
to an 80-megabyte hard disk drive, a 1.2- 
megabyte 5 14 -inch floppy disk drive, 
and a 1.44-megabyte 3'/2-inch floppy 
disk drive. 

At the time of this writing, the Netpro 
386/25 is available in two models: The 
Model 1 is a 4-megabyte monochrome 
system with an 80-megabyte hard disk 
drive, a 1.2-megabyte 5 14 -inch floppy 

Table 1: Speed differences between 20- and 25-MHz 80386-based systems 
range from about 50 percent improvement to more than double, when running 
such standard tests as BYTE's Matrix inversion. 

CPU IBM IBM PS/2 Compaq 

PC AT Model 80 Deskpro 


Everex Compaq Intel Netpro 
Step Deskpro SYP302 386/25 
386/25 386/25 









String Move 










































CPU Index: 

















Error 2 








































FPU Index: 








i The floating-point benchmarks use 8087-compatible instructions only. 

2 The errors tor the floating-point benchmarks indicate the difference between expected and actual values, correct 
to 10 digits or rounded to 2 digits. 

All times are in seconds. All figures were generated using the 8088/8086 version of Small-C (1 6-bit integers). 
Figures for 80386 machines do not use 80386-specific instructions. For a full description of all the benchmarks, see 
"Introducing the New BYTE Benchmarks." June BYTE. 

disk drive, an EtherLan adapter, and a 
retail price tag of $12,499; the Model 2 
sports a VGA display, an extra 3'/2-inch 
floppy disk drive, a 102-megabyte hard 
disk drive, andaprice of $13,499. 

As an aside, the monitor I received 
with the Netpro was an RE5515 multi- 
scan monitor from Relisys. For the most 
part, it worked quite well, but during the 
benchmarking, the BYTE Lab personnel 
noticed that whenever the system 
changed graphics modes, they had to ad- 
just the horizontal width of the display. 
This did no damage to the hardware or 
program execution, but the effect was 
unbearably annoying. 

All the Difference in the World 

These machines' claim to fame is speed. 
Caching obviously plays an important 
role in this area; when I inadvertently 
disabled the cache on the Intel machine, 
its performance dropped to what I would 
expect from a 16-MHz AT. Many manu- 
facturers of these (and other) high-speed 
systems spend much of their time touting 
their caching system's high "hit rate" 
and low "effective wait states." What 
about these systems? 

The Everex uses a proprietary Ad- 
vanced Memory Management Architec- 
ture (AMMA) that— according to the 
company— gives the system a perfor- 
mance boost beyond standard cache sys- 
tems. First, AMMA permits you to ex- 
pand the cache memory from 64K bytes 
(the minimum) to 256K bytes as your 
system memory expands. Second, pro- 
cessor cache systems based on the Intel 
82385 cache controller chip— the Com- 
paq uses the 82385— are write-through, 
which means that as the processor writes 
data into the cache memory, it also 
writes the data to the system memory so 
that system memory is kept up to date 
with cache memory. A write-through 
cache will experience a performance re- 
duction during write operations that ac- 
cess the slower main memory. (To be 
specific, Intel refers to the 82385's cache 
implementation as posted write-through 
and claims that a posted write-through 
allows the 80386 to issue a write to the 
cache and proceed with the next opera- 
tion without having to wait for the update 
to slower main memory. However, if 
multiple write operations occur back-to- 
back, the system can bottleneck as the 
processor waits for the cache controller 
to update main memory.) 

Everex's AMMA controller imple- 
ments a true buffered-write cache that 
updates main memory only when neces- 
sary (e.g., when the direct memory ac- 
cess system reads a section of main mem- 

142 BYTE' AUGUST 1988 

25-MHz 80386 MACHINES 

ory that corresponds to memory updated 
in the cache) and does so in blocks of up 
to 128 bits at a time. 

Is the AMMA worth its salt (or sili- 
con)? My guess is that the best indicator 
of the AMMA's speed advantage over an 
82385-based cache would be the String 
Move benchmark (see table 1), and in 
fact the Step 386/25 does turn in times 
that are noticeably faster than the other 
systems for that benchmark. Whatever 
the reason— larger cache size or smarter 
cache management— the Everex does 
seem to be able to move data between the 
CPU and memory more quickly than the 
other machines. For the other bench- 
marks, the Everex shows no clear win 
over the Compaq, and only a marginal 
lead over the Intel and Netpro. 

A Dual Personality 

As sophisticated as these machines are, I 
cannot help pointing out how similar 
their philosophy is to that of the Apple 
IIGS. The IIGS used the 65816, a pro- 
cessor that was an upgrade to the 6502, 
with larger registers and a wider address 
range. Compare this with the 803 86 's 
improvements over the 80286/8086. The 
IIGS had internal fast RAM, but the sys- 
tem was slowed to 1 MHz during access 
to the lie-compatible I/O slots. Compare 
this with how these machines must re- 
duce execution speed during access to 
the AT-compatible slots. Finally, the 
IIGS had a special fast-RAM/ROM 
memory-expansion slot. Compare this 
with each of the 25-MHz machines' pro- 
prietary 32-bit high-speed memory ex- 
pansion slots. It seems that compatibility 
plagues the hardware engineers of the PC 
world as well as the Apple world. Are 
these dual-personality machines the only 
possible response in the demanding face 
of compatibility? And how much trouble 
are we getting into with all the propri- 
etary 32-bit buses? 

My personal choice among these ma- 
chines is a toss-up between the Everex 
and the Compaq. The Everex does ap- 
pear to have a leg up on the Compaq and 
the Intel-based machines in terms of raw 
speed, but the Compaq comes from a 
fine heritage of dependable workhorses, 
and there's certainly plenty of Compaq 
peripherals to draw from. 

Ultimately, you have to ask yourself 
whether or not the extra speed is worth 
the extra cost. Is there enough software 
out there that makes use of the 80386 that 
you need right now? The 80386 should 
begin showing its real power as more 
multitasking applications appear, and a 
serious Xenix or Unix user might have no 
other choice. For those who use these 

The Compaq 386s 

Though not a 25-MHz machine, I 
find the new Compaq 386s to be 
more interesting than the other ones re- 
viewed here. Why? Because the Com- 
paq 386s uses the new Intel 80386SX 
processor, a 16-MHz CPU that is re- 
lated to the 80386 in the same way the 
8088 is related to the 8086. 

Internally, the 80386SX and 80386 
look identical, externally the 80386SX 
uses a 16-bit data bus. For the manu- 
facturer, this translates to simpler 
board design, lower chip cost, and 
smaller package size. For us, it means 
we can get a good 80386 system for less 

Another attraction of the Compaq 
386s is its integration of much of the pe- 
ripheral hardware onto the mother- 
board. Not only will you find the ex- 
pected: real-time clock and calendar, 
parallel printer port, and serial port; 
there's also the unexpected: VGA con- 
troller (with a 16-bit data path that soft- 
ware may one day take advantage of), 
and a mouse port. Compaq also throws 
in some welcome utilities: their 
expanded memory manager (CEMM) 
package for support of the Lotus/Intel/ 
Microsoft Expanded Memory Specifi- 
cation (LIM/EMS) and Compaq's own 
disk-caching software. 

Compaq serves the 386s in a variety 
of flavors. You have your choice of no 
internal hard disk drive (the Model 1 at 
$3799), a 20-megabyte hard disk drive 
(the Model 20 at $4499) or a 40-mega- 
byte hard disk drive (the Model 40 at 
$5199). All three models include 1 
megabyte of memory, a 5 W -inch 1.2- 
megabyte floppy disk drive, and 4 AT- 
style expansion slots as standard. If 
backup is one of your sensitive areas, 
you might check into their tape backup 
systems: 40 or 135 megabytes. Be care- 
ful when exploring the memory-up- 
grade paths for the Compaq 386s, 
though. There are four memory expan- 
sion options available in a variety of per- 
mutations that take the system to a max- 
imum system memory of between 4 
megabytes and 13 megabytes. Inside the 
Compaq 386s are four AT-style slots 
and one high-speed memory expansion 
I'm also giving the Compaq 386s 

Compaq 386s 

String Move: 

Floating Point 



e x. 














high marks for external appearance— 
particularly when placed next to the 
Bauhaus design of the Intel box. It has a 
smaller footprint than an AT (15 by 16 
inches), so it fits nicely onto typing 
tables that the other 80386 systems 
would topple. 

For an idea of the machine's perfor- 
mance, the table above shows the bench- 
mark results for our 80386 low-level 
tests. The Compaq 386s runs at about 
half the speed of it's bigger brother (the 
Deskpro 386/20) for the CPU and FPU 
tests. The Compaq 386s is not a barn- 
burner in the speed category, but if your 
plans include a solid 80386 machine it's 
worth a closer look. 

machines as MS-DOS applications 
boxes, it may well be that a specimen 
from the apparently endless supply of 
faster-and-faster AT clones will do. Still, 
it's nice to put on your goggles, black 
flight jacket, and Red Baron scarf and sit 
down in front of all those megabytes and 

megahertz to whip through an applica- 
tion in a morning instead of a whole 
day. ■ 

Rick Grehan is a BYTE senior technical 
editor. You can reach him on BIX as 
"rick_g. " 

AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 143 

The Dell System 220, 

Once again the critics 

stole the words right 

out of our mourn. 

"The Dell System 220 runs most PC Labs system 
benchmark tests at speeds that would make you think 

you're running a 386." 


(< the Dell machine is renewed evidence that the 

price of 286-based desktop equipment continues to 

drop rapidly, making such machines very attractive for 

daily work under MS DOS even as they hold out the 

promise of running OS/2 in the future" 


"...includes a year's on-site the price of the 

computer. This is the sweetest support deal offered by any 

computer vendor in the industry" 


"The hot item from a technical point of view is the 
System 220. This machine runs a 286 processor at 20 MHz, 

which is its major claim to fame" 


"the System 220 has more going for it than just speed!' 

144 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 

The reviews are beginning to pour in. 

And they read like a wish list for 
every power user looking to exceed the 
ordinary limitations of a 286 computer. 

The computer everyone is praising in 
such glowing terms is the Dell System 220. 

The first 286 computer with a clock 
speed of 20 MHz. 

It's totally MS-DOS® and MS @ OS/2 
compatible. Yet it sells for much less than 
you may pay for a 386 computer. 

Because you buy it direct from us. 

Eliminating the mark-ups and mar- 
gins of computer stores. 

We design and build every Dell 
computer right here in Austin, Texas. 

We put each and every one through 
a comprehensive burn-in and a battery of 
diagnostic tests before we ship it. 

And after we ship, we give you the 
best technical support you'll find any- 
where in the computer industry 

Our technicians are on the phone 
from 7AM to 7PM every business day. 

Almost any question you may have 
about a Dell system can be answered over 
the phone. 

And, in the rare case, that your ques- 
tion can't be answered by an on-line tech- 
nician, we'll send a Honeywell Bull tech- 
nician by the next business day 

A full year of on-site Honeywell Bull 
service is included within the purchase 
price of your Dell system. 

Your Dell computer also comes with 
a thirty-day money back guarantee. 

And we back every one of our com- 
puters with a one year limited warranty 
on any defective parts or workmanship. 

For more information about Dell 
computers, read the reviews in the trade 
press, turn the page, review our product 
offerings, and call us at (800) 426-5150. 

You'll like what we have to say. 






AUGUST 1988 'BYTE 145 

The Dell 



Welcome to our store. 

We believe you'll find this an extremely 
pleasant shopping experience. 

Our sales staff is on hand to serve you 
from 7AM to 7PM (CSV) from Monday thru 

Just call (800)426-5150 and we'll give you 
the technical assistance and information you 
need to make sure you're buying the system 
that's right for your needs. 

Then you have the option of either 
a direct purchase or your company can take 
advantage of our Leasing Plan? 

Once you've made your choice, our 
Total Satisfaction Guarantee gives you thirty 
days from the day you receive your system, 
to decide if you are absolutely, totally satisfied 
with the product. 

If you're not, simply return the system and 
you'll receive a full refund. No questions asked. 

Your Dell computer is supported by a 
team of technical experts that can be reached 
every business day, from 7AM to 7PM (CST), 
simply by calling (800) 624-9896. 

In most cases, any question you may have 
about your Dell system can be answered by 
one of our technicians on the phone. 

Our technicians are also supported by 
Honeywell Bull service engineers who can be 
sent to your office by the next business day, 
should on-site service be required. 

This optional service contract is avail- 
able in over 95% of the United States, with 
over 1,000 engineers in 198 service locations. 

We also offer a One Year Limited War- 
ranty, which warrants each system we manu- 
facture to be free of defects in materials and 
workmanship for one full year. During that 
period we will repair or replace any defective 
products properly returned to our factory. 

Feel free to call or write for the com- 
plete terms of our Honeywell Bull Service 
Contract, Guarantee and Warranty. Dell 
Computer Corporation, 9505 Arboretum 
Blvd., Austin, Texas 78759-7299. 

Dell products are available on GSA con- 
tract. Calf us to get GSA pricing. 

146 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 


20 MHz 386 



The top of the line. It's our highest 
performance computer available, 
faster than the IBMtPS/2t Model 
80 and the Compaqf 386/20. It 
runs at 20 MHz with the latest 32- 
bit architecture. Since it also has 
Intel's Advanced 82385 Cache 
Memory Controller, and high per- 
formance disk drives, the System 
310 is ideal for intensive database 
management, complex spread- 
sheet development, CAD/CAM, 
desktop publishing or perfor- 
mance as a network file server. 

Standard Features: 

■ Intel! 80386 microprocessor 
running at 20 MHz. 

■ 1 MB of 80 ns 32-bit RAM 
expandable to 16 MB without 
using an expansion slot. 

■ Advanced Intel 82385 Memory 
Controller with 32 KB of high 
speed static RAM. 

■ Socket for 20 MHz 80387 

■ 5.25" 1.2 MB or 3.5" 1.44 MB 
diskette drive. 

■ Dual diskette and hard disk 
drive controller. 

■ Enhanced 101-key keyboard. 

■ 1 parallel and 2 serial ports. 

■ 200-watt power supply. 

■ 8 expansion slots. 


■ 1 MB RAM upgrade kit. 

■ 20 MHz Intel 80387 math 

■ 2 MB or 8 MB memory expan- 
sion boards. 

''Lease for as low as $148/Month. 

System 310 

With Monitor & Adapter 

Hard Disk 





40 MB- 
28 ms 




90 MB- 
18 ms 




150 MB - 
18 ms 




322 MB- 
18 ms 





20 MHz 286 



As fast as most 386 computers, 
at less than half the price— more 
power for the money than any 
other system. An 80286 system 
that runs at 20 MHz, with less 
than one wait state. Completely 
compatible for both MS-DOS® 
and MS® OS/2 applications (it 
runs faster than IBM PS/2 Model 
80), and with a remarkably small 
footprint, the System 220 is the 
ideal executive workstation. 
The system uses page mode inter- 
leaved memory resulting in a 
performance increase of about 
15 percent. 

Standard Features: 

■ 80286 microprocessor running 
at 20 MHz. 

■ 1 MB of RAM expandable to 
16 MB (8 MB on system board). 

■ Integrated diskette and VGA 
video controller on system 

■ One 3.5" 1.44 MB diskette drive. 

■ Integrated high performance 
hard disk interface on system 

■ Enhanced 101-key keyboard. 

■ 1 parallel and 2 serial ports. 

■ LIM 4.0 support for memory 
over 1 MB. 

■ Real-time clock. 

■ Three full-sized ATf compatible 
expansion slots. 

■ Socket for 80287 coprocessor. 


■ 3.5" 1.44 MB diskette drive. 

■ Intel 80287 coprocessor. 

■ 1 MB RAM upgrade kit. 
''Lease for as low as $85/Momh. 


With Monitor 










40 MB- 

29 ms 

Hard Disk 




100 MB - 

29 ms 

Hard Disk 




12.5 MHz 


A great value in a full-featured AT 
compatible. An 80286 computer 
running at 12.5 MHz, this compu- 
ter is completely MS-DOS and 
MS OS/2 compatible. The System 
200 offers high speed drive options, 
industry standard compatible BIOS 
and on-site service. As Executive 
Computing said of this computers 
predecessor, "If faster processing 
speed and low cost are two key issues 
affecting your purchase decision, 
this machine might be the ideal 
choice for your office!' 

Standard Features: 

■ Intel 80286 microprocessor run- 
ning at 12.5 MHz. 

■ 640 KB of RAM expandable to 
16 MB (4.6 MB on system board). 

■5.25" 1.2 MB or 3.5" 1.44 MB 
diskette drive. 

■ Dual diskette and hard disk 
drive controller. 

■ Enhanced 101-key keyboard. 

■ 1 parallel and 2 serial ports. 

■ 200 watt power supply. 

■ Real-time clock. 

■ 6 expansion slots. (4 available 
with hard disk drive controller 
and video adapter installed). 

■Socket for 8 MHz 80287 


■512 KB RAM upgrade kit. 

■ 8 MHz Intel 80287 coprocessor. 
"Lease for as low as $78/Month. 


With Monitor & Adapter 






20 MB 





40 MB- 
40 ms 





40 MB- 
28 ms 





90 MB- 
18 ms 





150 MB- 
18 ms 





322 MB- 
18 ms 






A Full Line Of Computers With 
A Full Line Of Configurations, 

At Dell, we understand that 
different users have different needs. 
So we tailor each system to the 
user's individual requirements. 

We offer monitors, graphics 
boards, tape backups, dot matrix 
and laser printers, hard disk and 
diskette drives, expanded memory 
boards, serial mice and more. 

We also offer third party soft- 
ware applications for virtually 

every business application includ- 
ing: accounting, communications, 
desktop publishing, graphics, word 
processing, integrated applications 
and user training. 

So when your Dell System 
arrives, you can do productive 
work the minute you unpack 
the box. 

We can build you the system 
you've been looking for. 


The Dell System Analyzer. MS-DOS and OS/2 compatible. Security lock with locking chassis. 
12 month on-site service contract (Available on complete systems). 

PRINTERS/SOFTWARE. We offer a full-line of printers and popular software. 
All printers come with our 30-day money-back guarantee and one year warranty. 


LASER SYSTEM 150; $5,995. 
15 pages per minute, text 
and full-page graphics. 
Dual 250 sheet-input trays. 

LASER SYSTEM 80; $3,295. 
8 pages per minute, text 
and full-page graphics. 

LASER SYSTEM 60; $2,195. 
6 pages per minute, text 
and full-page graphics. 




Highest resolution text and 

graphics from a 24-wire dot 

matrix printer. 

Draft quality at 200 cps. 

Correspondence quality 

at 132 cps. 

Letter quality at 66 cps. 

Standard parallel and serial 


Wide carriage. 



9-wire dot matrix. 

Draft quality at 240 cps. 

Near-letter quality at 60 cps. 

Standard parallel interface. 

Wide carriage. 



9-wire dot matrix. 

Draft quality at 144 cps. 

Near-letter quality at 36 cps. 

Four standard fonts. 

Paper parking. 

Standard parallel interface. 

SOFTWARE. Operating System Software. 

Dell Enhanced MS-DOS 3.3 with disk cache and other utilities; $119.95. 

Dell Enhanced MS OS/2 Standard Edition 1.0 $324.95. 




All prices and specifications are subject to change without notice. Please inquire for current details. Dell cannot be responsible for 
errors in typography or photography. In Canada, leasing is not currendy available and configurations and prices may vary. Microsoft? 
MS " and MS-DOS® are owned by Microsoft Corp. fSignifies registered or unregistered trademarks owned by entities other than Dell 

Computer Corporation. *Payments based on a 36-month open-end lease. Please inquire for further details , , 

© 1988 DELL COMPUTER CORPORATION. | adcodenoiieh8| 



Circle 261 on Reader Service Card 

AUGUST 1988 • B Y T E 147 

Product Focus 

Communications Software 



The BYTE Lab 
tests communications 
programs that can 
go to work 
when you go home 

Steve Apiki and Stan Diehl 

Carbon Copy Plus 
Crosstalk Mk.4 
Crosstalk XVI 
Instant Terminal 
Mirror II 
Procomm Plus 
Relay Silver 
Smartcom III 
Softerm PC 

f you were stranded on an island with 
a bottle of aspirin, a personal com- 
puter, and a modem, what communi- 
cations package would you most like 
to have along? Make the wrong decision 
and you're likely to need the aspirin. 
Finding software that lets you use your 
modem may be easy, but the package 
with the speed, automation, and flexibil- 
ity to let you make the most of your sys- 
tem is a rare find indeed. 

Data communications is often the 
same procedure from day to day. But say 
you just got a new 19,200-bit-per-second 
modem and you need to find a package 
that can handle it. You may want some- 
thing that can run in the background 
without a multitasking operating system. 
Or maybe you're just tired of running 
through the same log-on procedure by 
hand, over and over again. The best thing 
about new software is the performance 
increase you can get for a relatively small 
amount of money. 

The subjects of this month's product 
focus are MS-DOS-based, stand-alone 
communications software packages that 
have a script language— a feature that can 
relieve you of hours of tedium and hours 
of connect time. Generally, a script lan- 
guage lets you program your system to 
handle a communications session unat- 
tended. Programmed with a sophisti- 
cated script, your computer can recog- 
nize prompts from the host systems and 
act accordingly— say, sending queries or 
transferring files. 

The packages we reviewed vary, how- 
ever, in their ability to save you from 
sinking that saved time back into learn- 
ing a cumbersome script language or a 
difficult command sequence. They also 
range in maximum transfer speeds from 
2400 to 115,200 bps, and in price from 
about $70 to about $250— but you don't 
always get what you pay for. 

System requirements are generally the 
same: Most run under DOS 2.0 on a sin- 
gle 3!/2-inch or 5 '4-inch floppy disk 
drive and in 192K bytes of RAM. All the 

packages let you use BIX, CompuServe, 
or other information services, and they 
let you upload and download files from 
your company's mainframe. However, 
many of them will perform at their top 
transfer rate only when they're talking to 
a computer running the same software. 
We'll highlight differing requirements in 
the individual sections that follow (also 
see table 1). 

Carbon Copy Plus 5.0 

Meridian Technology's Carbon Copy 
Plus 5.0 is a good example of a package 
that is strong overall and provides unique 
features for specialized needs. It re- 
quires an unusually large (256K-byte) 
section of memory, but it exchanges code 
size for speed by loading its configura- 
tion program directly into memory. It in- 
cludes 224 pages of documentation. 

Carbon Copy is more than a utility for 
communicating with mainframes— it's 
also a remote PC control package. Be- 
cause of this, it is broken down into two 
executable programs, CC for the host and 
CCHELP for the remote side. The remote 
user can access host command files to 
read or write, control the host's graphics 
screen, and send output to the host's 
printer. Disk access is made possible 
through CCDOS, a DOS look-alike that 
gives host file control to the remote user 
through an almost transparent additional 
program layer. For example, CCHELP is 
able to specify the host's drive C by en- 
tering HC : . Actual file transfers are ac- 
complished with a simple COPY com- 
mand and are conducted using Carbon 
Copy's own error-checking protocol. 

The host can limit file access by dis- 
abling CCDOS. As an added security 
measure, the host can dial a preset call- 
back number upon receipt of a valid pass- 
word from an inquiring computer. CC 
can also be run in a resident (back- 
ground) mode so the host user can con- 
tinue to run applications while file trans- 
fers are taking place. 


148 BYTE' AUGUST 1988 

According to Script 

1:29 an, Monday, August 15, 1968 # 


AUGUST 1988 • B Y T E 149 


Table 1: Features and price are unrelated in the packages we tested (• = yes; O = no). 
Package name 

Price Copy- Documen- 

protected 2 tation 






transfer rate 


Learn Text Back- 

mode editor ground 

Carbon Copy Plus 5.0 $195 • 

Crosstalk Mk.4 1 .01 $245 O 

Crosstalk XVI 3.61 $195 O 

HyperACCESS3.28 $149 • 

Instant Terminal 1.1 $ 95 O 

MaxOnline2.4 $ 70 O 

Mirror II 3.6.12 $ 70 O 

Move-It 4.02 $150 O 


ProcommPlus1.1A $ 75 O 

Relay Silver 1 .01 $150 O 

Smartcom III 1.08 $249 O 

SoftermPC3.0 $195 O 

1 Requires two floppy disk drives. 

2 Disks can be copied, but duplicates will not work together. 

224 pages 
424 pages 
1 99 pages 
232 pages 
71 pages 
222 pages 
368 pages 
1 55 pages 
322 pages 
340 pages 
591 pages 
218 pages 
728 pages 

























All this host mode power doesn't 
come at the expense of terminal-emula- 
tion capability. Carbon Copy can hold its 
own against dedicated mainframe links, 
with transfer speed that puts it right up 
with Crosstalk Mk.4, support for the 
most common transfer protocols, and 
emulation support for five popular 

The terminal commands are clear and 
efficient, mostly Alt-key combinations. 
In fact, Carbon Copy was the best at our 
manual keystroke benchmark, and, 
though the commands are short, they are 
by no means cryptic. The compilable 
script language is similarly tight, al- 
though it does not contain the advanced 
decision-making structures of some 

If you're interested primarily in MS- 
DOS-based communications and need a 
package that will enable very intimate 
data sharing over the telephone, then this 
may be the one you're looking for. Keep 
in mind, however, that all the special- 
ized features require at least two copies 
(one for the host and one for the remote 
terminal) at nearly $200 apiece. 

Crosstalk Mk.4 version 1.01 

A real communications software Cadil- 
lac, Crosstalk Mk.4 version 1.01 from 
Digital Communications Associates 
(DCA) is a hefty package that requires 
two 360K-byte floppy disk drives and the 
assimilation of a 424-page user's man- 
ual. It includes a comprehensive script 
language and a top-drawer price of $245 . 
The list of terminals it can emulate is as 
long as your arm (see table 2); you can 

edit text with a built-in editor; and, in ad- 
dition to supporting every major file- 
transfer protocol, it introduces one of its 
own, called DART. 

DART is essentially an upgrade of the 
older Crosstalk protocol, with new fea- 
tures that include crash recovery and 
time and date stamping. Crash recovery 
enables file transfers to continue after an 
error is corrected, appending new data 
onto that already sent. 

If, despite all the protocol options 
available, you still must do an ASCII 
transfer, you won't have to worry about 
speed. With a rate of 115,200 bps sup- 
ported and the ability to send and receive 
with only limited line waits, Crosstalk 
turned in an excellent time on our file- 
transfer benchmark. 

The command mode is built on the 
Crosstalk system of loading command 
modules for making preset calls. The 
modules can contain connection settings, 
protocols, and terminal emulations. This 
system is relatively easy to use once you 
get familiar with it, although keeping 
track of all the two-letter commands 
often requires hunting through the man- 
ual. Crosstalk Mk.4 had an average 
showing on our keystroke benchmark; it 
suffered from the need to send an atten- 
tion signal before any commands. 

Most outstanding of all its features is 
its CASL script language. CASL uses 
multiple decision loops, has specialized 
disk-access commands, and can create 
much more than script files. Because of 
its command specialization and its size 
(over half the manual is dedicated to 
CASL commands), writing simple 

scripts like our script benchmark can be 
difficult for those unfamiliar with the 
language. Fortunately, Crosstalk Mk.4 
provides a learn script that lets you 
record a session into a script file that can 
simply be edited. With the learn script, 
what would have taken nearly 500 key- 
strokes to program by hand was reduced 
to the 197 indicated in table 3. 

Although Crosstalk Mk.4 is a very 
powerful package, its price puts it in a 
range (shared by Smartcom III, as dis- 
cussed later) reserved for only those in 
real need of its most advanced features. 

Crosstalk XVI 3.61 

Crosstalk XVI, though the standard by 
which other communications packages 
are measured, falls short of the mark it- 
self in our tests. Version 3.61 requires 
only 96K bytes of RAM and costs $195 . 
The software emulates nine popular 
terminals, but it supports fewer proto- 
cols and is more difficult to learn than 
most modern packages. The common 
way to run command mode is to load 
command files containing directory in- 
formation. You can supplement this by 
following script menus or by entering 
two-letter commands. As with Crosstalk 
Mk.4, the process takes some getting 
used to but can be efficient once you are 
familiar with the language. There is a 
status table that you can access with a sin- 
gle key to find your connect options; 
however, finding the table with less com- 
monly used information (like the modem 
commands) can take several commands. 
The system had an average score on our 



You can rely on your file server 
for LAN communications... 

All you need is patience. 
And faith. 

You're getting the drift of this message already. File 
servers aren't designed to solve the PC user's commu- 
nications problem. But now there's a system that is. 

Now there's COMMIX 32. 

It's a general purpose local area network for PCs and 
minicomputer hosts. It connects you with the host, 
other PCs, and peripherals such as printers, plotters, 
or modems through simple, pop-up menu commands. 

For file transfer and E-mail as a background 
task. For printer spooling and sharing directly from 
your applications programs. For terminal emulation 
that's automatic. COMMIX 32 will let anyone perform 
common LAN tasks — without the need for expert 

Install it quickly. Expand it easily. 

Almost any PC user can install and connect with 
COMMIX. With each connection, you're saving time 
and money. Because each COMMIX connection costs 
as little as $125. 

Circle 110 on Reader Service Card 

Then take advantage of expansion possibilities. 
With our optional Ethernet® Link Module, you can 
create larger LANs with thousands of users. And 
through our optional Wide Area Network Module, 
distant COMMIX LANs can appear as one network. 

If you're lost at sea. 

And looking for solid LAN. The COMMIX 32 is 
available now. Send us a message: ITRON, a Division 
of Infotron Systems Corporation, 130 Gaither Drive, 
Suite 116, Mount Laurel, NJ 08054. 
TEL: (609) 722-5575 FAX: (609) 234-0451 



An Infotron Division 

COMMIX is a trademark of Matron Corporaiion. Elhernei is a neural trademark of Xerox Corporation 

AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 151 


Table 2: You should check a package carefully to make sure it supports the protocols and emulations you need (• = yes; O = no). 



i * 

f t 

£ \2 * 
25 C •* «i- 

i i / i i i i s & s 

Package name 

8 # 






9 * 

£ S S? S Q § § 

g $ $ § g 



Carbon Copy Plus 5.0 

o o 






o o 

o • o • • • o 




Crosstalk Mk.4 1.01 

• • 









Crosstalk XVI 3.61 

• o 




o o 

o • o o o o o 




HyperACCESS 3.28 

o o 






o o 

O • O • o o 




Instant Terminal 1.1 4 

o • 




o • 

• • o o • • o 





o o 






o • 

o • o • • • • 




Mirror II 3.6.12 

• o 






o o 

o • o • • • o 




Move-It 4.02 

o o 






o o 

o • o o • o o 





o o 





o o 

o • o o • o o 




Procomm Plus 1.1 A 

o • 





• • 

• • o o • • • 




Relay Silver 1.0 

o o 






o o 

o • o o • o o 




Smartcomlll 1.08 

o o 






o o 

o • • o • • • 




Softerm PC 3.0 5 

• o 






o o 

o • o o • o o 




' Character mode only. 

' Requires additional hardware (e.g., IRMA and SmartAlec). 

3 Requires 7171 protocol converter or equivalent. 

4 DEC emulators included; 40 others available at additional cost. 

5 Supports 33 additional terminals not listed here. 

manual keystroke test. 

Writing a script file is simply a matter 
of listing commands, and there are no 
shortcuts except for abbreviated com- 
mand strings. Decision loops based on 
received strings must be implemented 
using the when construct— a technique 
that can lead to errors with unexpected 

Only the XMODEM error-checking 
protocol is supported in addition to Cros- 
stalk's own. Data transfer rates are sup- 
ported to 115,200 bps, but our ASCII 
transfer test shows the severe perfor- 
mance hits that you get when flow-con- 
trol characters and character waits are 
necessary for error- free transmission. 
Crosstalk XVI was one of the few pack- 
ages we tested that took longer to send a 
file to a faster machine than to receive 
it— a clear indication of high software 

Overall, Crosstalk XVI is an average 
package at an above-average price. 
Crosstalk look-alike programs are easy 
to come by, but many of them have added 
features and flexibility that Crosstalk 
has not. 

HyperACCESS 3.28 

Hilgraeve's HyperACCESS is a versatile 
communications package with solid file- 
transfer ability and unique features that 

make it useful for widely varying appli- 
cations. Version 3.28 sells for $149. 

HyperACCESS supports XMODEM, 
Kermit, and its own Hyper protocol. De- 
spite its moderate maximum transfer 
rate, HyperACCESS compared favor- 
ably to higher-rated packages in our 
throughput tests, with low overhead and 
flawless XON/XOFF synching. The 
software features optional data compres- 
sion capability for both XMODEM and 
the Hyper protocol. 

But speed is not HyperACCESS 's only 
asset. It also has a powerful host mode 
that allows remote control over DOS and 
DOS programs. Remote user access can 
be limited to read only, DOS only, or one 
program only. 

One weakness in an otherwise good 
package is its use of a menu-driven com- 
mand mode. Although the manual key- 
stroke score was average, the commands 
involve constant flipping through layers 
of menus. Transferring files is especially 

HyperACCESS features Hyper Pilot, 
a compilable script language that lets you 
check for syntax errors before you're 
actually on-line. Unfortunately, the 
script language itself does not allow 
many shortcuts, and it fared poorly on 
the programming keystroke test. In addi- 
tion, if you're used to other software's 

script languages, which are all similar, 
you'll find that learning Hyper Pilot re- 
quires some adjustments. 

Instant Terminal 1.1 

Take our advice: When the Instant Ter- 
minal manual mentions that a little file 
on the supplemental disk is intended only 
for a "computer engineer, technician, or 
programmer," don't listen. Print the 
file. Using the sparse 55-page reference 
manual that came with the package, we 
assumed Instant Terminal was a cheap 
Procomm clone. In fact, the sign-on 
screen tells you that Datastorm Technol- 
ogies, the Procomm people, licensed the 
software to Softronics. But with a little 
digging, we found a full scripting lan- 
guage and features that are only hinted at 
in the published documentation. 

Instant Terminal even ran a Procomm 
script, including GOSUBs and condition- 
als, without an edit or a hitch. Still, it's 
not a full implementation, the most nota- 
ble omission being a learn facility. 

One other problem with the "cheap 
Procomm clone" assumption: Procomm 
costs less. With a single emulation, In- 
stant Terminal will run you $95. 

As the name suggests, Instant Termi- 
nal touts its terminal-emulation features. 
Our review copy included a software 
module and documentation supplement 

152 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 


Terminals Emulated 




,S> iV 






V T T V a 

Ai K A.' A.' i? 

^ i ^. ^ tv 

o o o o o 

& # & & p 
o o o o o 





f f £ £ 

$ $ & Q 


£ f £ 
i 3 /? 







• • o o 




o o 

•1 o 


o o o 






o o 


o o 

• »2 


• 2 • o 






o o 



• • o o 




o o 

•1 o 


o o • 






o o 



• • o • 




• o 

• «3 

• 3 

o o o 





o • 


• •••■< 





o o 









• • o o 




o o 



o o o 






• o 



• • o 





• o 


o • • 






o o 



o o o o 




o o 

o o 


o o o 






o o 



• • • • 




o • 

o o 


o • o 

o o 



• o • o 




• o 

• «3 


o • o 






o o 



• • o o 




o o 

•1 o 


o o o 






o o 



• • • o 




o o 

o o 


o o o 










o • 

• o 

o • o 

o o 


Table 3: The packages varied 

widely in ease of programming and thoughput. (All times are in seconds.) 



1 -megabyte 

1 -megabyte 





to create 

for manual 

send at 

receive at 






BIX script 

BIX session 

highest bps 

highest bps 





Carbon Copy Plus 









Crosstalk Mk.4 









Crosstalk XVI 


















Instant Terminal 


















Mirror II 



























Procomm Plus 









Relay Silver 









Smartcom III 









Softerm PC 









for DEC VT-220 emulation. An order 
form enclosed with the package lists 40 
additional emulator modules. Although 
most of the telecommunications pack- 
ages reviewed here include a variety of 
common emulations, documentation was 
almost invariably poor. Instant Terminal 
fills this gap. So if you need to emulate 
an obscure terminal, or if you have a spe- 

cific application on only one or two ter- 
minals, look into Instant Terminal. 
However, if you access multiple hosts, 
take note: The first emulation goes for 
$15; after that, they're $50 a shot. 

MaxOnline 2.4 

Though sometimes bogged down by 
multiple menus, this $70 package offers 

abundant features for its price. The 
menus are well designed, making Max- 
Online a very easy package to use, espe- 
cially for novices. The operations you 
need most show up on the first screen. 
And if anything's missing, you can add 
new functions by editing USER.MNU. 
MaxOnline reaches a maximum data 


AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 153 

Circle 131 on Header Service Card (UtAL, 

me one 

to give 


"How about 43?" 

Modula-2 saves more time 
and money than any other 
programming environment. 

1. High-level language 

2. Readable, maintainable code 

3. Ideal for team programming 

4. Supports multi-tasking 

5. Emerging international standard 

6. Pascal or C programmers learn it 
in hours 

7. Language for modern engineering 

8. Consistency checks across modules 

9. User control over exported/imported 

10. Traps most programming errors 

1 1 . Fewer bugs in final code 

12. Easy low-level access 

The LOGITECH Modula-2 

programming environment 

goes far beyond the language. 

13. Faster project throughput 

14. Corporations rely on it 

1 5. Adds a rich set of tools to the language 

1 6. Best debuggers for any language 

17. Configurable, easy-to-use text editor 

18. Integrated environment 

19. Powerful windowing interface 

20. Compiles twice as fast as MS-C 

21 . Code as fast as the best C compilers 

22. Mature and reliable 

23. Extended library 

24. Standard object format 

25. C libraries can be used 

26. Supports EGA 43-line mode 

27. Automatic MAKE 

28. Flexible overlays ^ 

29. Price/performance leader 

transfer rate of only 19,200 bps, but it 
scored credibly on our benchmarks, tim- 
ing under 10 minutes on both 1 -megabyte 
transfers. Adequate scripting and a func- 
tional learn mode combine for easy auto- 
mation, while the 222 pages of documen- 
tation include plenty of instructive 
programming routines and command ex- 
amples. The distribution disk also con- 
tains demonstration scripts. 

MaxOnline touts a windowing feature 
that supports simultaneous file transfer 
from two COMM ports. It falls short of 
true background mode, but it can speed 
up extensive file-transfer tasks. While 
one window downloads from a remote 
host, the other port can process files over 
a direct line. You can customize each 
window and easily jump back and forth. 
Remote operation excels for a program in 
this price category. Simple commands 
set passwords, restrict log-ons to specific 
users, allow varying levels of access, and 
trigger an interactive chat mode. Easy 
file management is also available. 

The compact scripting language han- 
dles most basic commands. It would not, 
however, support an IF WAITF0R state- 
ment, counting instead on a time-out 
error to break from the mail loop. Pa- 
rameters are easy to change, with an 
overview screen and menus available for 
most entries. MaxOnline illustrates how 
far communications software has come: 
A little money buys a professional pack- 
age with plenty of power. 

Mirror II 3.6.12 

Being accustomed to a given command 
system and script language may be your 
only reason for sticking with an other- 
wise weak communications product. 
SoftKlone's Mirror II 3.6.12 solves that 
problem by letting you use the familiar 
Crosstalk system while adding a learn 
command, background mode, text edi- 
tor, strong terminal emulation, and some 
friendly screen displays. All this, includ- 
ing 368 pages of clear documentation, 
will run you a mere $70. 

Although the command structure is 
virtually identical to Crosstalk's and is 
not any easier to learn, Mirror IPs screen 
displays present your connect informa- 
tion clearly and let you scroll through all 
the parameters you have set. It per- 
formed at Crosstalk's level in the manual 
keystroke test, the only difference being 
an added stroke to get past the initial 
screen display without waiting it out. 

Running Mirror II in the background 
is easy, requiring only a hot-key toggle to 
switch between itself and another appli- 
cation. It can handle the difficult task of 
simultaneously receiving a file and 

doing disk-intensive operations with only 
about a 5 percent performance hit, and 
without errors. Be warned that Mirror's 
192K bytes plus your operating system 
take up a big chunk of a 640K-byte mem- 
ory, and you may be severely limited as 
to the other applications you can run. 

If you're not used to the Crosstalk 
script language, there is a learn facility 
to help get you started. Using it enabled 
us to cut the programming keystrokes 
down to an excellent 1 17, including edit- 
ing. Mirror adds the ability to access a 
command completion register to the stan- 
dard Crosstalk command set, which 
makes possible decision loops based on 
22 separate conditions. 

The software supports all common 
protocols, including Crosstalk. It scored 
very well in our ASCII send test, but 
lower than average on our ASCII receive. 
In this case, the flow control necessary 
to properly send the file from the Com- 
paq 386/20 to the AT at 1 15,200 bps was 
unusually sluggish. 

Mirror II is a very good, strong, and 
flexible package for less than half the 
price of Crosstalk. Those comfortable 
with the Crosstalk command file format 
may well find a new favorite here. 

Move-It 4.02 

When you boot up Move-It, all you get 
back is an asterisk. After delving 
through so many programs with reams of 
overlapping menus and multiple key- 
strokes for one simple command, that 
lonely command prompt was refreshing. 
Of course, you have to rely on the 155 
pages of documentation— without an in- 
dex—and a few help screens to get you 
through the learning phase. The stark 
screen display disguises a powerful pro- 
gram with a full scripting language. 

Though simple in concept, the pro- 
gram's price tag ($150) puts it in a class 
where it must match the performance of 
some tough competition. Unfortunately, 
it lacks the basic features required to 
meet that goal. Take the phone book, for 
example: It is a raw ASCII file, where 
each line contains an entry, and a comma 
separates each argument of an entry 
(e.g., phone number, data transfer rate, 
and parity). Again, the simplicity ap- 
pealed to us, but for the price of this 
package, you should not have to exit the 
program and run up a word processor 
each time you add a phone entry. And 
during XMODEM transfers, you should 
get more of a status update than just a row 
of dots across the screen. 

Move-It's elegant scripting almost 
makes up for the lack of a learn facility. 
Even without automatic generation of 

154 BYTE* AUGUST 1988 


code, it took only 145 keystrokes to pro- 
gram the full BIX session. Move-It han- 
dles the BIX mail loop with typical effi- 
ciency. It first looks for the read/action 
prompt (meaning mail is in the box), 
then jumps to one label if the prompt is 
encountered, or to another label if it is 
not; thus: 

MA read/action: 

JU no_more_raail FALSE 
JU more_mail 

Unlike many of the programs we re- 
viewed, you don't have to wait for a time- 
out to fall through the mail loop. This 
structure not only produces efficient 
code but also handles a variety of com- 
plex chores. 

Still, when the program drifts away 
(an affliction all too common during 
telecomputing), you start to miss the 
menus and status prompts so common in 
the other packages. And this program 
drifts off more than others. It hung when 
it couldn't detect a dial tone, it hung 
when connected to a Hayes-compatible 
modem it didn't think was compatible 
enough, and it even hung when an invalid 
data transfer rate was entered. There's 
nothing more infuriating than a hung 
program that stares back at you with only 
that lonely asterisk. 


In a category with Smartcom III and 
Crosstalk Mk.4, the $250 PC BLAST II 
faces some brutal competition. Even 
with 300-plus pages of documentation 
and some powerful features, it just 
doesn't achieve top-of-the-line status. 
The manual lacks coherent organization, 
and the sparse index skips the first two 
sections. BLAST scripts handle complex 
chores, but they run erratically— a fatal 
flaw when automating on-line proce- 
dures. BLAST also comes up short on 
maximum data transfer rate (38,400 bps) 
and number of protocols supported (only 
XMODEM and the functional, though 
nonstandard, BLAST protocol). 

BLAST reverts to some cryptic script- 
ing language. Unfortunately, the docu- 
mentation covering the command struc- 
ture doesn't help much. While most 
programs use the Wait For standard to 
await specific prompts, BLAST uses a 
TTRAP command. Still, even after em- 
ploying numerous traps and delays, 
BLAST insisted on flooding BIX with a 
burst of commands. Although BIX han- 
dled it, some services won't. For proto- 
col transfers, you've got to access the on- 
line menu and then send local keystrokes 
to automate the menu selections. This in- 

efficient method invites trouble. The 
TUPLOAD and TCAPTURE commands sup- 
port only text transfer. On top of that, 
BLAST lacks a learn facility. 

The setup file enhances automation by 
triggering script files and loading vari- 
ables such as @logf ile and gpassword, 
but this doesn't make up for the ineffi- 
ciencies. A keystroke count exposes the 
problem: The manual session took 38 
keystrokes to complete, while the com- 
mand script required 419. For the price 
BLAST demands, it should be doing 
more of your work. Other programs in 
BLAST'S price category deliver elegant 
scripting, full features, and smooth op- 
eration—an enviable standard, and one 
that BLAST simply does not meet. 

Procomm Plus 1.1 A 

Procomm Plus offers the best of both 
worlds: cheap yet powerful, easy to use 
yet rich with features. At first glance, it 
appears plain enough for public domain, 
and yet it supports almost any telecom- 
puting application: 11 standard proto- 
cols, 14 terminal emulations, every com- 
mon configuration up to 115,200 bps, 
host mode, split-screen chat mode, an 
automated phone book, macros, and a 
surprisingly powerful script language. 
In the old price ($75) versus perfor- 
mance ratio, Procomm leads the field. 

Procomm employs the familiar PC- 
Talk key sequences to get the job done. 
The key combinations are, for the most 
part, logical; and for those that aren't, 
one keystroke calls a comprehensive 
overview screen. The 340-page manual, 
well-organized and indexed, does not 
leave you ripping out pages with one hand 
and hair with the other. Page references 
at the beginning of each chapter supple- 
ment a detailed table of contents and a 
complete index. 

Although some compatibility quirks 
are to be expected in the world of tele- 
communications programs, Procomm 
did better than some. A few of the pack- 
ages could not handle the POPCOM 
modem, a purported Hayes compatible, 
but Procomm had no trouble with it at 
all. Another Hayes compatible inces- 
santly reported Carrier Detect High, and 
most of the programs had problems with 
this. Some dealt with it on boot-up by 
flashing a warning or initiating a reset. 
Some even dropped into terminal mode, 
fully on-line, refusing to believe that no 
one was home. Procomm Plus simply ig- 
nored it. Perhaps this exposes a lack of 
sophistication, but it can be a blessing. 
Telecomputing causes enough headaches 
without your program getting picky. 


Announcing Modula OS/2. 

The operating system finally 

catches up with the language. 

30. Support for dual mode operations 

31 . Dynamic link libraries 

32. For standard/extended version of OS/2 

33. Multiple threads 

34. Virtually unlimited program size 

35. Makes mixing languages easy 

36. Most powerful editor under OS/2 

37. Background compilation while editing 

38. Run-time checks 

39. Stack checks even in threads 

40. OS/2 uses Modula-2 parameter 
passing mechanism 

41 . Upgrade available for Modula-2 DOS 

42. Direct Hotline and free Bulletin Board 
support for all Modula-2 products 

43. It's affordable! 

Call toll-free: 


In California: 



□ Modula-2 Compiler Pack (DOS)$ 


□ Modula-2 Toolkit (DOS) 



3 Modula-2 Development 
System (DOS, includes 
Compiler and Toolkit) 



□ Modula OS/2 



□ Modula-2 VAX/VMS version 


Shipping & Handling (per item) 



CA residents add applicable 
sales tax 




3 Check/money order included 
3 Visa □ MasterCard 

Card Number 

Exp. Date 

Cardholder Name 

Authorized Signature 

Ship to: 







Offer valid in U.S. Only Dealer inquiries 
Educational prices available. 



Send to: 


Logitech, Inc. 

Attn: Coupon Redemption Program 

6505 Kaiser Drive, Fremont, CA 94555 

In Europe, contact: 

LOGITECH SA in Switzerland 

Tel: ++41 (0) 21-869-96-56 

In the United Kingdom, contact: 


Tel: ++44 (0)525-22-22-11 

AUGUST 1988 'BYTE 155 


Our tests seek to evaluate communi- 
cations software performance in 
two broad categories: throughput and 
ease of use. To this end, we devised 
benchmarks to pinpoint performance 
ability in eight separate areas. 

The first is our manual keystroke 
test, where we record the number of 
keystrokes necessary to carry out a de- 
fined session on the BIX conferencing 
system. It provides a quantitative mea- 
sure of the relative complexity of using 
the command mode. The session con- 
sists of logging on, filing and download- 
ing mail, filing and downloading mes- 
sages, and logging off. Keystrokes that 
are used for commands in terminal 
mode (i.e., commands for BIX's use 
only) are not counted. We made every 
effort to use keyboard shortcuts where 
these were available. The count begins 
on the first stroke after the program is 
started and ends when we have returned 
to DOS. 

For our second test, we wrote a script 
language program to automate the same 
BIX session, and we determined the 

The Tests 

keystrokes needed to enter and execute 
the script. Since BIX's mail subsystem 
requires that you file memos individu- 
ally, and the amount of messages can 
vary from day to day, the program must 
have some kind of input-based decision 
structure to work properly. 

We chose to use the language's best 
structure, not necessarily its most com- 
pact, for handling unexpected condi- 
tions. If abbreviated commands were 
possible, we used them. If the package 
had a learn facility, we counted only the 
keystrokes needed to use the learn mode 
and to edit the resulting script. 

Throughput was measured using two 
data files (a 64K-byte file and a 1 -mega- 
byte file), transferred between a stan- 
dard IBM PC AT and a Compaq Desk- 
pro 386/20 under fixed conditions. The 
terms send and receive are always refer- 
enced to the AT. The 1 -megabyte ASCII 
transfer test times the send and receive 
timings of one million A characters via a 
null modem connection and using no 
error checking. We pushed for the 
greatest error-free transfer rate we 

could get, which is not merely a func- 
tion of data transfer rate; it often meant 
adjusting flow control and line or char- 
acter wait parameters. At 115,200 bps, 
we should see 1 -megabyte transfer 
times of about 90 seconds (1 megabyte/ 
(115200/10)), but typical times were 
more on the order of 10 minutes, which 
was the fastest transfer time the soft- 
ware (and the disks) could correctly 

To determine how the software re- 
acted under everyday conditions, we 
measured the transfer rate of a 64K-byte 
data file at 1200 bps over two simulated 
phone lines. The first line, simulated by 
our modem testing equipment, was a 
"perfect" line, with virtually no noise 
and no line impairment. The connection 
was made using two 1200-bps Hayes- 
compatible modems. The second line 
simulated was a "typical" line, with 
typical noise, attenuation, and phase jit- 
ter. These parameters were determined 
by the preliminary draft of EIA-496, a 
specification for universal communica- 
tion equipment tests. 

As for the script language, Procomm 
boasts a complete command set: if . . . 
then. . .else looping, case structures, a 
Shell command for DOS operation, sub- 
routines, and advanced screen handling. 
This power does not come at the cost of 
simplicity. For instance, Procomm han- 
dled the BIX mail loop with ease: 

WAITF0R "read/action" ;BIX prompt 

; when you have mail 
IFWAITFOR ; if you have mail, 

GOTO morejiail ; go get it 

Sure, it looks obvious; but few packages 
handle the loop so easily. For all but the 
most complex programming projects, 
Procomm scripting will do the job. Only 
the lack of a true background mode 
dampens our endorsement. The Shell 
command allows you to escape to DOS 
while still on-line, but file transfers will 
not proceed until Procomm returns to the 

Procomm meets a software designer's 
most stringent standard: Pack in the fea- 
tures, but keep the interface simple. It 
doesn't intimidate, but it can still handle 
complex applications. Above all, it 
strives for invisibility, flashing menus at 
you only when asked and remaining as 

unobtrusive as possible. A noble achieve- 
ment, and a goal all too often neglected. 

Relay Silver 1.0 

Relay Silver 1.0 is a fully featured com- 
munications software package that re- 
quires 192K bytes of RAM and two flop- 
py disk drives. It includes two manuals 
with over 500 pages of well-referenced 
documentation, and it sells for $150. Re- 
lay Silver is weak in throughput, ease of 
commands, and terminal emulation, and 
the unusual extra features it adds are not 
enough to make up for these basic lacks. 

Among the added features are a so- 
phisticated background mode, a text edi- 
tor, and a script language learn facility. 
The background mode allows Relay Sil- 
ver to run as a true terminate-and-stay- 
resident (TSR) program, always accessi- 
ble through a hot-key combination. 
Unfortunately, background file transfers 
were quite slow when running a disk- 
intensive application in the foreground. 

ASCII transfers were quick enough, 
but hard to get going. At high speeds, the 
software occasionally locks when using 
XON/XOFF, apparently because the re- 
ceiver doesn't catch all the data and never 
sends the next XON. For hard- wired con- 
nections, Relay Silver needs a null 
modem cable configuration that differs 

from that of almost every other package. 

The command mode is menu-driven 
beyond reason, and to accomplish any 
file transfers with the menu, you must 
edit an entire directory specification. A 
command entry mode of sorts is avail- 
able through an attention key, but that 
handy bit of information is buried well 
within the documentation. Once you find 
it, you can enter script commands di- 
rectly from the keyboard. Even with this 
shortcut, Relay Silver had a lower-than- 
average score on manual key counts. 

On the plus side, Relay has a powerful 
script language and a good learn facility. 
Relay also finished with an excellent 
keystroke count in our programming 
test. The commands are simple and intu- 
itive, and editing a learned script can 
take remarkably little effort. In addition, 
Relay includes an application program 
interface— software hooks that let you 
easily incorporate Relay scripts into your 
own programs. The manufacturer says a 
new release of Relay Silver with script 
enhancements and additional terminal 
emulations will be available this fall. 

Smartcom III 1.08 

For elegant scripting, full features, and 
pure telecomputing power, you just can't 


156 BYTE' AUGUST 1988 

How to look good from start . . . 


Blqitl* P*tt> PlCfflt 

z: 'z. " ". ~ ~ ™. 


:~; ™~ E : : £ :: 


*" 'St-.™ «» -WW 



PATH Jl 11 



kit ■ 


!-; I'oi) Collin RKinf Tnh Trie KXC; 


ea - S 

to finish. 

The HP LaserJet 
Series II Printer. 

Nothing brings your 
ideas to life like the HP 
LaserJet Series n Printer— 
from office memos to forms 
to newsletters. As the leading laser 
printer, it works with all popular PCs 
and PC software packages. And, with 
a wide range of fonts, you get more 
options to create superior looking 

With additional 
memory you can even 
print sophisticated 300 
DPI full-page graphics. 
And with HP's ScanJet 
scanner, you can also 
easily add photographs, 
illustrations and text. 

No wonder more people choose 
the original over all other laser printers 

So caH 1 800 752-0900, Ext. 900D 
for your nearest HP dealer. 



© Hewlett-Packard 1988 
Circle 102 on Reader Service Card 

Print samples were created using Microsoft Word. Microsoft Excel, and Aldus PageMaker. 

AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 157 


Company Information 

Communications Research Group 

5615 Corporate Blvd. 
Baton Rouge, LA 70808 
(504) 923-0888 
Inquiry 900. 

Meridian Technology, Inc. 

7 Corporate Park, Suite 100 
Irvine, CA 92714 
Inquiry 893. 

Datastorm Technologies, Inc. 

1621 Towne Dr., Suite G 
Columbia, MO 65202 
Inquiry 901. 

Relay Communications, Inc. 

41 Kenosia Ave. 
Danbury, CT 06810 
(800) 222-8672 
Inquiry 902. 

Digital Communications Associates, Inc 

1000 Holcomb Woods Pkwy. 
Roswell, GA 30076 
(404) 998-3998 
Inquiry 894. 

. SoftKlone 

336 Office Plaza Dr. 
Tallahassee, FL 32301 
(904) 878-8564 
Inquiry 898. 

Hayes Microcomputer Products, Inc. 

P.O Box 105203 
Atlanta, GA 30348 
(404) 441-1617 
Inquiry 903. 


7899 Lexington Dr., Suite 210 
Colorado Springs, CO 80918 
(800) 225-8590 
Inquiry 896. 

Hilgraeve, Inc. 

P.O. Box 941 
Monroe, MI 48161 
(800) 826-2760 
Inquiry 895. 

Woolf Software Systems, Inc. 

23842 Archwood St. 
West Hills, CA 91307 
Inquiry 899. 

Maxon Systems, Inc. 

353 Vintage Park Dr. , Suite B 
Foster City, CA 94403 
(415) 377-0269 
Inquiry 897. 

beat the Old Guard. Smartcom III re- 
quires a hefty 512K bytes of RAM, an 
80-column display, and a hard disk 
drive, but the package includes every- 
thing: a full-functioned editor, file com- 
pression and data encryption, on-line 
disk management, a complete command 
set, an integrated compiler, simulta- 
neous sessions, remote access capability, 
and an excellent learn facility. The four- 
disk set is not for the casual user, as the 
$249 price tag attests, but if you have 
heavy-duty uses in mind, Smartcom III 
will do the job. 

Multiple menus and excessive help 
screens can be annoying and inflexible, 
but Smartcom Ill's implementation of 
those features works. You can find your 
way around the system and experiment 
with only occasional glances at the ample 
(218-page) documentation. 

The editor, unlike many integrated 
editors, is fairly painless, and, when 

editing script files, it offers some helpful 
debugging tools. Debugging the scripts 
of other packages can become tiresome 
because most errors are only discovered 
on-line. The Smartcom compiler, acces- 
sible from within the editor, catches 
many errors; and when problems do 
arise, you can avoid the headache of 
switching from one module to another 
or, worse, from one program to another. 
After Smartcom detects a compilation 
error, it puts you right where you need to 
be: back in the editor. 

Hayes has included a complete pro- 
gramming environment with multiple 
conditional structures, windowing, 
speed optimization, and full error trap- 
ping. The language is verbose (even with 
a learn facility, it took 162 keystrokes to 
edit the automated session). But the sell- 
ing point here is power. With the less ex- 
pensive packages, you usually employ a 
generic routine and hope all unfolds as 

expected, but Smartcom lets you pick the 
right command for each application. 
Start the learn facility and watch Smart- 
com create your script in an upper win- 
dow as the session churns along on the 
main screen. It even scrambles your 
password. Slick. 

Smartcom blazed through our 1 -mega- 
byte benchmarks. Unlike almost every 
other program, Smartcom could truly 
handle its advertised maximum data 
transfer rate. Sending the file from the 
AT to the Compaq, Smartcom scorched 
along at 1 15,200 bps with no delays at all 
and broke the tape in 98 seconds. Of 
course, the AT can't capture that fast, but 
Smartcom let us know about character 
errors right up front. Instead of waiting 
for the 1 -megabyte transfer to complete, 
only to find errors in the file, we simply 
aborted the process, popped down to 
38,400 bps, and sent the file to the AT in 
a record 262 seconds. 

If you need a full range of features, or 
if you plan an extensive programming 
project (such as a bulletin board system 
or a complex sequence of unattended ses- 
sions), the Smartcom investment pays off 


Although Softerm did not excel at our 
benchmarks, registering 954 seconds on 
the important 1 -megabyte receive test, it 
did run through them with admirable 
ease. The configuration parameters were 
not only comprehensive but easy to find 
and modify. When a problem did occur, 
the excellent documentation (over 700 
pages packed in two manuals) covered it. 
And there's lots to cover: a complete 
script language, learn mode, background 
operation, direct remote access, six pop- 
ular protocols, queue scheduling, and a 
text editor. 

For terminal emulation, Softerm 
breaks away from the pack. Chapter 4 of 
the reference manual lists 45 terminals, 
and each is well documented. That chap- 
ter alone runs 200 pages. In an area 
where most of the packages come up 
woefully short, Softerm deserves spe- 
cial accolades. 

Unique resident features are also note- 
worthy. Softerm's Communication 
Agent, coupled with an unattended host 
mode, enables true background opera- 
tions. A hot-key toggle lets you queue a 
script file containing the MONITOR com- 
mand, turning control to the remote ter- 
minal while the local computer runs 
DOS operations or application pro- 
grams. Resident menus also offer disk 
management and sophisticated host ac- 


158 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 

Small cash input 
for laser-quality output. 



Dear Reader: 

This letter was printed on one of the finest printers available 

The HP DeskJet Printer. 

It prints text and graphics more crisp and clear than 24-pin 
printers. And as you can see from the chart, it's a lot quieter 
than 24-pin printers, too. 

NOISE (dBa) 

■ II 

It's also easy to use. It does your important office tasks, but 
it's small enough to fit on your desk. Everything considered, 
it's the perfect personal printer. 

And one of the most amazing features of all is its price. It's 
under $1,000. 

Call us for the name of your local HP Dealer at 1 800 752-0900 
Ext. 908B. Then go see for yourself why we call it laser-quality 


Richard Snyder 


The HP DeskJet Printer. 
Laser-Quality Output for Under $1000. 


Circle 103 on Reader Service Card 


AUGUST 1988 • B Y T E 159 

A Message To 
Our Subscribers 

list available to other companies who wish to send our subscribers 
material about then products. We take great care to screen these com- 
panies, choosing only those who are reputable, and whose products, 
services, or information we feel would be of interest to you. Direct mail 
is an efficient medium for presenting the latest personal computer goods 
and services to our subscribers. 

Many BYTE subscribers appreciate this controlled use of our mailing 
list, and look forward to finding information of interest to them in the 
mail. Used are our subscribers' names and addresses only (no other 
information we may have is ever given). 

While we believe the distribution of this information is of benefit to 
our subscribers, we firmly respect the wishes of any subscriber who 
does not want to receive such promotional literature. Should you wish 
to restrict the use of your name, simply send your request to the following 

Exit Magazine 

Attn: Subscriber Service 

P.O. Box 7643 
Teaneck, NJ 07666-9866 



If you're talking to a DEC mainframe, no communication 
software emulates the VT220, VT100 or VT52 terminal more 
accurately, easily, or eloquently than VTERM. * 

Hot keys. Kermit. Automatic reformatting for spreadsheets 
and databases. VTERM has it all. 

Why not join the 60,000 users of VTERM (many of whom 
moved up from Crosstalk). And try the DEC terminal emulation 
package that has everyone in the business buzzing. 

" r^ "evaTua^ion k7t" " 

[ ~J Yes, send me a free time-limited, full-blown working copy ofVTERM/220, 
which is mine to keep. 






DEC Terminal Emulator 


I am a user n dealerQ- Mail to: 

Coefficient Systems Corporation 

611 Broadway, New York, New York 10012 (212) 777-6707 B 

* VTERM refers to VTERM/220, VTERM/4010, etc. products from Coefficient Systems Corporation. 
Crosstalk is a trademark of Digital Communications Associates. Inc. 

Questions? Want faster action? Call (212) 777-6707, ext. 420. 


cess. The File Agent uses configurable 
device specifiers, letting you access re- 
mote computers as if they were local disk 

Softerm's learn mode creates only 
macros; you've got to enter script code 
manually. The editor saves you some 
keystrokes by generating commands and 
by catching entry errors, but it can be in- 
flexible. In fact, the script language it- 
self suffers from a rigid structure . Not an 
open programming environment, but the 
kind you may appreciate at debugging 
time or when coding complex sessions. 

The menu structure is somewhat con- 
fusing. For instance, F4 from the Sof- 
term Functions menu, labeled File 
Transfer, does not let you transfer files; 
for that feature, you must call the Utility 
Functions menu. A better design would 
save keystrokes and enhance clarity. 

With so many features and admirable 
power, Softerm deserves its place along- 
side the expensive communications 
packages. It can do the job, but it's not a 
program you can go to work on right out 
of the box. A steep learning curve, an- 
noying rigidity, and poor performance in 
our benchmark tests thwart the promise 
of this full-featured package. 

The Big Picture 

Today's communications software has 
come a long way. Learn modes, easy 
macro definition, and context-sensitive 
help make telecomputing simpler than 
ever. With powerful scripting and abun- 
dant features, the best programs don't 
sacrifice sophistication. If you have a 
quick and easy session to run, complex 
features stay out of your way; but if you 
need more power, it lies in wait. By 
gleaning the features and checking 
benchmarks, you should pick a package 
that is most closely aligned to your 

For instance, if you have limited hard- 
ware and perform long file transfers, 
background operation becomes vital. It 
frees your local keyboard and enhances 
productivity. It also limits your choices 
considerably: While most programs can 
access DOS without logging out, they 
lack true background. On the other hand, 
if you desire simultaneous transfers, a 
program like MaxOnline or Mirror II 
can do the job by accessing both COMM 

Our line simulator benchmarks show 
all packages performing XMODEM 
transfers equally well. Clearly, though, 
with 1-megabyte transfer rates ranging 
from over 20 minutes to less than 2 min- 
utes, software affects throughput. And a 
high data transfer rate does not necessar- 
ily ensure performance; software over- 

160 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 

Circle 45 on Reader Service Card 


head and line waits can significantly 
hamper transfer speed. Crosstalk XVI 
and Smartcom III both tout maximum 
data transfer rates of 115,200 bps, yet 
their 1 -megabyte transfer times differ by 
as much as 13 minutes— very significant 
when tying up a valuable resource. 

Proprietary protocols can make a dif- 
ference. Carbon Copy compressed our 
file of 64,000 A characters and sent it in 
12 seconds. The BLAST protocol han- 
dles noise exceptionally well. Each pack- 
age emphasizes specific features, but a 
couple of them bring it all together. 

Top of the Line 

For overall performance, Smartcom III 
leads the field. It set the standard for 1- 
megabyte transfer, the most telling of our 
benchmarks. It includes all necessary 
features and throws in all those little ex- 
tras that make the job easier— such as re- 
calling filenames from the first couple of 
keystrokes, encrypting files and scram- 
bling passwords for added security, and 
allowing simultaneous on-line sessions. 

Smartcom's scripting also sets the 
pace. When faced with ever-changing 
prompts and the vagaries of on-line com- 
munications, you need a language that 
has full error trapping and can handle all 
the anomalies. You'll still run into pro- 
gramming limits, but, for an application 
language, Smartcom attains the state of 
the art. 

Price vs. Performance 

Here Procomm Plus wins our endorse- 
ment. Unobtrusive and easy to use, it 
still includes all major features and sup- 
ports an enviable set of protocols and ter- 
minal emulations. It achieves simplicity 
with standard Alt-key combinations and 
with a comprehensive menu that's a sin- 
gle keystroke away. Its power comes 
from a surprisingly strong scripting lan- 
guage. And it's highly flexible — an in- 
dispensable feature for telecomputing 
tasks. Although it lacks the sophistica- 
tion of Smartcom III or Crosstalk Mk.4, 
Procomm Plus does the job admirably 
well at a reasonable price. 

Generally, we were impressed by the 
overall quality of all the packages tested. 
Once lagging behind the telecomputing 
revolution, communications software has 
filled the gap with full programming ca- 
pability and creative proprietary fea- 
tures. Going on-line has never been 
easier. ■ 

Steve Apiki and Stan Diehl are testing 
editors for the BYTE Lab. They can be 
reached at One Phoenix Mill Lane, Pe- 
terborough, NH 03458, or on BIX as 
"apiki " and "sdiehl. " 

Circle 238 on Reader Service Card 



• 8 full duplex ports 
19,200 baud all ports 
5000' link distance 
No configuration switches 

• Built-in surge protection 
Bi-directional control signal 
for each port 
Includes 8 25' cables 
Complete diagnostics 
Channel activity indicators 
Male or female connectors 

• $548 with cables 

Contact us today at 
Telebyte Technology Inc., 
270 E. Pulaski Road, 
Greenlawn, New York 




If you talk to a DEC mainframe, no software emulates 
the VT220, VT100 or VT52 terminal more accurately or 
professionally than VTERM. * 

Hot keys. Kermit. Automatic reformatting for spread- 
sheets and databases. VTERM has it all. 

Why not join the 60,000 users of VTERM (many of 
whom moved up from Procomm). And try the DEC terminal 
emulation package that's in a totally different league. 

" FRErTl^ALUATION Klf" ™ ™ ™ ™ ™ ™ " 

[J Yes, send me a free time-limited, full-blown working copy of VTERM 1220 
which is mine to keep. 









DEC Terminal Emulator 

I am a user D dealerD- Mail to: 

Coefficient Systems Corporation 

611 Broadway, New York, New York 10012 (212) 777-6707 b- 

* VTERM refers to VTERM/220, VTERM/4010, etc. products from Coefficient Systems Corporation. 
Procomm is a trademark of Datastorm Technologies, Inc. 

Questions? Want faster action? Call (212) 777-6707, ext. 419. 

Circle 46 on Reader Service Card 

AUGUST 1988 'BYTE 161 

System Review 

Variations on the 
20-MHz Theme 

The Tatung TCS-8000, 
Proteus 386A, 
and Everex Step 386/20 
take different paths 
to high performance 

Ed McNierney 

As more 80386-based computers 
become available, you'd think 
they'd be as similar as peas in a 
pod. But that's not the case. As 
computers based on the 80386 move be- 
yond the initial 16-MHz wave to 20 
MHz, design variations between differ- 
ent systems become more prominent. 
Those variations show up clearly as dif- 
ferences in performance. 

The 20-MHz systems reviewed here— 
the Tatung TCS-8000, Proteus 386A, 
and Everex Step 386/20— follow differ- 
ent design philosophies. The three sys- 
tems show a remarkable range of perfor- 
mance and operational capabilities for a 
set of machines that are superficially so 
similar. Each couples its CPU with an 
enhanced AT-style keyboard, a reason- 
able-size hard disk drive, and an EGA 
display subsystem. Yet on closer inspec- 
tion and testing, each shows unique per- 
formance features, and the group as a 
whole shows a variation in performance 
of more than 100 percent on some of the 

Fast Cache 

The most prominent factor in an 80386- 
based system's performance is the mem- 
ory architecture. Since the 20-MHz 
80386 is an exceptionally memory- 
hungry processor with a instruction pre- 
fetch queue to keep filled, its demands 

on memory access are severe. Unfortu- 
nately, memory costs are such that the 
several megabytes of sub-50-nanosecond 
static RAM (SRAM) required to give the 
80386 unimpeded memory access would 
make any system prohibitively expen- 
sive. But that much fast memory isn't 
necessary; good performance can be ob- 
tained for a fraction of the cost by using a 
well-designed memory system. Each of 
the three systems reviewed uses a differ- 
ent approach to memory architecture. 

The Tatung TCS-8000 takes the sim- 
plest approach. The CPU accesses all the 
80-ns memory, through a 16-bit data path 
and requires no proprietary 32-bit exten- 
sion bus. The resulting system runs with 
two wait states at all times, and you can 
add more memory with any conventional 
memory-expansion board. Unfortu- 
nately, this simple solution almost al- 
ways results in a performance penalty 
that puts the TCS-8000 at the bottom of 
this three-system heap in memory-inten- 
sive operations. However, that fast RAM 
makes the Tatung TCS-8000 almost as 

fast as the Compaq Deskpro 386/20, 
which uses 100-ns RAM. 

The Proteus 3 86 A takes an intermedi- 
ate approach with a motherboard that can 
support 4 megabytes of 100-ns memory 
with a 32-bit data path. This dynamic 
RAM (DRAM) is supplemented by a 
64K-byte 45-ns SRAM cache. Since 
most applications do not require more 
than 4 megabytes of RAM, this system 
provides a reasonable performance com- 
promise. This system also does not use a 
proprietary 32-bit expansion slot, so if 
you add more memory, it must be ac- 
cessed through a 16-bit bus. The cache 
system caches all memory, however, not 
just the memory on the motherboard; as a 
result, the performance degradation that 
the 16-bit memory produces is moder- 
ated. Testing showed that this caching 
had little effect on the performance of the 
system, which ran memory-intensive op- 
erations just slightly faster than the 
Tatung TCS-8000. 

The Everex Step 3 86/20 's memory 
system is perhaps the most unusual of the 

Not peas in a 
pod: From left to 
right, the Tatung 
Proteus 386A 
and Everex Step 
386/20 travel 
different paths 
to improved 

162 BYTE* AUGUST 1988 

group, but it produces the best overall 
performance. You can install up to 8 
megabytes of 120-ns DRAM on the sys- 
tem board, with another 8 megabytes 
available in a full 32-bit expansion slot. 
To boost the performance of this 
DRAM, a 64K-byte SRAM cache (ex- 
pandable to 256K bytes) is also used— 
but with a twist. 

Most PC cache systems are the write- 
through type. If data is in the cache, it's 
read from there; otherwise, it's read 
from main memory. But when data is 
written, it's always written to the cache 
first and then "through" the cache into 
main memory. As a result, the cache of- 
fers little benefit on memory writes. 
However, since the bulk of a CPU's work 
consists of reading instructions to exe- 
cute, this write penalty does not seri- 
ously affect performance. 

But Everex, deciding to squeeze all 
possible speed out of its system, has im- 
plemented a write-back cache instead. In 
this cache system, if a data write occurs 
to a memory location in the very fast 25- 
ns cache, that write occurs only to that 
memory and not to main memory. It then 
marks the cache location as "dirty" be- 
cause its value differs from the main 
memory location it is caching. When that 
same location is read again, it is read di- 
rectly from the cache until a new mem- 
ory access causes that cache location to 
be overwritten. When new memory is 
moved into the cache, the current con- 
tents of the cache are checked to see if 
they are dirty. If so, those contents are 

written out to main memory before 
they're overwritten. Thus, a memory lo- 
cation that is frequently written to gets 
written much more quickly than in a con- 
ventional "write-through" system. 

Tatung TCS-8000 

The TCS-8000 as reviewed lists for 
$5288, not including a math copro- 
cessor. The system supports a 10-MHz 
80287 or 80387 coprocessor, neither of 
which Tatung supplies; the review sys- 
tem was equipped with a 10-MHz 80287. 
You can't vary the coprocessor speed, 
but you can switch the system CPU speed 
between 20 MHz and 8 MHz from the 
keyboard using the Ctrl- Alt-Minus keys. 
The system always powers up in the 
slower 8-MHz speed. If you really get 
into trouble, a convenient hardware reset 
switch is provided on the front panel of 
the system unit. 

The motherboard of the review unit 
held 2 megabytes of 80-ns RAM on 
SIMM (single in-line memory module) 
chips, with sockets for up to 4 mega- 
bytes. You can add more memory with an 
AT-style memory card. There are eight 
slots: two 8-bit and six 16-bit. The serial/ 
parallel card and the EGA card take up 
both 8-bit slots, and the floppy /hard disk 
drive controller takes one 16-bit slot, 
leaving five 16-bit slots free. 

The review unit had one 1 ,2-megabyte 
5 l A -inch floppy disk drive and one full- 
height hard disk drive. There is room for 
two other half-height devices. The Mini- 
Scribe 6053 40-megabyte hard disk drive 

performed well and reliably, but it fell 
behind the performance expected of a 
drive in this class. According to the 
Coretest, it had a data transfer rate of 
169.9K bytes per second, an average 
seek rate of 33.7 milliseconds, and a 
track-to-track rate of 5.7 ms. As a result, 
all the Tatung 's disk-based benchmark 
results were the poorest of the three 

Although a disk support software 
package was included with the system, it 
did not include a disk-cache utility, as the 
other two systems did. Disk-cache util- 
ities are becoming standard equipment 
on 80386 machines, and one could im- 
prove the Tatung TCS-8000's general 

The display adapter is an ATI EGA- 
compatible short card with additional 
support for Hercules graphics modes and 
several enhanced EGA modes, including 
800 by 560, 640 by 480, and 752 by 410 
pixels. Tatung supplied its own EGA 
CM- 1480 monitor, which features an ad- 
ditional monochrome mode: When the 
monitor is operating in text mode, a 
switch can change the normal white-on- 
black display to amber on black, green on 
black, or bright white on blue. 

The Tatung system suffers from a poor 
keyboard. Although the feel of the keys is 
similar to that of many of the softer key- 
boards, the lack of a firm touch is over- 
shadowed by the poor layout. The layout 
resembles the new IBM Enhanced 101- 
key layout at first glance, but there are 


imj* 1 J 

! ■ 





. .■zz'-aaan-np v 

AUGUST 1988 • B Y T E 163 

Everex Step 386/20, Proteus 386A, Tatung TCS-8000 


WORD PROCESSING Everex 386/20 

Proteus 386A 

Tatung TCS-8000 


Everex 386/20 

Proteus 386A 

Tatung TCS-8000 

XyWrlte III +3.52 Mod/1 .rg 




Load (large) 








Word count 

02/: 16 
















End of document 

02/: 13 








Block moves 








Spelling check 



:09/1 :02 






Microsoft Word 4.0 





Forward delete 









Aldus PageMaker 1 .0a 

Load document 




D Index: 








Align right 





Cut 1 pages 




Everex 386/20 

Proteus 386A 

Tatung TCS-8000 

Place graphic 




AutoCAD 2.52 

Print to file 





Load SoftWest 




Regen SoftWest 




D Index: 




Load StPauls 




Regen StPauls 





rex 386/20 

Proteus 386A 

Tatung TCS-8000 





Lotus 1-2-3 2.01 


Block copy 
















Load Monte Carlo 




MathCAD 2.0 

Recalc Monte Carlo 




IFS 800 pts. 




Load rlarge3 








Recalc rlarge3 




Recalc Goal-seek 




D Index: 




Microsoft Excel 2.0 

Fill right 





Everex 386/20 

Proteus 386A 

Tatung TCS-8000 

Undo fill 




Microsoft C 5.0 





XLisp compile 




Load rlarge3 




Turbo Pascal 

Recalc rlarge3 




Pascal S compile 




D Index: 




D Index: 




All times are in minutes:seconds. Indexes show relative performance; for all indexes, an 8-MHz IBM PC= 1 . 



String Move 














D Index: 


Math 7.18 

Errors 0.00E+O0 

Sine(x) 3.30 

Error 2.00E-09 

e x 3.19 

Error 1 .00E-09 












Hard Seek* 

Outer track 
Inner track 
Half platter 
Full platter 

DOS Seek 
1 -sector 

File 1/06 

1 -megabyte 
























D Index: 






Mode 2 
Mode 3 
Mode 7 
Mode 4 
Mode 5 
Mode 6 
Mode 13 
Mode 1 4 
Mode 16 




















D Index: 




D Index: 




N/A = Not applicable; mode not supported by graphics adapter. 

1 All times are in seconds. All figures were generated using the 8088/8086 version (1 .1) of Small-C (1 6-bit integers). 
Figures for 80386 machines do not use 80386-specific instructions. 

2 The floating-point benchmarks use 8087-compatible instructions only. 

3 The errors for the floating-point benchmarks indicate the difference between expected and actual values, correct to 
1 digits or rounded to 2 digits. 

4 Times reported by the Hard Seek and DOS Seek are for multiple seek operations (number of seeks performed 
currently set to 1 00). 

5 Read and write times for the File I/O benchmarks are in seconds per 64 Kbytes. 

6 For the Livermore Loops and Dhrystone tests only, higher numbers mean faster performance. 








LINPACK 172.03 



Livermore Loops 6 

(MFLOPS) 0.17 



Dhrystone (MS C 5.0) 

(Dhry/sec) 6793 



For a full description of all the benchmarks, see "Introducing the New BYTE Benchmarks," June BYTE. 
164 BYTE • AUGUST 1988 

Everex Step 386/20 



Proteus 386A 



Tatung TCS-8000 



Compaq 386/20 18.0 

IBM PS/2 Model 80 11 


Word j—. 

Processing | | 

Spreadsheet |_| 

Database [_J 

Scientific/ | — | 

Engineering | | 

Compilers | | 

'Cumulative applications index. Graphs are 
based on indexes at left and show relative 

Everex Step 386/20 

Proteus 386A 

Tatung TCS-8000 

Compaq 386/20 

IBM PS/2 Model 80 


CPU |_| 

FPU [~] 

Disk I/O Q 

Video l~l 



some variations in key positions. 

The system's documentation includes 
four binders of material, two of which 
are supplied by Microsoft for the Tatung 
version of MS-DOS 3.21 and for GW- 
BASIC. The other two manuals are the 
Tatung user's guide and technical refer- 
ence; these two suffer severely from con- 
fused English, spelling and grammatical 
mistakes, and poor organization and in- 
dexing. Information is scrambled 
throughout the manuals, and not much 
effort was spent keeping complex and 
technical information separate from the 
standard user information required to set 
up and operate the system. 

A poor set of documentation makes it 
difficult to take a computer system seri- 
ously. The cost of writing documentation 
is small compared to developing and dis- 
tributing an 80386-based computer sys- 
tem, yet better documentation would pro- 
duce a big benefit for both the 
manufacturer and the user. 

The TCS-8000 has a 1-year parts and 
labor warranty; service is provided by 

In general, while the Tatung system 
did not fail or break down, it didn't have 
any outstanding features. Its quirky key- 
board and generally ordinary perfor- 
mance put it near the bottom of the list 
when compared to the other systems 
available. A new manual, better support 
software, and a new keyboard could 
make the system a reasonable, if unre- 
markable, 20-MHz 80386 choice. 

Proteus 386A 

The Proteus approach to personal com- 
puters is to be a hardware supermarket. 
Its catalogs include a wide variety of 
hardware options, and you order them in 
whatever combination you want. Proteus 
offers support and service with a 15- 
month on-site warranty with each of its 
systems. For users who don't have the 
courage or the time to take the cover off 
their system units every time something 
goes wrong, a comprehensive support 
system like Proteus's can be very 

The Proteus 20-MHz 80386 system 
comes with a socket for an optional 
80287 math coprocessor. The keyboard 
controls the system's operating speed 
and cache memory controller. The Ctrl- 
Alt-Plus and -Minus keys switch the op- 
erating speed between 20 MHz and 6 
MHz, and the Ctrl-Alt-Left-Shift-Plus 
and -Minus keys enable or disable the 
SRAM cache memory when the system is 
running at 20 MHz. The cache is always 
disabled at 6 MHz, because at that speed 


AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 165 


Tatung TCS-8000 

Proteus 386A 

Everex Step 286/20 


Tatung Co. of America, Inc. 

Proteus Technology Corp. 

Everex Computer Systems Division 

2850 El Presidio St. 

377 Route 1 7 

48431 MilmontDr. 

Long Beach, CA 90810 

Airport 17 Center 

Fremont, CA 94538 


Hasbrouck Heights, NJ 07604 

(800) 356-4283 


Processor: 80386 running at 20 

Processor: 80386 running at 20 

Processor: 80386 running at 20 

MHz, switchable to 8 MHz; socket 

MHz, switchable to 6 MHz; socket 

MHz, switchable to 10 or 7 MHz; 

for optional 10-MHz 80287 or 

for optional 10-MHz 80287 math 

optional 20-MHz 80387 math 

80387 math coprocessor 



Memory: 1 megabyte of 1 6-bit 

Memory: 4 megabytes of 32-bit 

Memory: 2 megabytes of 32-bit 

two-wait-state DRAM standard on 

zero-wait-state DRAM on 

zero-wait-state DRAM on 

motherboard, expandable to 16 

motherboard, expandable to 16 

motherboard, expandable to 16 


megabytes; 64K bytes of 45-ns 

megabytes; 1 28K-byte 25-ns 

Mass storage: 1 .2-megabyte 5 1 /t- 

SRAM cache memory 

SRAM cache memory, 

inch floppy disk drive; optional 40- 

Mass storage: 1 .2-megabyte 514- 

expandable to 256K bytes 

megabyte 5 1 /4-inch hard disk drive 

inch floppy disk drive; optional 

Mass storage: 1 .2-megabyte 5V4- 

Display: Optional Enhanced EGA 

720K-byte 3 1 /a-inch floppy disk 

inch floppy disk drive; optional 80- 

card with Hercules emulation; 

drive; optional 320-megabyte 5Va- 

megabyte hard disk drive 

optional Tatung CM-1480 EGA 

inch hard disk drive 

Display: Optional Everex EGA 


Display: Optional Everex EVGA 

card; optional Everex EGA monitor 

Keyboard: 101 -key Modified 

enhanced EGA with Hercules 

Keyboard: 101 -key Modified 

Enhanced keyboard 

emulation and high-resolution 

Enhanced keyboard 

I/O interfaces: One DB-25 parallel 

EGA display modes; optional NEC 

I/O interfaces: 1-to-1 interleave 

port; one DB-9 serial port; six 16- 

MultiSync II display monitor 

floppy/hard disk drive controller; 

bit and two 8-bit expansion slots 

Keyboard: 101 -key Modified 

one DB-9 serial port; one DB-25 

Other: Phoenix Technologies 

Enhanced keyboard 

parallel port; six 16-bit, one 8-bit, 

BIOS with ROM-based Setup 

I/O interfaces: One DB-9 and one 

and one dual 32-bit or 8-bit 

utility; hardware reset switch 

DB-25 serial port; one DB-25 

expansion slot 

parallel port; six 1 6-bit and two 8- 

Other: Front-panel LED status 

bit expansion slots 

display; hardware reset switch; 

Other: American Megatrends 

speaker disable switch; Everex 

BIOS with ROM-based Setup 

Enhanced American Megatrends 

utility; hardware reset switch 

BIOS with ROM-based Setup utility 


6 3 /4 x 22V2 x 18y 3 inches; 59V2 

63/ 4 x 21 y 3 x 1 7'/ 3 inches; 54 

7 x 22 x 17V2 inches; 58 pounds 




MS-DOS 3.21 ; GWBASIC 3.2; 

MS-DOS 3.30; GWBASIC 3.3; 

MS-DOS 3.3; GWBASIC 3.3; 

Tatung display drivers; MiniScribe 

Everex EVGA utilities; SpeedStor 

Everex Magic I/O support 

disk management and diagnostic 

disk caching and utility software 

software; Everex EGA display 


adapter support software 


Monochrome display adapter: $99 

720K-byte 3 1 /2-inch floppy disk 

80387-20 coprocessor: $1495 

Hercules/EGA card: $189 

drive: $98 

Weitek 1 1 67 math coprocessor 

VGA card: $595 

20-megabyte to 320-megabyte 

board: $1995 

hard disk drives: $261 to $2895 

40-megabyte hard disk drive: 

Everex EGA card: $139 


Everex EVGA card: $269 

80-megabyte hard disk drive: 

14-inch monochrome monitor: 



Everex EGA card: $169 

EGA monitor: $375 

Everex EGA monitor: $399 

NEC MultiSync II monitor: $675 


Tatung TCS-8000 User's Manual; 

MS-DOS User's Guide; GWBASIC 

Everex System 386 User's Guide; 

Tatung TCS-8000 Technical 

Manual; Everex Magic I/O Adapter 

NEC Everex Magic I/O operating 

Manual; MS-DOS User's Guide; 

reference; Everex EVGA Display 



Adapter reference; SpeedStor disk 
utility software reference; Proteus 
User's Guide 



Standard system with 1 megabyte 

Standard system with 1 megabyte 

Standard system with 1 megabyte 

of RAM, 1 .2-megabyte 5 1 /4-inch 

of RAM, 64K-byte cache, floppy/ 

of RAM, 64K-byte RAM cache, 

floppy disk drive, and floppy/hard 

hard disk drive controller, and 1 .2- 

floppy/hard disk drive controller, 

disk drive controller: $3500 

megabyte 5 1 /4-inch floppy disk 

and 1 .2-megabyte floppy disk 

System as reviewed: $5288 

drive: $3190 

drive: $4399 

System as reviewed: $8522 

System as reviewed: $6437 

Inquiry 883. 

Inquiry 884. 

Inquiry 885. 

166 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 

Princeton's Very Good Answers. 

Without question, Princeton's PSC-28 and PSM-03 monitors will bring you the ultimate in 
VGA performance. Princeton was the first to offer truly compatible VGA dedicated monitors. 
Our PSC-28 is a 770 x 570, .28mm dot pitch, high resolution analog color monitor that can 
display an infinite number of colors. The PSC-28 also features a convenient color button for 
green, amber or cyan text. The PSM-03, a high resolution analog monochrome monitor 
gives you outstanding 800 x 630 resolution, and the ability to display infinite shades of 
gray. Plus sharp crisp graphics and character definition from its dynamic focusing circuitry. 

Both monitors are compatible with IBM PC* XT* AT* PS/2, Apple Macintosh SE* 
and compatible personal computers. Each gives you full compatibility with the leading 
VGA adapter cards including the QuadVGA and VEGA VGA. So if VGA meets all your 
needs (and you don't require the additional flexibility of our famous ULTRASYNC and 
MAX- 15 autosynchronous monitors), investigate the cost/performance value of the 

PSC-28 and PSM-03. 

Unsurpassed quality, service and 
performance make it hard to beat 
Princeton monitors. We offer better 
value than our competition. We call it 
the Visible Edge. For answers to all 
your questions about VGA compatible 
monitors, contact us at 601 Ewing 
Street, Building A, Princeton, New 
Jersey 08540 (609) 683-1660, x 810. 

*Requires proper adapter card 







Circle 178 on Reader Service Card 

AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 167 


a) 80286 Motherboard - 12.5 Mhz wait state, Norton SI 15.3, socketed for 4 Mb DRAM, EMS 
software included. 

b) 80386 Motherboard - Available in 16/20 Mhz and 20/25 Mhz versions, full AT size or XT 
size, socketed for 2 Mb or 8 Mb DRAM. 

c) VGA Card - 100% register compatible with IBM, resolutions up to 1024x768x16 colors, 
hardware zoom, pan, and scan, application driver software included. 

d) Super Multi I/O - Floppy controller for 1.44Mb thru 360k, 2 serial, 1 parallel, 
1 game port. 

Please call our toll free line for distributor pricing. All 
of Turn-Point America's products carry a one year parts 
and labor warranty. Visa, MasterCard, and COD 

Circle 245 on Reader Service Card 

TRADEMARKS and REGISTERED TRADEMARKS: IBM - International Business Machines 

Sales 1-800-247-6413 

Tech Support (702) 746-1818 

Turn-Point America 

eclat corporation 

3495 N. McCarran Blvd. 
Reno, NV 89503 
Telex: 650 308 4898 MCI 
Fax: (702) 746-2306 


the standard DRAM is fast enough to 
keep up with the processor at all times. 
The front panel features a hardware reset 
switch for desperate moments. The sys- 
tem Setup program is in ROM and can be 
accessed during boot-up. 

In the review system, the Proteus 
motherboard came with 4 megabytes of 
100-ns DRAM for the main memory and 
64K bytes of 45-ns SRAM for the cache 
memory, both in DIP chips installed in 
sockets. Additional system memory re- 
quires an AT-style expansion card. The 
motherboard has eight slots: six 16-bit 
and two 8-bit. The EGA/ VGA and paral- 
lel/serial cards take both 8-bit slots, and 
the floppy/hard disk drive controller 
card takes a 16-bit slot. This leaves five 
16-bit slots free. As configured, the re- 
view system lists for $8522. 

The computer has space for five half- 
height disk drives. The review unit in- 
cluded a standard 1 .2-megabyte 5 W-inch 
floppy disk drive and an optional 720K- 
byte 3'/2-inch floppy disk drive. The 
hard disk drive was a full-height Maxtor 
XT-4380E 320-megabyte ESDI (en- 
hanced small device interface) drive. 
The Coretest rated this drive as having a 
data transfer rate of 212.5K bytes per 
second, an average seek rate of 13 ms, 
and a track-to-track rate of 3.7 ms. 

Although the Proteus 386A uses a 
hardware cache memory system, its per- 
formance on memory-intensive bench- 
marks is not appreciably different from 
the Tatung system, which does not have a 
cache. Disk-intensive tests, however, 
show excellent performance due to the 
high-performance ESDI hard disk drive. 
This disk comes with SpeedStor disk 
management and caching software, 
which allows the entire disk to be split up 
into only three DOS partitions, two of 
which are larger than 32 megabytes. 

With the SpeedStor software cache in- 
stalled in extended memory, the disk 
benchmark times dropped dramatically, 
some running as much as 25 times faster; 
but even without the cache, the disk's 13- 
ms average access time greatly boosted 
system performance. For someone in- 
vesting in a 20-MHz 80386 system, a 
high-speed hard disk drive is an essen- 
tial, and the disk drives that Proteus sup- 
plies are more than worth the money. 

The Proteus 386A uses an Everex 
EVGA card that can generate either TTL 
(EGA-style) or analog (VGA-style) out- 
put signals and is an extremely flexible 
display device. In addition to the stan- 
dard device drivers, the EVGA software 
utilities include a wide selection of in- 
stallable font files that replace the EGA's 
standard fonts with either more attrac- 

tive, more decorative, or more compact 
fonts, including one suitable for 132-col- 
umn text displays. The card comes with 
device drivers to support a variety of 
high-resolution display modes for Auto- 
CAD and Microsoft Windows. Proteus 
supplied a very nice NEC MultiSync II 
monitor with the review unit. 

The Proteus User's Guide comes in a 
small three-ring binder and is well orga- 
nized and easy to read. It includes a 
"New Users" section for beginners and a 
"For Advanced Users" section for more 
experienced owners. 

The Proteus keyboard is another 
"clone keyboard." Its layout resembles 
the IBM Enhanced keyboard, except that 
the Backspace and backslash/vertical 
bar keys assume their older AT positions. 
The keyboard offers no tactile feedback 
at all, and the keys offer so little resis- 
tance to pressure that it's a wonder they 
spring back again. A better keyboard de- 
sign would help this system a lot. 

If it's used with a replacement key- 
board or as a file server on which the 
keyboard gets little use, the Proteus 
386A is a reasonable performer with a 
solid backing of warranty support and 
repair service. It is worthy of serious 
consideration in disk-intensive opera- 
tions, provided you can tolerate the 
minor annoyances in the system. 

Everex Step 386/20 

In several respects, the Everex Step 
386/20 is the outstanding member of this 
group of machines. Its appearance sets it 
apart right from the start, with a flashy 
front-panel LED text display, speed and 
control switches, and a collection of indi- 
cator LEDs all protected by a sliding 
transparent cover. The text display 
tracks the progress of the system's 
power-on self-test and boot procedure, 
and from then on it continuously displays 
the disk drive, cylinder, and head most 
recently accessed by the disk drive con- 
troller system. 

The front panel provides three control 
switches for selecting the system's oper- 
ating speed at power-up, turning the sys- 
tem speaker on or off, or causing a hard- 
ware reset to occur. The system can 
operate at either 20, 10, or 7 MHz, and 
the Ctrl- Alt-Plus and -Minus key combi- 
nations allow you to speed up or slow 
down the processor. The system includes 
an optional 20-MHz 80387 math copro- 
cessor whose speed matches the CPU 
and which is synchronized with it at all 

The review system has a list price of 
$6362; it came equipped with 2 mega- 


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Tel. (41)(1)70030 37 

AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 169 

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bytes of 120-ns DRAM on SIMMs and 
64K bytes of 25-ns SRAM in socketed 
DIP chips for the cache memory. You 
can add additional memory via a propri- 
etary 32-bit expansion slot; up to 16 
megabytes of memory can be added at 
exactly the same performance level as 
the original system-board RAM. The 
motherboard has eight slots— six 16-bit 
and two 8-bit. The floppy/hard disk 
drive controller uses a 16-bit slot, and the 
Everex EGA and parallel/serial cards 
both use 8-bit slots. One 8-bit slot shares 
space with the 32-bit memory-expansion 

The system uses a very fast SRAM 
cache, and the resulting performance 
shows a noticeable improvement over the 
other two systems (which were quite 
close to each other in system speed). The 
benchmark results show clearly superior 
performance across the board. The 
Everex memory system definitely makes 
a difference. 

The Step 386/20 has room for five 
half-height devices. Data storage in the 
review system consisted of a standard 
1 .2-megabyte 5 U-inch floppy disk drive 
and a Toshiba MK-56FB 72-megabyte 
hard disk drive with an RLL (run-length- 
limited) controller. The Coretest indi- 
cated that the Toshiba drive had a data 
transfer rate of 490K bytes per second, 
an average seek time of 27.5 ms, and a 
track-to-track time of 5.6 ms. 

Video display was handled by an 
Everex EV-659 EGA/parallel card. I 
used an NEC MultiSync II monitor with 
the review system. 

The system came with a number of 
utilities, but without an operating sys- 
tem; I used the MS-DOS 3.3 shipped 
with the Proteus system. The company 
says that it is now snipping DOS 3.3 with 
the system. The utility software includes 
test and diagnostic programs and a RAM 
disk and disk-cache utility. The system 
Setup program is in ROM and is accessed 
during boot-up. 

The keyboard itself appears to be iden- 
tical to the one used by Proteus, with the 
same soft feel and poor tactile feedback. 

The Everex Step 386/20 comes with a 
1-year on-site warranty for parts and 
labor. Service is handled by National 
Computer Service and covers the U.S. 
and Canada. 

The manual for the system was avail- 
able only in a prerelease photocopy form, 
but it was a well-organized document. A 
printed version is now available. The 
manual contains little extraneous mate- 
rial and gets to the point clearly and 
quickly. Additional documentation sup- 
plied for the monitor (from NEC) and the 

I/O adapter card was also up to the same 

On the Bench 

I tested all three computers with a variety 
of software: Microsoft Windows 1.03, 
SideKick 1.56, Turbo C 1.0, Quick C 
1 .0, and BRIEF 2.0. For hardware tests, 
I used my Everex Evercom 1200-bit-per- 
second modem and the Microsoft Bus 
Mouse. Everything worked fine with 
each computer. 

The Small-C and Application bench- 
marks tell the whole story. The Everex 
Step 386/20 took the honors in the CPU 
test. This speed difference can be attrib- 
uted to the SRAM cache combined with 
the fast 100-ns main memory. The Pro- 
teus 386A put in a good second-place 
performance, with the Tatung TCS-8000 
showing a respectable third. 

The FPU tests went hands down to the 
Everex Step 386/20— not surprisingly, 
since it was equipped with a 20-MHz 
80387 while the other machines were 
running 10-MHz 80287 coprocessors. 
The File I/O test went to the Proteus 
386A. It was running a 320-megabyte 
Maxtor with a very fast (13-ms) access 
time. The Video test gives the relative 
speed of the video cards; in this case, the 
Everex Step 386/20 (running— what 
else— an Everex card) was the leader. 

The Application tests ranked the three 
in this order: Everex Step 386/20, Pro- 
teus 386A, and Tatung TCS-8000. The 
Everex Step 386/20 pulled ahead with 
the combination of its SRAM cache, fast 
math coprocessor, and efficient hard 
disk drive. The Proteus 386A placed a 
close second, with the Tatung TCS-8000 
trailing the pack. 

Everex Step 386/20 Pulls Ahead 

If you're comparing machines by price, 
the Proteus 386A and Tatung TCS-8000 
offer good value. The Proteus 386A has 
the advantage of a superior warranty, 
and you can order the computer with the 
options you want. But if you're betting on 
a performance and value horse race, the 
Everex Step 386/20 wins by several 
lengths. It features good performance 
and a convenient front panel, and it is 
manufactured and supported in the U.S. 
As these early entries into this high- 
speed market show, a careful selection of 
well-coordinated components can pro- 
duce a true high-speed powerhouse 
system. ■ 

Ed McNierney is a principal engineer at 
Lotus Development Corp. and lives in 
Groton, Massachusetts. He can be 
reached on BIX as "meed. " 

Circle 4 on Reader Service Card 

Tools and Toolboxes 


Applications Generator 

Amadeus $ 395 

Generate Modula-2 programs directly from your own input, 
and save yourself hours of coding! 


M2Graph* $ 65 

Controls Hercules cards in Modula-2. 

M2EGA* $ 65 

Controls EGA cards in Modula-2. 

Modula Graphics Toolbox I* $ 112 

A collection of extremely fast graphics routines for CGA cards 
written in Modula-2. 

Modula Graphics Toolbox II* $ 188 

Comprehensive package of Modula-2 procedures for all cur- 
rently available graphics cards, includes grahics window 
system, font generator, sprite handier, mouse driver, maths 
routines, as wellas pie chart, histogram and line graph func- 
tions etc. "d SK 



LCR-Window Manager* 

Fast, compact window system. 

M2Windows* $ 188 

Fast, professional window system. Small, high-performance 
library with integrated menu system and simple mask gene- 

Modula Mask & Menu Generator* $ 360 

Development system for creating masks and menus in 
Modula-2 source code. Mask, menu and frame editor. Sup- 
ports all colours and attributes. 

Other Tools 

M2 Prolib $ 495 

The professional library 

B-Tree ISAM $ 290 

Ultra fast database : 

Pascal-Modula Converter $ 59 

Converts Turbo-Pascal to Modula-2. 

RTA-Utility Disk $ 30 

2-10x faster 1/0, extended MathLib. 

EMS-Utilities* $ 188 

Make full use of your Megabytes of memory expansion. 

M2IEEE-lnterface* $ 144 

Modular interface to National Instruments IEEE Interface. 

This is only a small selection from our comprehensive list of 

toots for Modula-2. Demo disks are available for products 

3d with an asterisk. Send $ 10 for three demo disks, 

3i seven. There is also a wide choice or books and lite- 

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Austria: 0222/4545010 
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France: 20822662 
Italy: 02/405174 
Scandinavia: +45/3/512014 
Switzerland: 01/9455432 

United Kingdom: 01/6567333 
Germany: 02983/8337; 





A. + L. Meier-Vogt 

Im Spaten 23 

CH-8906 Bonstetten/ZH 


Tel. (41|(1)700 30 37 

« — Circle 165 on Reader Service Card 

AUGUST 1988 • B Y T E 171 

How fast is Fast ? 

Ten Times Faster* 

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(602) 345-1300 

Hardware Review 

Surrogate Mice 

and trackwheels 
are becoming common 
for manipulating text 
and data 

Jeff Holtzman 

Clockwise from top left: the MicroSpeed PC Trac, 
MicroSpeed FastTRAP, Fulcrum Trackball Plus, and 
Lightgate Felix. 

ntrigued by graphic interfaces but 
hate mice? Then you might try one of 
the following four pointing devices 
to get the functionality of a mouse 
without the hassle. PC-Trac, FastTRAP, 
and Trackball Plus utilize optomechani- 
cal trackball technology; the fourth, Fe- 
lix, employs a new optical data-tablet 
technology. I tested serial versions of 
these four devices on IBM and compat- 
ible equipment; PC-Trac and FastTRAP 
also come in bus versions, and a Macin- 
tosh version of Felix is available. 

Generally speaking, mice have some 
advantages over trackballs, including 
smaller size and, often, better bundled 
software. Trackballs, however, are usu- 
ally easier to control, so you may like 
them better than mice for more detailed 
operations. If you're used to a mouse, it 
may take a while for you to get used to a 
trackball. But after overcoming your ini- 

tial resistance, chances are you'll enjoy 
using it. 

MicroSpeed, the company that got its 
start in the DOS world with a clock- 
speed-enhancement accelerator, de- 
signed and manufactures both PC-Trac 
and FastTRAP (which stands for fast tri- 
axis pointer). These two devices are sim- 
ilar internally and externally— and they 
even use the same CMOS microcon- 
troller. PC-Trac combines an opto- 
mechanical trackball with three buttons; 
to that configuration, FastTRAP adds an 
additional vertically oriented wheel, 
called a trackwheel, that also drives an 
optomechanical system. PC-Trac and 
FastTRAP sell for $119 to $169, de- 
pending on the version you choose. 

The Fulcrum Trackball Plus, put out 
by Fulcrum Computer Products, is the 
Volkswagen of trackballs for personal 
computers. It combines low price ($95) 
with many mouse and digitizing pad em- 
ulations, and less-than-perfect support 
for text modes. Budget-conscious buyers 
and those who require multiple emula- 
tions will find this a satisfactory, if unin- 
spiring, product. 

Cats hate mice, and Lightgate 's elec- 
tronic Felix is supposed to be a mouse 
killer. The documentation is full of near- 
religious fervor about Felix's merits. 
Hype aside, it turns out that Felix works 
acceptably for navigating text and graph- 
ics screens. Its software is a little rough, 
however: Depending on the application 
you're running, you must load various 
RAM-hungry drivers via a large batch 
file. And the documentation does little to 
help you figure out how to streamline the 
process of loading the drivers. But you 
will like the fact that Felix comes with a 
special Lotus 1-2-3 driver that makes it 
practical to use a pointing device with 
that program. 

PC-Trac and FastTRAP 

The serial version of PC-Trac is available 
for $119, the bus version for $139. Fast- 


AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 173 





Trackball Plus 




Tri-axis pointer 


Pointing device 


MicroSpeed, Inc. 

MicroSpeed, Inc. 

Fulcrum Computer 


5307 Randall Place 

5307 Randall Place 


6202 Christie Ave. 

Fremont, CA 94538 

Fremont, CA 94538 

459 Allan Court 

Emeryville, CA 94608 



Healdsburg, CA 95448 
(707) 433-0202 



Microsoft Mouse 

Microsoft Mouse 

10 mouse and digi- 

Two emulations, 

emulation in hard- 

emulation in hard- 

tizing tablet emu- 

one button, 1-to-1 

ware, three buttons, 

ware, 2- and 3-axis 

lations, six buttons, 



operation, three 

power pack, 100-dpi 

mapping, 1-2-3 and 

trol software, 200- 

buttons, ballistic- 

resolution; 8K bytes 

AutoCAD support, 


gain-control soft- 

of memory used 

power pack, 320- 


ware, 200-dpi reso- 

dpi resolution; 

1 0K bytes of 

lution; 1 0K bytes of 

40K bytes of 

memory used 

memory used 

memory used 


71/2 X 4V4 X 2V2 

7V2 X 41/4 X 21/2 

4V2 X 53/4 X 1 3/4 






12 ounces; 

12 ounces; 

4V2 ounces; 

12 ounces; 

6-foot cord 

6-foot cord 

4-foot cord 

7-foot cord 

Hardware Needed 





PS/2, or compatible 

PS/2, or compatible 

PS/2, or compatible 

PS/2, or compatible 

with one floppy 

with one floppy 

with one floppy 

with one floppy 

disk drive 

disk drive 

disk drive and 
a serial port 

disk drive 

Software Needed 

MS-DOS 2.0 or 

MS-DOS 2.0 or 

MS-DOS 2.0 or 

MS-DOS 3.1 or 






PC-Trac User's 

FastTRAP User's 

3-page installation 

1 5-page installation 

Guide; KeyMap 

Guide; KeyMap 

instructions; 30- 

guide; 1 7-page 

User's Guide; 

User's Guide; 

page technical 

Lotus 1-2-3 

"50 Things to Do 

"50 Things to Do 



with a Used Mouse" 

with a Used Mouse" 


Serial version: $119 

Serial version: $149 


IBM version: $199 

Bus version: $139 

Bus version: $169 

Macintosh version: $149 

inquiry 889. 

Inquiry 890. 

Inquiry 891. 

Inquiry 892. 

Note: The Macintosh version of Felix does not include Hot Spots. 

Versions for the Mac II and SE were due in July. 

TRAP costs $149 for the serial version; 
the bus version is $169. Both devices use 
the same case, which is about 2 x h inches 
high at the highest point. The feel of the 
trackball in both PC-Trac and FastTRAP 
is smooth and solid. I wish, though, that 
the FastTRAP trackwheel had more re- 
sistance and its switches required less 
pressure; these alterations would give it a 
more consistent overall tactile sense. 

Because of their overall similarity, I'll 
discuss the two devices as one, distin- 
guishing between them only when 

When you rotate the trackball, in 
either the text or graphics mode, the po- 
sition of a special on-screen cursor varies 
accordingly. When the cursor moves to a 
menu title bar or icon, you press a button 
to make the functions represented by that 

menu or icon available for use. Further 
trackball movement lets you traverse the 
list of menu items; pushing a button then 
executes the currently selected function. 
Text-mode programs seldom include 
drivers for pointing devices, so many 
pointer vendors include programs that 
enable their devices to at least emulate 
cursor-key motion. MicroSpeed, for ex- 
ample, includes a utility called KEY- 
MAP. COM that allows trackball motion to 
send the cursor up, down, left, and right. 
This utility also lets you program each of 
the device's three push buttons to deliver 
a single keystroke. Each button can also 
be used alone or in combination with the 
Shift, Alt, or Control keys, giving you a 
total of 12 programmable button combi- 
nations to provide functions such as tra- 
versing the menu system of your spread- 

sheet. However, there aren't enough 
button combinations to map every func- 
tion of your word processor or spread- 
sheet. KEYMAP.COM would be much more 
useful if you could program multiple 
keystrokes for each button-key 

An editor also lets you define as many 
as 32 named sets of programmed key 
substitutions, which are maintained in 
KEYMAP.COM. To define more than 32 
templates, you can create and save pro- 
grams under different names, such as 
forth. MicroSpeed supplies key sets for 
WordStar, Lotus 1-2-3, Turbo Pascal, 
and several others. 

You can operate both PC-Trac and 
FastTRAP either in a Microsoft Mouse- 


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emulation mode or in native mode. With 
native mode, you can utilize Fast- 
TRAP's tri-axis capabilities. Microsoft 
mode is the default, but you can alter a 
DIP-switch setting to force booting in na- 
tive mode. In Microsoft mode, you can 
program the middle button to emulate si- 
multaneous depression of the two outer 

Both devices provide an emulated drag 
mode. Without this feature, you might 
find it hard to drag a trackball, pressing 
the button with one finger while you rotate 
the ball with others. For example, to 
choose a block of numbers for formatting 
in Excel, you position the cursor at one 
corner of the desired range, initiate drag 
mode by pressing the middle button, move 
the trackball to select the desired spread- 
sheet cells, and terminate drag mode by 
pressing the middle button again. 

The trackball is handy for navigating 
even a standard text-mode spreadsheet, 
such as VP-Planner. You can move by 
row or column much faster with the 
trackball than even by holding a cursor 
key down. And with FastTRAP, you can 
use the track wheel to page up, down, 
left, or right, very quickly. 

If you use WordStar 4.0, the trackball 
cursor movement is somewhat jerky . You 
will have better luck with other editors, 
such as the one in Turbo Pascal that 
allows the cursor to roam freely about 
the screen. 

You can use FastTRAP's trackwheel 
in several ways. You can traverse menus 
without moving the cursor from the cur- 
rent position, traverse the third (z) axis in 
a CAD program, or, in conjunction with 
a utility supplied by MicroSpeed, page 
up and down in a spreadsheet or word 

Even if you're not doing three-dimen- 
sional CAD work, the trackwheel can 
come in handy. In AutoCAD, for exam- 
ple, to get at the command menus, nor- 
mally you must move the drawing cursor 
(cross hairs) from wherever you are to 
the far right edge of the screen, make 
your selections, and then move the cross 
hairs again to wherever you need the cur- 
sor. With FastTRAP, simply rotating the 
trackwheel activates the menu; you can 
traverse it by using more rotation, select- 
ing items as usual with the left button. 
When you move the trackball again, you 
pick up where you left off with the cross 
hairs. You must load a separate driver, 
however, to use AutoCAD and Windows 
in this mode. 

Software Drivers 

You can install either device easily since 
they both emulate the Microsoft Mouse 

Test Setup 

I tested each device in this review 
on two machines: an AST Pre- 
mium/286 (10 MHz, zero wait 
states) with 1.5 megabytes of Ex- 
panded Memory Specification 
(EMS) 3.2 memory, a 40-megabyte 
hard disk drive (ST-251), an Orchid 
Designer VGA card, and an NEC 
MultiSync monitor; and an IBM PC 
XT with 1.5 megabytes of EMS 4.0 
memory, a 20-megabyte hard disk 
drive (ST-225), a Hercules mono- 
chrome graphics card, and a Micro- 
soft Mach 20 accelerator board. 

On the AST, I used the following 
software to test each device: Auto- 
CAD 9.0 (VGA mode), Windows 
2.0 (in Orchid's proprietary 800- by 
600-pixel, 16-color mode), and 
AutoSketch (EGA mode); under 
Windows, I tested several of the 
desktop accessories, as well as Page- 
Maker 1 .0a and Excel. On the IBM, 
I tested each device with VP-Plan- 
ner, AutoSketch, and WordStar 4.0, 
all running under DESQview 2.01. 
I also tested compatibility with 
DESQview itself. 

in hardware. If you have a Microsoft or 
compatible mouse, you just unplug the 
mouse and plug in FastTRAP or PC- 
Trac; the existing mouse driver will 
allow you to use it just as you would your 

For best performance, you should take 
advantage of MicroSpeed' s software 
drivers. You can load the drivers via CON- 
FIG.SYS using MAP. SYS, or via AUTO- 
EXEC.BAT using MAP.C0M. With either 
driver, you can specify which serial port 
the device is connected to, among other 

Driver versions 2.0 and higher allow 
ballistic gain control, a feature that pro- 
vides dynamic speed and distance man- 
agement. For example, when you rotate 
the trackball slowly, the pointer tra- 
verses only half the screen. But if you ro- 
tate the ball quickly over the same dis- 
tance, the pointer traverses the whole 

FastTRAP's documentation consists 
of a well-written, well-organized 40- 
page manual that contains both an index 
and a table of contents. Beginners will 
find the information presented clearly 
and logically; advanced users will not 
find it insulting. Approximately half the 
book contains technical information on 

how FastTRAP works, software proto- 
cols and functions, and even a wiring di- 
agram for 9-pin and 25-pin serial ports. 
(Microsoft charges $25 for this type of 
optional technical information.) A sepa- 
rate manual discusses how to use 

Documentation for PC-Trac was not 
complete when I wrote this review. The 
review device came with the FastTRAP 
manual and semifinal PC-Trac-specific 
documentation. MultiSpeed says the fin- 
ished version will be shipping by the time 
you read this review, and it will not in- 
clude the FastTRAP manual. 

A booklet of cartoons called "50 
Things to Do with a Used Mouse" is sent 
free to PC-Trac and FastTRAP owners 
when they send in their warranty regis- 
tration card. 

Trackball Plus 

Although Trackball Plus is about the 
same height as the MicroSpeed devices, 
it has only about half the footprint. The 
device has a grand total of six push but- 
tons, only some of which are available in 
any given emulation mode. You change 
modes by pressing various combinations 
of buttons, or by using STB.C0M from the 
DOS command line. 

Emulations include: mice from Micro- 
soft and Mouse Systems; graphics tablets 
from Houston Instruments, Renograph- 
ies, Tektronix, Hitachi, and Summa- 
graphics (ASCII and binary); and the 
USI Optomouse. Separate software 
drivers provide the proper program in- 
terface for the Microsoft and Mouse Sys- 
tems emulations; for the others, the tar- 
get application must have a built-in 

The Trackball Plus plugs into an RS- 
232 serial port; versions are available 
with both 9-pin and 25-pin connectors. A 
separate cable runs from the serial port 
connector to a wall-mount transformer 
that supplies the unit with power. After 
plugging in the hardware, you set the de- 
sired mode and then (if necessary) in- 
stall the Microsoft or Mouse Systems 
driver. Both .COM and .SYS drivers are 
supplied for these two emulations. Ful- 
crum's drivers are unlike most mouse 
drivers that load at the DOS command 
line: You cannot remove them from 
memory without rebooting. When you 
try to install a different driver, you re- 
ceive a Driver already installed 

The trackball itself functions fairly 
well in graphics applications. It has a 
good feel, and on-screen motions are 
smooth. However, there is no way you 


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AUGUST 1988 'BYTE 177 


Inside the Trackballs 

Both PC-Trac and FastTRAP use 
24-pin CMOS microcontrollers 
from National Semiconductor's COPS 
(Controller Oriented Processor System) 
family. They contain the program, 
data, and temporary storage, as well as 
system timing and I/O control. Inputs to 
PC-Trac include three push buttons and 
two slotted optical encoders; FastTRAP 
is similar but has a third encoder plus a 
trackwheel and a shaft-mounted encod- 
er wheel. The devices have identical 
cases, but a panel covers the unused 
trackwheel slot in PC-Trac. 

Four transistors on a printed circuit 
board interface the input devices to the 
microcontroller; except for the push 
buttons, all the electronics are mounted 
on one other small printed circuit 
board. The two boards are interconnect- 
ed by a four-conductor flex circuit. All 
subassemblies— the PC boards, encoder 
shafts, switch caps, and cable— are 
press-fit into the base of the case. 
Everything is nicely arranged, and the 
overall impression is one of quality de- 
sign and manufacture. 

Because of the devices' low power re- 

quirements (a few milliamperes), they 
do not need a separate power trans- 
former; as with most mice, they draw 
the power they require directly from the 
control lines of the port to which they 
are connected. 

The COPS microcontroller is not in- 
terrupt-driven; rather, it continuously 
scans the six input ports. When it de- 
tects a switch opening or closure, or a 
trackball or trackwheel motion, it for- 
mats a message that it sends to the host 
computer via the serial port. In mouse 
mode, it sends a standard 3-byte mes- 
sage that contains button status and an 
8-bit relative x,y displacement. In native 
mode, it adds a fourth byte that allows 
the transmission of third-button status 
and z-axis information from the 

At the programming level, interface 
with the mouse driver is accomplished 
via the standard interrupt 33 hexadeci- 
mal. MicroSpeed's driver recognizes 
the standard Microsoft function calls (0 
to 19), and it adds 11 extended func- 
tions of its own (64 to 74). 

A look at the inside of Trackball Plus 

showed that it was built with less ele- 
gance and economy than the Micro- 
Speed devices. The PC board is hand- 
soldered, and traces of flux were 
evident all over the board. An Intel 
8051 running at slightly over 7 MHz 
provides the unit's intelligence. A sepa- 
rate 2764 (8K-byte) EPROM contains 
the control program and data. Like the 
MicroSpeed devices, the 8051 works on 
a polled (not an interrupt-driven) basis. 

Lightgate was notably tight-lipped 
about Felix's internal operation. How- 
ever, by both inspecting the device and 
talking with technical-support person- 
nel, I was able to gather some informa- 
tion. Two orthogonal plastic slides with 
precision-etched slots serve to interrupt 
the beams between a pair of orthogonal 
optical encoders. A proprietary micro- 
processor then processes that informa- 
tion, formats it, and sends it to the host 
computer. The microprocessor senses 
changes in the pointer's velocity and 
alters the outgoing message rate, there- 
by varying on-screen response. 

Layout, materials, and construction 
in Felix are all first-rate. 

can adjust sensitivity, nor can you use 
ballistic gain control. 

In the Microsoft mode, I found the 
sensitivity satisfactory under Windows 
and AutoCAD, but unsatisfactory under 
AutoSketch. In addition, in the Summa- 
graphics Bit Pad One mode under the 
version of AutoCAD (9.0) used for test- 
ing, I got no results from operating the 
alternate cursor button, which should 
allow you to move the cursor between 
two locations. According to the manufac- 
turer, this version of AutoCAD precludes 
the efficient use of the alternate cursor 
button. Like the MicroSpeed devices, the 
Fulcrum Trackball Plus supports a drag- 
emulation mode. 

A separate program, SETCUR.COM, is 
supposed to allow the trackball to emu- 
late cursor keys in text applications, but I 
found this emulation erratic when used 
under WordStar. It did work with Xy- 
Write, however. The installation docu- 
ment states, "Use of this function with 
word-processing programs, where pre- 
cise horizontal control is needed, may be 
unsatisfactory." It is. On the other hand, 
when I used just the supplied Microsoft- 
emulation driver, I had no trouble navi- 
gating DESQview's menus with Track- 
ball Plus. 

Economically, the buttons aren't up 
to today's standards. They are awkward- 
ly located and definitely biased toward 
right-handed users. In fact, I can't see 
how a left-handed person would be able 
to use them at all. You also have to use 
too much pressure to activate them. 

A 30-page technical manual and a 3- 
page installation guide are included. 
Neither is written or produced in the 
style of most of today's manuals, and 
nontechnical users may have trouble 
finding the necessary installation infor- 
mation. However, the company says the 
documentation and the packaging are be- 
ing redone, and by the time you read this, 
the updated documentation and packag- 
ing should be available. 


Protruding through the Felix low-profile 
hardware case is a single button mounted 
on a moving shaft. This button normally 
functions as the left mouse button; the 
right button is simulated by moving the 
shaft to the upper-left or upper-right 
corner and double-clicking. Right-hand- 
ed and left-handed users will find it easy 
to use Felix since both corners are pro- 
vided. When you double-click in the 
lower-right corner, Felix enters a "preci- 

sion" mode in which cursor movement is 
restricted to just a portion of the screen. 
However, you have to press the button 
farther down compared to similar de- 
vices, and there is no tactile feedback to 
inform you when contact has been made. 
Thus, I found double-clicking under 
Windows to be slightly tiring. 

Felix's software lets you change the 
button assignments and even move the 
buttons to the keyboard (i.e. , using Felix 
just for positioning, and using keyboard 
keys to perform button functions). The 
software is supplied in both 5 '/4 -inch 
(360K-byte) and 3 '/2-inch (720K-byte) 

Felix's chief claim to fame is a 1-to-l 
mapping with the screen (in nonprecision 
mode). When you move the pointer shaft 
to the upper-left corner of the 1.1- by 
1 . 1-inch active portion of the device, the 
cursor will be in the upper-left corner of 
the screen. When you move the pointer to 
the lower-right corner, the cursor follows 
suit. In precision mode, a smaller por- 
tion of the screen is mapped to Felix, 
thereby allowing more accurate position- 
ing in that portion of the screen. 

Felix's secondary claim to fame is a 
feature called "Hot Spots." Hot Spots 


178 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 

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Circle 203 on Reader Service Card (DEALERS: 204) 

AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 179 


are locations at the perimeter of the 
pointing area that provide keyboard 
macro functions. By moving the pointer 
to a Hot Spot and clicking, you can insert 
a number of keystrokes into the currently 
running application. 

There are 12 Hot Spots. You can acti- 
vate each alone or in combination with 
the Control, Alt, or left or right Shift 
key, for a total of 60 Hot Spots. Felix 
comes with a number of predefined sets 
of Hot Spot macros, an editor for creat- 
ing your own, and a print utility for dis- 
playing and printing them. The Lotus 
and AutoCAD Hot Spot macros are ex- 
tremely useful for getting at often-used 
functions quickly. 

You can utilize Lotus macros remark- 
ably well, so it is practical, and even de- 
sirable, to use Felix with the spread- 
sheet. For example, moving the pointer 
into the upper-right corner sends a slash 
(/) keystroke, activating 1-2-3's familiar 
horizontal menu. 

Other Hot Spots let you move to the be- 
ginning or end of the spreadsheet, scroll 
by row or column, or make large jumps 
to distant areas of the spreadsheet. Hot 
Spots that you activate in conjunction 
with the Alt key let you execute common 
Lotus functions (e.g., learn and recall 
modes, and paging up, down, left, and 
right). You can add 36 custom macros to 
the other Hot Spot layers. 

According to the manufacturer, cursor 
positioning is erratic under DESQview 
and programs running under it, so I ran 
my test software directly from DOS. 
Lightgate is presently working on drivers 
for Microsoft Windows/386. 

Except for the less-than-desirable tac- 
tile feedback for the push button, Felix's 
overall feel is quite nice. The pointer 
slides easily, and I had no trouble posi- 
tioning it accurately on the 800- by 600- 
pixel enhanced VGA screen. Lightgate is 
correct when it says that the 1-to-l 
pointer/cursor mapping can aid 

Running an Application 

To run an application with Felix, you 
move to the application's subdirectory 
and load Felix drivers, followed by the 
application itself. For example, to load 
AutoCAD, you would move to its sub- 
directory and type C> FELIX ACAD. This 
Felix command actually invokes a fairly 
lengthy batch file— more than 100 lines 
in the version tested— that does condi- 
tional testing to determine which appli- 
cation you're loading, and then loads the 
appropriate drivers. 

M0USE.EXE is used for most applica- 
tions, but FLXACAD.EXE loads drivers for 

AutoCAD and AutoSketch, and FLX- 
123- EXE loads the Lotus (or 1-2-3) 
driver. Another program loads the Hot 
Spot macro file for the selected applica- 
tion. Then the application itself is run. 

Processing a long batch file is ineffi- 
cient; a shorter batch file for each appli- 
cation would be an improvement. To 
speed things up, you can move the appro- 
priate lines for your application to a sepa- 
rate batch file. To avoid unnecessary 
waiting, Lightgate should have either 
supplied separate batch files to load each 
application or written a single software 
driver that supports all— or at least 
most— applications. The supplied drivers 
generally occupy about 40K bytes of 
memory, about 3 to 5 times as much as 
most mouse and trackball drivers use. 

You install Felix by plugging the cable 
into your 25-pin serial port (or into the 
supplied 9-pin-to-25-pin adapter, which 
is then inserted into the port), plugging a 
small power transformer into an AC out- 
let, and then inserting the coaxial power 
plug into the rear of the 25-pin 

An installation program copies files to 
a subdirectory called \ FELIX on the 
user's disk. The program also adds that 
directory to the path statement in your 
AUTOEXEC.BAT file. The old version is 
saved as AUTOEXEC. OLD. 

According to the manufacturer, a new 
version (1 .05) is due out by the time that 
this article is in print. Lightgate says the 
new version will feature support for rela- 
tive mode, for programs such as Dr. 

The quality of the documentation is 
not as good as the quality of the device 
itself. Here's an example of the gibberish 
that permeates the main manual: "Felix 
buttons use an innovative technology 
which is about to change your pointing 
life. Their operation is based on the 
kinesthetic space created by the little 
square which is Felix's travel area. The 
implementation is our ergonomically in- 
formed solution to the challenges and 
hazards of input device use. " 

Even the sections in which the com- 
pany really is trying to present useful in- 
formation are difficult because of the 
verbose, self-conscious writing style. To 
get the device working, I found the 
READ.ME file and the FELIX.BAT file to be 
more useful. All in all, the manual needs 
to be thoroughly reworked to make it eas- 
ier to understand how to set up and use 

A separate manual covers using the 
special 1-2-3 driver software. You will 
find it more informative and less filled 
with rhetoric than the main manual. 

Trackball versus Mouse 

If you need a pointing device, first you 
must choose between a mouse and some 
other device. The main disadvantage of a 
mouse is that you must have some clear 
space on your desk on which to operate it. 
All the devices discussed here overcome 
that problem. A trackball can also be ad- 
vantageous for fine, detailed work, be- 
cause it's easy to control the ball with 
your fingertips. Some mice, however— 
the new Microsoft Mouse in particular- 
are light enough to make fingertip con- 
trol possible. Overall, I prefer a mouse 
because it's smaller and easier to handle. 

If you decide against a mouse, Ful- 
crum's Trackball Plus is easy to set up 
and use, and it is the least expensive de- 
vice of its type. A developer desiring in- 
formation on the software protocols of 
the emulated devices might buy one for 
the documentation alone, because soft- 
ware protocol data regarding the various 
devices is all conveniently collected in 
this one manual. However, Trackball 
Plus suffers from its lack of support for 
text modes, its nonergonomic buttons, 
and its right-handed bias. 

Despite its problems, Felix is an in- 
triguing device. Its positioning system 
and Hot Spot macro system are top- 
notch. You will find the push button less 
than perfect, however, as is the collec- 
tion of software drivers. With more com- 
pact and elegant drivers, rewritten docu- 
mentation, and some form of tactile 
feedback on the button, Felix will be a 
product to contend with. 

Currently, however, the MicroSpeed 
devices are my favorites. Both are well 
designed, engineered, and manufac- 
tured, and neither requires a bulky and 
inconvenient external power transform- 
er. The documentation is excellent, the 
plug-in-and-go Microsoft emulation 
makes it easy to get started, and the bal- 
listic-gain-control drivers provide a long- 
missing capability for MS-DOS 

FastTRAP costs $30 more than PC- 
Trac. Viewed simply as a mouse replace- 
ment, it may not be worth the extra ex- 
pense. But if you are working with 
AutoCAD or want a fast way of paging 
through your word processor or spread- 
sheet, it is worthwhile. Other developers 
are working on FastTRAP drivers that 
may also justify the extra expense. ■ 

Jeff Holtzman owns Publishing Con- 
cepts, a firm that specializes in evalua- 
tion, verification, and documentation of 
high-technology products. He lives in 
Ann Arbor, Michigan, and can be 
reached on BIX as "editors. " 

180 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 

Unretouched Screen Images 

Buy The One On The Left And You'll Have 
To Put It Where The Sun Don't Shine. 

The monitor on the right, 
however, can be placed anywhere 
you like. Even in direct sunlight. It's 
the new Flat Technology Monitor from 
Zenith Data Systems-winner of PC 

Magazine's coveted "Technical Excellence Award" in the 

hardware category for 1987. 

You Have To See Zenith To Believe It 

So clear. So precise. So lifelike. It's the only monitor 
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Our Flat Technology Monitor has an impressive 
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The Flat Technology Monitor is virtually glare-free. 
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to get the whole picture, you have to see it with your 
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You also get full compatibility with the high 
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Experience Zenith's Latest Technology Breakthrough 

Obviously, a mere picture can't do justice to our 
new Flat Technology Monitor. It demands a face-to-face 
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in quantities right now. 





© 1988, Zenith Data Systems 
Circle 255 on Reader Service Card 

Personal System/2 and PS/2 are registered trademarks of IBM Corp. 

AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 181 


. . . With a 10 Day Trial Membership 

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To log-on to BK, simply: 

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336 Office Plaza Drive 
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Telephone: (904) 878-8564 
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MIRROR II is designed for use on IBM and 100% 
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is not copy protected. 

184 BYTE* AUGUST 1988 

Circle 219 on Reader Service Card 

Software Review 


forthe Mac 

With A/UX, 

the Mac II becomes a 

low-end workstation 

David Betz and Eva M. White 

Sure, the Macintosh II's hard- 
ware is as powerful as some 
workstations, and it even uses a 
16-MHz 68020 like the Sun and 
Apollo workstations. But before you call 
the Mac II a real workstation, you need 
to add a powerful operating system that 
supports multitasking, virtual memory, 
and networking to a variety of machines: 
one like Unix, for instance. 

That's exactly what Apple's A/UX 1 .0 
is all about. It's a port of AT&T Unix 

System V Release 2 for the Mac II. How- 
ever, A/UX differs from most other 
workstation versions because it is based 
on AT&T System V instead of Berkeley 
4. To maintain compatibility with other 
workstations, A/UX includes important 
Berkeley Standard Distribution (BSD) 
4.2 and 4.3 extensions, such as signals 
and sockets. 

A/UX supports up to two additional 
users (using the Mac II's serial ports) 
and the ability to network across an 
Ethernet using NFS (Network File Sys- 
tem) and TCP/IP (Transmission Control 
Protocol/Internet Protocol). 

What really makes A/UX different 
from most other versions of Unix is that it 
gives you the ability to run Mac applica- 
tions and to access the Mac's user inter- 
face Toolbox ROM routines. With these 
routines, you can write a Unix applica- 
tion with a Mac windowing interface. 
Unfortunately, this initial release does 
not provide a point-and-click windowing 
interface to Unix similar to that of the 

Mac operating system. In A/UX 1 .0, you 
can run only one Mac application at a 
time, and the Toolbox routines don't yet 
support the Finder, desk accessories, or 
the printing manager (see "Unix and the 
Mac Interface" by Rick Daley on page 
89 of the Macintosh Special Edition. ) 

To run A/UX, you need a Mac II with 
a minimum of 2 megabytes of memory 
and a paged memory management unit 
(PMMU). A/UX comes installed on an 
Apple 80SC 80-megabyte hard disk 
drive. You can get it on either an internal 
($4879) or external ($4979) drive. If you 
buy it on an external drive, you'll also 
need an Apple small-computer-system- 
interface cable system to attach it to the 
Mac. Also, if you plan to use A/UX as a 
multiuser system, Apple recommends 
adding 2 megabytes of memory for each 
additional simultaneous user. You will 
also need an EtherTalk card. 

The 80-megabyte hard disk drive 
comes preformatted into five partitions: 
a small Mac Hierarchical File System 
(HFS) start-up partition (2 megabytes), a 
large (56-megabyte) partition that com- 
prises the root (/) and user (/usr) Unix 
file systems, and a 14-megabyte partition 
that Unix uses as swap space. The re- 
maining two 3-megabyte partitions hold 
duplicate copies of the eschatology file 
system, which are used by the auto-re- 
covery utility. 

Using A/UX 

Starting A/UX involves booting the Mac 
operating system from the start-up parti- 
tion and then launching the sash stand- 
alone shell application. You can choose 
to either make sash the start-up applica- 
tion or just double-click on the sash icon. 
Sash opens a window and starts a count- 
down timer that, if allowed to complete 
the 10-second count, will then start the 
Unix boot sequence. Interrupting the 
counter will drop you into the stand- 
alone shell. 
While the main function of sash is to 


AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 185 




Multitasking operating system 


Apple Computer, Inc. 
20525 Mariani Ave. 
Cupertino, CA 95014 


Apple 80SC 80-megabyte hard disk 


C and assembly 

Hardware Needed 

Mac II with a minimum of 2 megabytes 
of memory and a 68851 PMMU 


Getting Started with A/UX 
A/UX System Overview 
A/UX Installation Guide 
A/UX Command Reference (A-L) 
A/UX Command Reference 

(M-Z and Games) 
A/UX Programming Languages 

and Tools, Volumes 1 & 2 
A/UX Programmer's Reference 
A/UX Local System Administration 
A/UX System Administrator's 

A/UX Text Editing Tools 
A/UX Text Processing Tools 
A/UX Communications User's Guide 
A/UX User Interface 
A/UX Toolbox: Macintosh ROM 



Monochrome system: $9297 
Color system: $9897 
Internal upgrade: $4879 
External upgrade: $4979 

Inquiry 904. 

load Unix, you can also use it to manipu- 
late the files in the A/UX file systems, or 
the files in either of the two eschatology 
file systems. Sash provides a subset of the 
standard Unix file manipulation tools, 
including mv, cp, and ed, as well as the 
file system checker f sck and the file sys- 
tem debugger f sdb. Other uses for sash 
are to partition hard disks, to build 
A/UX file systems, and to change ker- 
nel-tuning parameters. 

Standard Unix 

A/UX comes with all the standard Unix 
tools for software development, text 

processing, and communications. The 
software development tools include com- 
pilers for C and FORTRAN, an assem- 
bler and linker, a source code control 
system (sees), a program maintenance 
utility (make), a parser generator (yacc), 
and a lexical analyzer generator (lex). 

The text-processing tools include the vi 
text editor and the nrof f and trof f text 
formatting utilities. Apple also includes 
a utility license from Adobe to convert 
the output of trof f to PostScript. 

For communications, A/UX provides 
uucp, the Unix-to-Unix copy program, 
and its associated utilities, which allow 
multiple Unix systems to communicate 
through ordinary dial-up connections as 
well as by hard-wired serial links. The 
uucp software is the basis of the world- 
wide Usenet network. However, the Use- 
net software itself is not included with 

The system comes with public domain 
software source code for GNU EM ACS, 
Kermit, and Unix compression utilities. 
This software takes up 9 megabytes of 
disk space, and you can delete it if you 
need the space. 

A couple of features unique to A/UX 
are the auto-configuration and auto-re- 
covery utilities. The auto-configuration 
utility simplifies the normal Unix proce- 
dure for installing new devices. Under 
Unix, installing a new device requires 
editing make files, copying the required 
drivers, and rebuilding and installing the 
kernel. To install an A/UX-supported 
device, you need to shut down A/UX, 
power off the Mac, install the hardware, 
bring the system back up using the de- 
vice's installation disk, and run the 
installation program on the disk. This in- 
stalls the driver software and reboots 
A/UX. When A/UX comes back up, the 
auto-configuration utility rebuilds the 
Unix kernel to add the new device driver 
software and then reboots again with the 
newly created kernel. 

The auto-recovery mechanism is in- 
tended to guarantee that you can boot 
Unix into multiuser mode even after 
fairly severe file system damage has oc- 
curred. This mechanism uses the escha- 
tology file systems to maintain backup 
copies of all critical Unix files. If, during 
the boot process, the recovery program 
detects that any of these files are missing 
from the main Unix file systems, it re- 
places them with copies from the recov- 
ery file systems. The auto-recovery pro- 
gram also checks for bad blocks on the 
disk and fixes file protection and owner- 
ship on critical files. 

The sash utility handles the auto- 
recovery features of A/UX. If sash has 

trouble performing the Unix boot se- 
quence, it invokes an auto-recovery pro- 
cedure. The full auto-recovery takes 
about 45 minutes, but you can reduce this 
time significantly by disabling the block 
check portion of the auto-recovery pro- 
cess. Even in the case of an abnormal 
shutdown, like a power failure, the Unix 
fsck utility that runs as part of the start- 
up sequence can usually fix most prob- 
lems without having to resort to the 
lengthy auto-recovery process. 

To test the auto-recovery utility, we 
renamed the kernel (/unix) to /unix- 
.save and attempted to reboot the sys- 
tem. When the reboot failed, we invoked 
the auto-recovery program, which re- 
stored the kernel from one of the recov- 
ery file systems. We found out the hard 
way that any time you rebuild the kernel, 
you should be sure to run the two pro- 
grams /etc/eu and /etc/eupdate to up- 
date the files on the recovery file sys- 
tems. This procedure is only mentioned 
in the ReadMe file on the hard disk. We 
missed this step the first time, and the 
auto-recovery utility was unable to re- 
store the kernel. Also, somehow in the 
process, we managed to delete the back- 
up copy. Fortunately, we were able to 
use the sash copy utility to move the ker- 
nel manually from one of the recovery 
file systems. 

Backup strategies 

The auto-recovery mechanism is not a 
substitute for making regular backups, 
since it can restore only critical system 
files. It makes no attempt to restore user 
data files or programs. Auto-recovery is 
intended only to get the system back up 
and running after serious failures so that 
you can use normal backups to recon- 
struct the complete system. 

Another good reason for making a 
backup is that when A/UX boots for the 
first time, it starts out in what is known 
as single-user mode. In this mode, all the 
Unix file protection is disabled, and it is 
very easy for an inexperienced user to do 
significant damage to crucial files. The 
safest approach would be to make a back- 
up copy of the 50-megabyte Unix file sys- 
tem using one of the several Unix backup 
utilities supplied, such as CPI0. 

Unfortunately, performing a backup 
isn't easy. The only backup medium 
A/UX 1.0 supports is the 800K-byte 
floppy disk drive (version 1 .0 does not 
support the cartridge tape drive). Since 
there are about 45 megabytes of files on 
the system as distributed by Apple, a full 
backup requires approximately 56 800K- 
byte floppy disks. 


186 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 

TrueVista™ Videographics Adapters 

Adjust Made Choosing Your 
Graphics Card 

As Easy As 1,2,4. 

You've probably seen ourTrueVista products, 
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NTSC/PAL compatibility and more. Recently, 
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applicationsfem video to digital pre-press to 
image praising. So now, whether your choice 
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5 products. 

TrueVista Series 



ATVista 2M 

ATVista 4M 









MAXIMUM 32 bits/pixel 
ADDRESSABLE 16 bits/pixel 
RESOLUTIONS 8 bits/pixel 











2-10 Mbytes 

2-10 Mbytes 

2-10 Mbytes 









Now There's Software You Can Count On, Too. 

To complete the equation, add in STAGE™ , 
our comprehensive graphics environment for 
the 34010. Since STAGE is host-independent, it 
allows you to access the coprocessor directly, 
regardless of the bus. So your program on the 
AT can be quickly ported to the Macintosh II. 
Customers will not be tied to one platform 
either, as files and programs will be compatible 
across both hosts. STAGE is currently available 
for the ATVista series, and will be available 
soon for the NuVista as well. 

With the new members of the TrueVista family 
and the release of STAGE, you now have 
everything you need to develop exciting new 
products for the next generation of computer 
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7351 Shadeland Station, Suite 100, Indianapolis, IN 46256 800/858-TRUE 

INTERNATIONAL: Canada 416/499-9400 France 33-13-952-6253 Italy 39-2-242-4551 Switzerland 41-1-825-0949 
U.K. 44-1-991-0121 West Germany 49-89-612-0010 Other 617/229-6900 

Prices quoted are US Domestic suggested retail prices. Macintosh is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, inc. Circle 244 OH Render Service Card 



Macintosh Toolbox Support 

Apple supplies several tools with A/UX 
to support developing applications that 
use the Mac interface. You use a utility 
called mf s to move files between the Mac 
operating-system environment and 

A/UX. This utility is not capable of han- 
dling HFS floppy disks, so you must for- 
mat 800K-byte floppy disks as Macin- 
tosh File System (MFS) volumes. The 
launch utility runs applications that were 
built in the Mac operating system and 

appname. c- 

C source code 

InitGraf (&qd.thePort) 

/* Include header files */ 
/* Calls to toolbox */ 



,— Id- 

i- /usr/include/mac/* ■ 

Header files declare functions and data types 


link editor 



Library contains entry points for all functions 
and variables 


Script reserves space for global variables 

/usr/lib/low.o ■ 

File contains symbols for global variables 


Initialization routine communicates with kernel 

code file 

Figure 1: The steps involved in creating an Al UX application that uses the Mac 

. — appname. r . 

rez source code 


appname. res 


Resource library defines resource tools 

Resource file 

Figure 2: The steps involved in creating a resource file. 

moved over with mfs. You can debug 
Mac applications using the standard 
Unix debuggers adb ( 1) and sdb ( 1) . 

The launch utility successfully ran 
MacPaint 2.0 and MacDraw 1.9.5, but 
Mac Write 5.0 bombed, giving a mem- 
ory-fault error. However, the error 
didn't disable the machine in any way. 

A/UX comes with a resource compiler 
(rez) and decompiler (derez) whose 
source files are compatible with their 
counterparts in the Mac Programmers' 
Workshop (MPW). The rez utility trans- 
lates resource description files to binary 
files that resource-manager functions in 
the Toolbox ROM can use. These re- 
sources describe the windows, menus, 
and dialog boxes that are familiar parts 
of all Mac applications. The decompiler 
translates binary resource files back to 
source form. It is useful for making al- 
terations in existing resource files 
without having to reconstruct the entire 
file from scratch if no source is available 
for it. 

There are two approaches to develop- 
ing A/UX applications that use the Tool- 
box. You can develop them under the 
Mac operating system using the tools 
there, transfer them to A/UX using mfs, 
and run them using the launch. Or, you 
can develop, debug, and run them using 
A/UX tools. Figure 1 shows the library 
and header files that make up the Tool- 
box and, graphically, how you construct 
the code portion of an application under 
A/UX. Figure 2 shows how you con- 
struct the resource file. (Under the Mac 
operating system, the code portion and 
resource portion are stored together; 
under A/UX, these two pieces are in sep- 
arate files.) 

To build an A/UX application, you 
must include the appropriate header files 
in your program source and then link 
with the Toolbox files libmac.a, low. Id, 
low.o, and maccrtO.o. The library lib- 
mac.a contains the entry points for the 
Toolbox functions and variables; low. Id 
and low.o arrange access to the Mac low- 
memory globals; and maccrtO.o initial- 
izes the Toolbox interface and the trap 
dispatch tables and then invokes the main 
routine of the application. 

The initialization code also opens a 
special device driver, called /dev/ 
uinterO, that sets up access to the screen 
buffer, handles events in a manner simi- 
lar to the event manager in the Toolbox 
ROM, tracks the cursor, and sets up the 
A-line trap handler. 

Applications access the Mac Toolbox 
ROM by issuing A-line trap instructions. 
A/UX handles these trap instructions by 


188 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 




ICO -flO 

Systat Because other statistics and 

graphics packages are not enough. 

Systat now offers more statistical graphics than any other PC or 
mainframe package. And we still give you less bulk with more statistics. 

Statistics Basic statistics, frequencies, t-tests, post-hoc tests 
Multiway crosstabs with log-linear modeling, association 
coefficients, PRE statistics, Mantel-Haenszel, asymptotic standard 
errors Nonparametric statistics [sign. Runs, Wilcoxon, Kruskal- 
Wallis, Friedman two-way ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U, Kolmogorov- 
Smirnov, Lilliefors, Kendall coefficient of concordance) Pairwise/ 
listwise missing value correlation, SSCP, covariance. Spearman, 
Gamma, Kendall Tau, Euclidean distances, binary similarities Linear, 
polynomial, multiple, stepwise, weighted regression with extended 
diagnostics Multivariate general linear model includes multi-way 
ANOVA, ANOCOVA, MANOVA, repeated measures, canonical 
correlation Principal components, factor analysis, rotations, 
components scores Multidimensional scaling Multiple and 
canonical discriminant analysis, Bayesian classification Cluster 
analysis (hierarchical, single, average, complete, median, centroid 
linkage, k-means, cases, variables Time series (smoothers, 
exponential smoothing, seasonal and nonseasonal ARIMA, ACF, 
PACF, CCF, transformations, Fourier analysis Nonlinear estimation 
(nonlinear regression, maximum likelihood estimation, and more). 

Graphics Overlay plots Drivers for most graphics devices 
Two dimensional: Error Bars Scatterplots Line and Vector Graphs 
Vector, Dot, Bubble and Quantile Plots Bar Graphs (single, multiple, 
stacked, range) Box plots (single and grouped) Stem-and-leaf 
diagrams Linear, quadratic, step, spline, polynomial, LOWESS, 
exponential smoothing Confidence Intervals and ellipsoids (any 
alpha value) Smooth mathematical functions Rectangular or polar 
coordinates Log and power scales ANOVA interaction plots 
Histograms (regular, cumulative, fuzzy) Stripe and jitter plots 
Gaussian histogram smoothing Scatterplot matrices Voronoi 
Tesselations Minimum spanning tree Maps with geographic 
projections (U.S. state boundary file included) Chernoff faces Star 
plots Fourier plots Pie charts Contour plots on regularly and 
irregularly spaced points Control charts and limits Three 
dimensional: Data plots Smooth function plots Vector plots 
Linear, quadratic, spline, least squares surface smoothing Three- 
dimensional type fonts. 

Data Management Import/export Lotus, dBase, and DIF 
files Full screen data editor Full screen text editor Unlimited 
cases Missing data, arrays, character variables Process 
hierarchical, rectangular or triangular files, irregular length records 
Character, numeric, and nested sorts Merge and append large files 
Unlimited numeric and character variable transformations 
Subgroup processing with SELECT and BY Value labels and RECODE 
Statements Macro processor with programming language, screen 
control, file manipulation, applications generation, and report writing. 


, €> 


• <?> 







1.^ 1 A: 







.•#.«*>'- "S<-'»V»» 





Systat operates on IBM PCs and compatibles, MS-DOS and CP/M 
machines, several UNIX minicomputers, and the VAX/Microvax. 
Menu/windowed Macintosh version also available. Single copy price 
$795 USA and Canada, $895 Foreign. Site licenses, quantity prices 
and training seminars available. No fees for technical support. 
Statistics and graphics available separately. 

For more information, call 312 864.5670 or write Systat Inc., 
1800 Sherman Avenue, Evanston, IL 60201. 

The following are registered trademarks: CP/M of Digital Research. Inc., IBM PC of IBM, 
Inc., MS-DOS of Microsoft. Inc.. Macintosh of Apple Computer Inc., UNIX of AT&T and 
VAX of Digital Equipment Corporation. 

Circle 230 on Reader Service Card (DEALERS: 231) 

Systat. Intelligent software. 

AUGUST 1988 'BYTE 189 


Table 1: While the Sun 386U250 
is significantly faster than the Mac 
II running At UX, in this 
configuration, the Sun costs about 
twice as much. 

Number of Tasks 
12 4 8 

Mac II 

withA/UX 2.9 4.9 8.2 15.7 


386i/250 2.0 3.0 6.0 12.0 

Note: In both cases, the real execution time is 
reported. The SUN 386i uses a 25-MHz 80386. and 
the Mac II uses a 1 6-MHz 68020. 

switching to supervisor mode and dis- 
patching to code within the A/UX ker- 
nel. Once this code determines that the 
trap was a Toolbox ROM call, it invokes 
the trap handler and switches back to 
user mode. The user-mode trap handler 
then uses the dispatch tables to call either 
a ROM-based routine or a RAM-based 
patch. RAM-based patches update ROM 
code, as in the standard Mac operating 
system, and redirect Mac operating-sys- 

tem calls to routines that translate them 
to equivalent Unix calls. 

You must then create the resource file 
containing definition objects such as 
windows, menus, and dialogs, and com- 
pile it with the rez resource compiler. 

Finally, to run any programs under 
A/UX that use the Mac interface, you 
must have the program toolboxdaemon 
running as a background process. This 
program is responsible for setting up the 
shared memory structures that all Tool- 
box applications use. It is also responsi- 
ble for cleaning up after a Toolbox pro- 
cess when it exits. This includes 
removing shared memory structures and 
windows from the screen. In version 1 .0, 
the shared memory contains mostly cur- 
sor data. 

Missing Mac User Interface 

In A/UX, there is no facility like the Mac 
Finder to launch applications and man- 
age files. A/UX provides three different 
shells (command interpreters)— the tra- 
ditional Bourne shell (sh), the Berkeley 
C shell (csh), and the Korn shell (ksh). 
Each of these shells uses a command-line 

The closest A/UX comes to having a 
windowing interface is a sample pro- 
gram, called Term, that lets you open 
multiple windows, each running the 
Unix command-line interface. Since this 
is a sample program, full source code is 
provided so that you can modify it to suit 
your own needs. 

As you would expect with a Mac appli- 
cation, Term lets you move or resize each 
window. One nice feature is a history 
mechanism that makes it possible to 
scroll back through a session to review 
output that has already scrolled out of the 
window. Unfortunately, you cannot cut 
and paste in these windows. 

Each window acts as a terminal emu- 
lator implementing a subset of the DEC 
VT-100 control codes. You can also 
select the font and size of the text in each 

Since A/UX allows only one Toolbox 
application to run at a time, it isn't possi- 
ble to run any other program that uses the 
Toolbox from within the Term program. 
This means that to run another Toolbox 
program, you need to close down what- 
ever is going on in each of the windows 
and exit from the Term program. This 


Object Oriented Programming (oops) is the most 
refreshing development ever to hit PC comput- 
ing because it makes programming natural and 
easy And if you've got a thirst for the world's 
best selling oops, get your hands on oops Lite, 

Thousands of scientists, engineers, pro- 
grammers and educators have chosen Smalltalk/V 
because it's less filling. Unlike other oops which 
require deep-pocket workstations and a zillion bytes 
of RAM, Smalltalk/V runs on box-stock PC/XTs 
and clones with 512K and still has room to develop 
full-bodied applications. 

Thousands more have chosen Smalltalk/V 
because it's the fastest, easiest way to get a great 
taste of oops. And that taste has led to satisfying 
results in everything from finance to medicine to 


These people found that the real value of 

personal computing isn't just manipulating a word 
processor, a spreadsheet or a modern user interface. 
It is using their PC as a sculptor uses clay And 
Smalltalk/V with its unique design clarity, natural 
parallel between problem and solution, and forgiv- 
ing nature gets you there with gusto. 

Smalltalk/V is only $99.95 and comes with 
the best object oriented programming tutorial money 
can buy And when you're ready for something even 
more potent, move up to new Industrial Strength 
oops, Smalltalk/V 286 for just $199.95. Both come 
with our 60 day money-back guarantee. 

Check out Smalltalk/V at your dealer. If 
he doesn't have it, order toll free: 1-800-922-8255. 
Or write to: Digitalk, Inc., 9841 Airport Blvd., 
Los Angeles, CA 90045. oops Lite. Everything 
you've ever wanted -_ __ __ ,__ 

L,s ° Smalltalk V 

190 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 

Circle 77 on Reader Service Card (DEALERS: 78) 


limits the usefulness of the program as a 
standard interface to A/UX. 

Expanded Networking 

If you want to go beyond the three users 
that can be accommodated by the console 
and the two serial ports, you can buy an 
Ethernet card and use the networking 
software that comes with A/UX. 

A/UX supports Sun Microsystems' 
NFS, which allows a Mac II running 
A/UX to participate in a network of 
workstations and hosts and to share files. 
NFS makes it possible to treat files on 
other systems as if they were resident on 
your local machine. 

There is also support in A/UX for the 
TCP/IP network protocol. This protocol 
and a number of utilities included with 
A/UX let you copy files between nodes 
on a network and establish remote log-in 
sessions with other nodes. 

AU/X doesn't support AppleTalk, so 
if you want to connect a LaserWriter 
printer, you have to use an asynchronous 
link to one of the serial ports. 

Even though the system comes with 
networking software, the documentation 
does not include the A/UX Network Ad- 

ministration manual that you need to set 
up a network. This manual is available 
for $18.50 to APDA (Apple Program- 
mer's and Developer's Association) 

To measure the multitasking perfor- 
mance of A/UX, we ran the multitask- 
ing-shell benchmark published in the 
August 1984 BYTE on page 406. For 
comparison, we ran the same benchmark 
tests on a Mac II with 5 megabytes of 
memory and A/UX on an external 80- 
megabyte hard disk drive, and on a Sun 
386i/250 with 8 megabytes of memory 
and a 327-megabyte hard disk drive run- 
ning Berkeley Unix 4.3. In the bench- 
mark results, A/UX on the Mac II ran 
notably slower than the Unix implemen- 
tation on the Sun system (see table 1). 
However, performance may be accep- 
table when you consider that the Sun sys- 
tem costs about twice as much. 

Close, But No Cigar 

Apple's A/UX is a good first step toward 
transforming the Mac II into a Unix 
workstation. It's good because it gives 
you multitasking, virtual memory, and 
access to a network. But it is not yet well 

integrated with the Mac user interface. 
Also, the limitation of running only a 
single Toolbox application at a time 
makes it difficult to use even the Term 
program as a standard interface. 

You might expect A/UX to make the 
Mac II into a true workstation, but it 
doesn't quite measure up. Although it 
does provide the ability to connect to a 
network, it does not provide the kind of 
interactive interface that is familiar to 
users of other workstation products. 
While the Mac interface is available from 
within A/UX, the primary interface is 
the Unix command-line shell. 

However, A/UX is a good implemen- 
tation of Unix System V and should be 
useful where there is a need for a system 
that allows Unix applications to run in a 
network environment and where the abil- 
ity to run Mac applications is required. 
A/UX will be easier to use when and if 
Apple provides a Finder-like interface 
that will truly transform the Mac into a 
point-and-click Unix machine. ■ 

David Betz is a Unix consultant and a 
former senior editor for BIX. Eva M. 
White is a BYTE technical editor. 






If You 're Serious 
About Graphics, 

Why Clown Around 

Arts & Letters is a family of products with an 
unsurpassed assortment of object-oriented clip 
art, typefaces, composition aids, and freeform 
drawing tools. And Arts & Letters runs on your 
IBM or IBM compatible personal computer. 

Can't Draw a Straight Line? 

For those of us with little artistic skill, the Arts & Letters 
Composer comes complete with thousands of 
professionally-drawn clip art images you can size, 
stretch, twist, bend, flip, and rotate. 

Compose diagrams, maps, flow charts, word 
charts, and organization charts. Cut, copy, and 
paste your compositions into any of the popular 
desktop publishing applications that support 
Windows, or print directly to any laser printer 
(a PostScript-equipped printer is not required). 

Draw Your Own 

Depending on your level of artistic ability, 
use the Arts & Letters Graphics Editor to modify 
predrawn clip art, trace scanned images, or draw 
complex illustrations. 

Even if you're a skilled artist, modifying predrawn 
clip art can save lots of time when you're 
working against a deadline. 

IBM is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation. 
Arts & Letters is a trademark of Computer Support Corporation. Ventura 
Publisher is a trademark of Ventura Software, Inc. PostScript is 
a registered trademark of Adobe Systems, Inc. 

Editing Features 

The Graphics Editor allows you to adjust the 
direction and shape of each curve interactively by 
clicking on the control points and fine tuning the 
curve. You can split a shape at a point, delete 
segments, join shapes, snap to points, move a 
point or group of points, and much more. 

Exchanging Data 

Arts & Letters supports a variety of techniques for 
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WMF and CGM. 

For more information about Arts & Letters and a 
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(214) 661-8960 

Suggested Retail 

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Graphics Editor — $595 

Circle 56 on Reader Service Card 



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w \ ' : 


The Standard for Analog Circuit Simulation 
Now Available on the Macintosh II 

Since its introduction just over four years ago, 
MicroSim's PSpice has sold more copies than all 
other commercial Spice programs combined. In 
addition to running on the IBM PC family, in- 
cluding the new PS/2, the Compaq 386, the Sun 3 
workstation and the VAX/VMS family, PSpice is 
now available on Apple's Macintosh II. 

All these features which have made PSpice so 
popular are available: 

• Standard parts libraries for diodes, bipolar 
transistors, power MOSFET's, opamps, voltage 
comparators, and transformer cores. 

• GaAs MESFET devices. 

• Non-linear transformer devices modeling 
saturation, hysteresis, and eddy current losses. 

• Ideal switches for use with, for example, power 
supply and switched capacitor circuit designs. 

Please call or write today for a free evaluation copy of PSpice. Find out for yourself why PSpice is the standard 
in analog circuit simulation. 

In addition, all these PSpice options are available 
on the Macintosh: 

• Monte Carlo analysis to calculate the effect of 
parameter tolerances on circuit performance. 

• The Probe "software oscilloscope", allowing 
interactive viewing of simulation results. 

• The Parts parameter extraction program, allow- 
ing you to extract a device's model parameters 
from data sheet information. 

• The Digital Files interface, allowing you to 
transfer data from your logic simulator to (or 
from) PSpice. The interface performs the 
necessary D to A or A to D conversions. 

Each copy of PSpice comes with our extensive 
product support. Our technical staff has over 50 
years of experience in CAD/CAE and our software 
is supported by the engineers who wrote it. With 
PSpice, expert assistance is only a phone call away. 

MicroSim Corporation 

23175 La Cadena Drive, Laguna Hills, CA 92653 U.S.A. • (714) 770-3022 (800) 826-8603 • Telex 265154 SPICE UR 

PSpice is a registered trademark of MicroSim Corporation; Macintosh 1 1 is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.; Compaq 386 is a trademark of Compaq Computer Corporation; IBM PC, PS/2 are registered trademarks 
of International Business Machines Corporation; Sun is a trademark of Sun Microsystems, Inc.; VAX and VMS are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation. 

194 BYTE* AUGUST 1988 

Circle 149 on Reader Service Card (DEALERS: 150) 

Application Review 


on a Mac 

A CAD package for PCs 
finds its way to the 

Paul Tuten 

Born with an established name 
in the MS-DOS world, Versa- 
CAD Macintosh Edition is a 
comprehensive two-dimen- 
sional drafting and design system for 
creating accurate working drawings for a 
variety of disciplines. The VersaCAD 
package comes with a 247-page user's 
manual that includes a tutorial section, a 
"tour" disk that contains a demonstra- 
tion program, and a disk with a Hyper- 
Card Help stack. These also serve as 
valuable training aids. 

VersaCAD Macintosh Edition retails 
for $1995. It requires a Mac Plus or SE 
with 1 megabyte of RAM or a Mac II 
with a minimum of 2 megabytes of 
RAM, an Apple monochrome or color 
monitor, and Finder 5.5 or higher. 
You'll need extra memory to use large 
monitors and to make use of Multi- 
Finder. If you have a Mac Plus or SE, you 
should equip it with an accelerator board 
with a 68881 math coprocessor to take 
full advantage of VersaCAD's speed. Fi- 
nally, you'll need a minimum of 4 mega- 
bytes of hard disk space for programs, 
temporary workfiles, and drawings. 

VersaCAD 1.1, the version I tested, 
supports a comprehensive list of output 
devices, including the Apple Image- 
writer and LaserWriter for nonscale hard 
copies. For accurate drawings, it sup- 
ports plotters from Bruning, Calcomp, 
Data Products, Enter Computer, Hew- 
lett-Packard, Houston Instrument, 
United Innovations, Mutoh, Numonics, 
Roland, and Western Graphtec. 

A VersaLINK application converts 
VersaCAD drawings to and from ASCII 
text, Initial Graphics Exchange Specifi- 
cation (IGES), and .DXF files. In these 
formats, you can exchange drawing in- 
formation not only between different 
CAD applications but even between dif- 
ferent computer systems. 

The Working Area 

The main display consists of a drawing 
window bordered by the familiar Macin- 
tosh title bar, close, resize, and scrolling 
buttons. In addition, five window-option 
icons are embedded along the bottom left 
scroll bar. Clicking on these window 
icons lets you magnify any area of the 
drawing for detail work, or back away for 
a bird's-eye view of the entire drawing, 
regardless of its size. 

Beneath the menu bar is a Message 
window that prompts you for input dur- 
ing object construction and editing. At 
the screen's bottom is a Coordinates win- 
dow that shows the location of the draw- 
ing cursor in absolute, relative, or polar 
coordinates. To the left is a Tools win- 
dow—a palette of icons for object cre- 
ation and manipulation tools. You can 
toggle all these windows (plus two hid- 
den Constraints and Construct palettes) 
open and closed from the Settings menu 
bar selection. 

I found that I was using the Constraints 
and Construct palettes more than the 
Message and Coordinates windows, so I 
closed the latter two to save room on my 
SE's screen. For SE users, a more pro- 
ductive, but also more expensive, solu- 
tion would be to add an external monitor 
to display the drawing window. Then you 
could display the support functions win- 
dows on a second screen while using a 
multimonitor program, such as E-Ma- 
chines' Double Feature. 

A Pick of Tools 

The two choices on the top of the Tools 
palette are Selection and Group. The Se- 


AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 195 




Two-dimensional CAD package 


Versacad Corp. 

2124 Main St. 

Huntington Beach, CA 92648 



Six 3 1 /2-inch floppy disks 

Hardware Needed 

Macintosh Pius or SE with 1 megabyte 
of RAM, or Macintosh II with 2 megabytes 
of RAM, and a hard disk drive 

Software Needed 

Finder 5.5 or higher 




247-page user's manual 



Inquiry 907. 

lection tool lets you pick individual ob- 
jects for editing and manipulation. Each 
object that Selection calls up displays its 
associated, movable, pivot-and-handle 
point. The Group tools let you build ag- 
gregates of objects. 

The palette has 12 more tools, which 
you use to add objects to your drawing. 
The Line tool lets you create a single or 
continuous line, and Multiline draws two 
or more parallel lines simultaneously. 
Rectangle lets you draw squares and rect- 
angles by designating opposite corners or 
three points. Polygon draws regular 
polygons with 3 to 180 sides. 

To draw a circle, you choose a center 
and a radius or designate a diameter and 
its two endpoints. You can make an el- 
lipse by picking the axes or a center and 
the axes. You create an arc from two end- 
points and an arbitrary point on the arc, 
or from a center point and two endpoints. 
With Bezier, you can create three-point 
Bezier curves and multipoint spline 
curves. You handle point entry by screen 
position, grid snap, object snap, or coor- 
dinate entry (this is also the case with all 
the tools mentioned previously). 

You can write on the drawing, either in 

individual lines or in blocks, using the 
Text tool. Character height and width, as 
well as line spacing, may be varied. You 
can assign font numbers to your built-in 
LaserWriter fonts for PostScript output. 
VersaCAD can automatically apply lin- 
ear and angular dimensions, either sin- 
gly or as baseline or chain dimensions. 

The last six tools on the palette are for 
object manipulation. You can move and 
stretch objects and groups of objects. You 
can copy in one or two directions, or cir- 
cularly, leaving one or more copies. Ro- 
tate lets you move objects about their as- 
sociated pivot points. Scale shrinks or 
expands objects or groups of objects, 
either proportionally or unproportion- 
ally. Mirror flips objects or copies of ob- 
jects about an axis. The Explode com- 
mand breaks objects and symbols into 
their component parts. 

The Construct palette contains impor- 
tant tools for precise geometric construc- 
tions. Extend/Trim lets you trim ele- 
ments to other elements and objects. 
With Break, you can split a line and trim 
it to two different objects or two different 
portions of the same object. Fillet lets 
you draw a specified radius between two 
self-trimming lines, as does Chamfer. 
Perpendicular lets you create right-angle 
lines at any distance from the endpoint of 
a normal line. With Parallel, you can 
draw lines at a specified distance from 
each other. The Tangent function makes 
lines at a specified angle to circles, arcs, 
and ellipses, or tangent to arcs and per- 
pendicular to lines. You can use Isomet- 
ric to create an isometric view from three 
orthographic views. 

The tools in the Constraints palette are 
used in conjunction with those in the 
Tools and Construct palettes. Con- 
straints tools help you make your draw- 
ings more precise. Besides Free (or un- 
constrained) input, there is Rotation, X 
Lock, and Y Lock, which let you fix in- 
put to a specified angle, or to an x or y 

The Grid and Increment snap tools set 
up a grid with incremental points. These 
points then attract the cursor to the near- 
est specified location for geometric 
input. This is nice in some ways, but 
it often dramatically slows repainting 
when the grid is displayed. The No Snap 
function switches this option off. The In- 
tersection, Object, and Equation tools 
are excellent for accurate placement of 
objects in relation to each other, during 
both construction and later manipula- 

In most cases, the tools have additional 
options that you can obtain by double- 
clicking on each tool's icon. 

Picks from the Menu 

The menu bar displays the Apple symbol 
with whatever desk accessories you have 
installed, along with About VersaCAD 
and Help. The Help item contains a 
drawing of the three palette windows 
mentioned previously, with labels that 
describe each tool function. 

The Files menu contains New Draw- 
ing, which is for creating an empty draw- 
ing that retains the current settings of the 
properties, units, and window. Open 
Drawing retrieves drawings and also 
allows them to merge with the current 
drawing (at the same drawing units). 
Close stores the drawing window. Save 
Drawing and Save Drawing As put the 
current work on disk arranged by objects 
or by current group. Crunch compresses 
the workfile by permanently removing 
all deleted objects. 

New Library lets you create special 
files of symbols. Symbols are collections 
of objects that are used repeatedly, such 
as windows and doors, or bolts and nuts. 
Obviously, having them predrawn as part 
of a library can save you a good deal of 
drawing time. Open Library gives you 
access to your symbols files. 

Page Setup and Print give you a non- 
scale hard copy of displayed drawings on 
a printer. Besides a long list of plotters to 
select from, Plot Select contains an en- 
capsulated PostScript selection; this op- 
tion lets you use VersaCAD drawings 
with page layout programs. Plot Setup 
and Plot produce accurate output of the 
entire drawing, to any scale, on laser 
printers and plotters. Quit closes the 
VersaCAD program. 

The Edit menu selection has the usual 
Macintosh Undo, Cut, Copy, and Paste 
options, plus Clear Last Entry, Restore 
Last Entry, Select All Objects, and Show 
Clipboard Contents. It also has addi- 
tional items to aid you in editing objects. 
A Properties item lets you edit the level 
number, pen number, color, line density 
and width, line style, and top and bottom 
z-coordinate values of objects. A power- 
ful Geometry item lets you look at and 
edit almost every geometric attribute of 
an object on the drawing; you can also in- 
voke Geometry by double-clicking on the 
object. Handle moves the handle point of 
the selected object to alternate locations 
or back to the object's default location. 

The Group menu contains options that 
you use in conjunction with the Group se- 
lection from the Tools palette. Clear 
Current Group removes all objects from 
the current group. Build by Inverse 
creates a group by replacing all objects in 
the current group with all other objects. 


196 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 

Never Lose Your Work Again ! 

Introducing Cocoon* A Genuine Breakthrough. 

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"I layout A 0; < . 

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In reviening the spreadsheet product! SILK, the nedia had the following coroents 
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Cocoon's Recover 
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-Info llorld 

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"The logging feature is one 
reason why a hard disk should 
he used with Silk (software)." 
-PC Week 

^■'^^!fK^^^^^^ ! ^&^-^^ r ^0:' w] ^ 

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Your Logic Cocoon captures your train of 
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Truly A Must-Have Utility Daybreak 
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System Requirements: IBM or compatible 
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copies of Cocoon @ $49.95 

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Mail To: Cocoon Introductory Offer, Dept. 361 E 
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Payment Method 

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Do not enclose cash. Offer valid through September 30, 1988. Please allow 4-6 weeks for deliver): 

Cocoon and Silk are trademarks of Daybreak lechnologies, Inc. IBM and Pl r ,-li are registered trademarks of International Basfness Machines Corporation Lotus. 1-2-3 and Symphony are registered trademarks of Lotus Development Corporation. Microsoft 

and MS-DOS are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. WordPerfect is a registered trademark of WordPerfect Corporation. WordStar 2000 and Wordstar Professional are registered trademarks of MicroPro International Corporation. Enable 

Is a registered trademark of the Software Group. Ability Plus is a registered trademark of Migent Software Inc. Codesmilli is a registered trademark of Visual Age. P-fix is a registered trademark of Phoenix Computer Products Corporation. 

Circle 70 on Reader Service Card (DEALERS: 71) 


Build by Properties lets you create or edit 
groups by all objects that do or do not 
have specified properties in common. 
Build by Fence creates groups by speci- 
fying objects either inside or outside a 
rectangular area, and Build by Objects 
lets you add or subtract specific object 
types to the current or new group. 

The Settings menu contains valuable 
features, such as Input, which lets you di- 
rectly input absolute, relative, or polar 
coordinates for geometric creation and 
manipulation. Besides the usual decimal 
degree and degrees-minutes-seconds op- 
tions in the polar mode, bearing is also 
available. Properties lets you set such ob- 
ject attributes as level number, pen num- 
ber, color, line density and width, up to 
eight line styles, and top and bottom z co- 
ordinate values. VersaCAD is sometimes 
referred to as a two-and-one-half-dimen- 
sional system because it can record 
^-coordinate values but not display them. 
This ability to record z coordinates can 
be useful if you are using drawing-coor- 
dinate data in CAM. 

You can add arrows or center markers 
to objects, and you can set template prop- 
erty to objects being added. These ob- 
jects could serve as construction lines for 
layout development, and they can be 
turned off for displaying or plotting. 

With the Units item, you set the draw- 
ing's unit of measure when you begin. 
There can be only one unit of measure 
per drawing. VersaCAD works on the 
concept of real- world modeling. That is, 
if you are going to lay out a schematic of a 
new interstate highway, for example, you 
might make miles the unit of measure 
and choose polar coordinates in bearing 
format. On the other hand, if you were 
designing an assembly jig for an airplane 
wing, you would make inches your unit 
of measure and choose absolute coordi- 
nates in decimals of an inch. For an E- 
size plot of both drawings, you can set the 
plot scale so that 1 unit equals 0.125 

All the necessary units are available, 
including decimals and fractions of 
inches and feet, and fractions of miles, 
millimeters, centimeters, meters, and 
kilometers. If you want, you can also de- 
fine your own units of measure. 

Levels lets you specify up to 250 levels 
to display and plot. Levels are not self- 
protecting; for example, you can trim 
lines to each other even if they are in dif- 
ferent levels. You protect levels by turn- 
ing them off, thus making them 

Configuration sets the size of tempo- 
rary Hatch files needed to calculate 
hatch boundaries. Preferences lets you 

set a drawing's background, grid, se- 
lected object, and cursor color (if avail- 
able). Show Marker, Template, and 
Symbol turn the display of these items on 
and off. The workfile has a running 
clock of usage time that can be stopped 
with a Pause option. 

Also under the Settings menu are Con- 
straints, Coordinates, Message, Tools, 
and Construct items, all of which I've 
previously discussed. Symbols opens the 
symbols library from which the currently 
selected symbol was placed. Hatch lets 
you add hatching lines to any enclosed 
boundary; it also calculates areas and 
cross sections. Many of Settings' option 
windows can be left open for more conve- 
nient access. 

The Inquire menu contains Drawing, 
which shows all the level numbers and 
pen numbers used on a drawing, along 
with the total number of objects, sym- 
bols, and time used. Workfile displays 
the storage that all the objects and sym- 
bols use, the total number of different 
symbols, and the corresponding storage 
you have left; it also indicates total draw- 
ing time and the elapsed time since your 
last file operation. 

VersaCAD's workfile can contain 
6000 objects, 2000 symbol components, 
and 200 unique symbols. This should be 
adequate storage for most drawings, but 
if it isn't, the workfile storage space can 
be expanded by an experienced program- 
mer. Keyboard equivalents for almost all 
icons and menu options are present. 

Stackware Utilities 

Bill of Material is a HyperCard stack that 
counts all symbols used on a drawing. 
Descriptive data such as name, size, unit 
cost, unit weight, labor, and grade for 
each symbol in your library is entered in 
the Bill of Material stack. A Count func- 
tion automatically counts the symbols, 
and Create Report prepares a materials- 
list type of report that shows the totals of 
each symbol and all the descriptive 

You can edit any part of the report and 
save it as a text file for use in a word pro- 
cessor or spreadsheet, or you can convert 
it to VersaCAD format for use on the face 
of the drawing. 

Bill of Material also contains a utility 
for calculating the total length of lines 
and rectangles on the drawing. For ex- 
ample, in a plumbing drawing, if all 
drain pipes are represented by lines of 
the same color, or on a certain level or 
pen number, Bill of Material can auto- 
matically add the total length of these 

The FileDump stack provides a conve- 

nient way to examine and edit the con- 
tents of drawing and library files. The 
source code for getVcad and putVcad 
are provided. These script functions ex- 
tend HyperCard and let it read/write 
VersaCAD files; they also let you create 
customized VersaCAD HyperCard util- 
ities. Sample drawings and libraries are 
included in the VersaCAD and Bill of 
Materials tutorials. 

Drawing Conclusions 

The most serious of VersaCAD's few 
limitations is the lack of an auxiliary 
view system for creating drawings with 
views of different scales. For example, if 
you want a drawing with a quarter-scale 
main view and a half-scale section view, 
you have to either draw both views at 
their respective scales and plot full-size, 
or draw the main view at half size and the 
section view at full size and plot at half- 
scale, or draw the main view full-size 
and the section view twice-size and plot 
at quarter-scale. In any case, you have a 
model with one or more views that are 
not real-world size. Perhaps a better al- 
ternative in this example would be to 
keep the views in two different models 
and overplot them on the same paper at 
the different scales— but VersaCAD has 
no built-in provisions to do this. 

A vital feature of VersaCAD is its 
workfile. When you are working on a 
drawing, all work is done in a temporary 
workfile that VersaCAD automatically 
saves on disk. Thus, even if you are 
working on a new drawing that you have 
not saved, you will probably not lose all 
your work if a system error occurs, 
which I did occasionally experience. 

VersaCAD seems to have all the nec- 
essary tools and options that a draftsper- 
son needs to get the job done. However, I 
would not buy VersaCAD for an out-of- 
the-box Mac Plus or SE. Without a co- 
processor accelerator board in the sys- 
tem, VersaCAD's slowness is a limiting 
factor. For example, I constructed a 
model with about 100 objects. On a va- 
nilla Mac SE, a repaint of the model took 
well over a minute. On a Mac II, the 
same drawing took less than 3 seconds. 

VersaCAD Macintosh Edition is a 
full-featured drafting tool that is well 
suited for a broad range of applications. 
But if you're going to spend almost 
$2000 for the program, do yourself a 
favor and run it on a machine that won't 
make you long for your drafting board. ■ 

Paul Tuten of Wichita, Kansas, is a tool 
engineering contractor for the aircraft in- 
dustry and uses a CAD system daily. He 
can be reached on BIX as "editors. " 

198 BYTE* AUGUST 1988 

Can Your 
Do Any 
Of This For 




"Silk's improved graphics, fine 
use of Junction keys, interactive 
help, global search and replace, 
and easy-to -rearrange worksheet 
are reason enough to buy. . . 
At some point, you have to think 
about moving onward and upward 
(from Lotus). Silk gives you rea- 
son enough" - PC Magazine 


• TWice as fast as Lotus® with 8087/80287 
coprocessor installed 

• Keystroke logging prevents the loss of your 
worksheet sessions 

• Fast, productive forms processing — just fil 
the blanks 

• Allocation models — cut the pie any way you want 

• Excellent use of function keys 

• Global search and replace 

• Enhanced graphics 

• Easy-to-rearrange worksheets 

• Goal seeking, i.e. what price to charge to make 
X% profit? 

• Two foreign exchange formats 


Javelin" -type time series model 
in your conventional spreadsheet 

Live help 

83/12/87 83:89 PK 

HELP Messages 

filise Control Direct on Keys to Scroll 

The nessage line escribes the nature 
1986 Gross Margin Analysis of the problen in the cell at which 
==r- ======z===z==r======= the cell pointer s currently located; 

when you noue the cell pointer, the 
nessage will be updated to reflect the 
current pointer position. 
DataSTixe Jan/86 Feb/86 

Data does not pass validation criteria 

US $8,312.34 $11,816.88 

SI $7,369.34 $741.38 The entry at the current cell pointer 

==2======= ==r===-=z=: position does not pass the validation 

JSJIABGIN $943. B8 aiilfcWSWil fonwla that Has defined in the schena 
definition font for this data field. 

I Validation criteria for this field is: 

C12: (GROSS J1ARGIIMet>/B6,$2) [Ull] SALES-CMS! 

End of HELP Message *** 

3 Warnings 2 Errors 

English language 

validation criteria 


And That's JustThe Start Of Silk's * Exciting Features . . 

With all this — and more — going for Silk, Jim Gultinan of 
Cordata concludes "On a scale of 1 to 10 with Lotus being a 10, 
Silk is a 12." Soft Sector sums it up by saying "Silk is one of 
the most complete spreadsheet packages on the market today 

Yes, here's your spreadsheet wish list come true. At a price 
you dreamed of! 

Special Introductory Offer — New Version 1.1 
Is Just $69.95! 

In reviewing the original Silk spreadsheet, Seybold Outlook 
said "this is a lot of software for the money" Aid we say 
"with this special introductory offer, it's a lot less!" Enhanced 
Silk 1.1 is just $69.95 when you order directly from the pub- 
lisher, now through September 30, 1988. After that, it's still an 
exceptional value at $298.00 retail. 

Why not order right now? Aid see for your- 
self why Orange Bytes Magazine says "Try 
Silk, but be careful, you may find your copy 
of 1-2-3 collecting dust." 




Rush My Silk 1.1 Today! 







copies of Silk 1.1 @ $69.95 _ 

Add S10 per copy for 3.5" diskettes 

Add shipping & handling ($6.50 each 
for US. & Canada. $40.00 each all other 


Calif, residents add 6.5% sales tax 

Ibtal $ 

Payment Method 

□ Check or money order enclosed, made payable 

to Daybreak Technologies. ( Sorry; no CODs!) 
Charge my □ Visa □ M;ister Card 


Phone L 


MAIL TO: Silk 1.1 Introductory Offer, Dent. 36IE 
Daybreak Teehnologes, Inc.. BO. Box 5629. 
212151) Hawthorne Blvd. . Torrance, CA 90509 


„Expir. Date. 


Do not enclose cash. Offer valid through September 30. 1988. Please allow 4-6 weeks for delivery 



Charge to your credit card 
and call toll-free: 1-800-443-0100, ext. 361E 
Toll-free number is for credit card orders only For 
product information, call Customer Sendee at 
(213) 542-5888. 

System Requirements: IBM* PC or compatible with 
PC-DOS® or MS-DOS® 2.0 or higher, with 512KB mem- 
ory; hard disk recommended. 

Silk is a registered trademark of Daybreak Technologies, Inc. IBM and PC-DOS 
are registered trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation. Lotus 
and Lotus 1-2-3 are registered trademarks of Lotus Development Corporation. 
Microsoft and MS-DOS are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. 
Javelin is a registered trademark of lavelin Software Company 

Circle 72 on Reader Service Card (DEALERS: 73) 

Review Update 

Fine-Tuning the Benchmarks 

The June issue saw the introduction of 
BYTE's new system benchmarks. The 
August issue marks the first, and prob- 
ably not the last, revision. Version 1 . 1 of 
the low-level Small-C benchmarks in- 
corporates several changes, all in the 
Disk I/O tests. 

A bug fix for the DOS Seek 1- and 8- 
sector test came first. In the original test, 
checks for the end of disk failed because 
the test stored the sector variables in inte- 
ger format. We quickly ran into sector 
sizes too large for Small-C to deal with 
as integers. We fixed the problem by 
changing the integer format to character 

This fix uncovered an additional prob- 
lem with the 8-sector part of the test. Ba- 
sically, the 8-sector read was too sensi- 
tive to the effects of disk buffering. In 
version 1.1, we've enlarged the 8-sector 
read test to 32 sectors. 

Finally, we changed the method of re- 
cording the results for the File I/O test. 
We've switched from seconds per K byte 
to seconds per 64K bytes for reporting 
the disk throughput times. 

Apart from these changes, we've also 
made a couple of additional revisions. 
For the application-level benchmarks, 
we've dropped the Cursor Move test 
from the word-processing suite because 
of unreliable results. Second, we've 
switched from using an arithmetic mean 
to a geometric mean for calculating both 
the application-level and low-level 

In light of these changes, we've rerun 
all the benchmarks for Advanced Logic 
Research's FlexCache 20386, which we 
reviewed in June, as well as for our base- 
line systems. The revised disk results are 
shown in the table above. The changes in 
the application benchmarks give the 
FlexCache a cumulative application in- 
dex of 18.0. Application indexes for 
comparative systems are as follows: 18.0 
for the Compaq Deskpro 386/20, 11 for 
the IBM PS/2 Model 80, and 5 for the 8- 
MHz IBM PC AT. The review of three 
20-MHz 80386 systems on page 162 this 
month also reflects all these changes. 

In upcoming reviews of 80386 sys- 
tems, we'll be using a newly ported 32- 
bit version of the BYTE Small-C com- 

The results for the revised Disk I/O benchmarks still show that ALR 's 
FlexCache 20386 comes in slightly ahead of the Compaq Deskpro 386/20 
in disk performance. 



Model 80 

(8 MHz) 

DOS Seek 

1 -sector read 
32-sector read 





File I/O 


Read (sec/64 K bytes) 

Write (sec/64K bytes) 





Disk I/O Index 

(relative to PC AT) 





Note: All times are in seconds, except as noted 

piler for low-level benchmarks. For 
details on the 80386 version of the bench- 
marks, see the text box "80386 Bench- 
marks" by Rick Grehan on page 142 of 
this issue. 

One last note: The graphs for the sys- 
tem reviews in June— ALR' s FlexCache 
20386, NEC's MultiSpeed HD, and 

Deviance with Concurrent DOS 386 

Sometimes benchmark tests give you 
alarming results, and it's difficult to pin 
down the problem. That's just what hap- 
pened with my review of Digital Re- 
search's Concurrent DOS 386 in the July 

The BYTE Lab ran the single-task 
benchmark for Concurrent DOS 386 on 
several different systems and obtained 
essentially the same results (which were 
printed with the review)— that it per- 
formed about as well as MS-DOS. But 
the test results obtained using my own 
ARC 386i were quite different, at least at 
first. In fact, my preliminary findings 
showed a single task under Concurrent 
DOS 386 to be about 3 times slower than 
the same task running under MS-DOS. 

I initially ran the benchmark tests on 
my ARC 386i with 3 megabytes of 16-bit 
120-nanosecond memory on an Everex 
159 memory card installed "above" the 
512K bytes of 32-bit memory on the 

Hewlett-Packard's Vectra CS Model 
20— were labeled incorrectly. The appli- 
cation indexes, cumulative application 
indexes, and low-level indexes were cor- 
rect, but the keys for the graphs were 
labeled in reverse order. We apologize 
for the error. 

—Cathryn Baskin 

ARC's motherboard. With the 16-bit 
memory installed, Concurrent DOS 386 
barely puttered along, taking 40 seconds 
to perform one iteration of the bench- 
mark in one window, while the same task 
ran in only about 13.5 seconds under 

Because the test program was only 
about 5K bytes, I decided to try the test 
without the 16-bit memory board in- 
stalled. Admittedly, running even a 5K- 
byte program in only the 512K bytes of 
32-bit base memory makes for a tight 
squeeze since Concurrent DOS 386 is so 
large. And certainly, most real applica- 
tions cannot fit in so little memory. 
Nonetheless, without the 16-bit memory, 
performance improved noticeably. A 
single task actually ran faster than under 
DOS, taking 12.5 seconds to complete 
an iteration. 

The explanation for the anomaly is 
painfully obvious: Running tasks in 16- 
bit memory on an ARC 386i slows per- 
formance down dramatically. 

— Alex Lane 

200 BYTE • AUGUST 15 

acintosh Special Edition 

Inside MultiFinder 
Mac Networks Color QuickDraw 
HyperCard A/UX Short Takes 

dBASE Users— Attack 
the Mac with FoxBASE+/Mac 

New Frontiers, No Fears. 

FoxBASE + /Mac gives you the unprece- 
dented ability to run your dBASE pro- 
grams on the Macintosh immediately— 
without changing a single line of 
code! But there's much more. With 
FoxBASE+/Mac you can create 
beautiful, robust applications that 
are truly Mac- like— using the 
familiar dBASE language! 

Speed and Power. 

FoxBASE + /Mac gives you speed to 
burn — plus the power and performance 
you've come to expect from Fox. In fact, 
FoxBASE +/Mac is by far the fastest 
database system available on the Mac 
today— up to 200 times faster! 

View Window. 

The View Window is the master control 
panel for FoxBASE+ /Mac's graphical, 
non-programming interface. Use it to 
open and close files, set up indexes, 
establish relations, access BROWSE, and 
even to modify database structures! 


FoxBASE+ /Mac's BROWSE feature 
brings new convenience and power to 
database display and editing! You're in 
complete control — BROWSE lets you 
dynamically adjust the size and order of 
fields displayed, add or delete records, 
and split the window to show different 
database sections side-by-side. Together, 
BROWSE and View Windows eliminate 
the need to write programs for common 
database operations! 

Integrated Graphics. 

Copy and paste graphs, charts, diagrams 
and even pictures into your database — 
instantly! FoxBASE+/Mac gives you the 
power to display these graphics, or 
merge them into reports and documents! 

FoxBASE anil FoxBASE + are trademarks or Fox Software. 
dBASE and dBASE III PLCS are trademarks of Asliton-Tate. 
Macintosh is a trademark uf Mcintosh Laboratory, Inc, 
licensed to Apple Computer, Inc. 

You can create stunning screens like this with FoxBASE + /Mac —immediately! 

This actual FoxBASE + /Mac screen photo illustrates the View Window, 

Command Window, Integrated Graphics, Memo field editing, 

Trace and Debugging Facilities, and the BROWSE feature. 

Command Window. 

FoxBASE + /Mac's Command Window 
gives both experienced developers and 
novice user ultra-convenient access to 
the dBASE command language— just 
type a command into the Command 
Window, and it's executed! 

Get The FoxBASE +/Mac 
Facts Now! 

Call (419) 874-0162 Ext. 320 for more 
information about FoxBASE -fVMac. Or 
visit your local software retailer. 

Circle M26 on Reader Service Card 

FoxBASE+/Mac is part of the award-win- 
ning family of products from Fox Software. 
For two years in a row, FoxBASE + has been 
given the prestigious Editor's Choice award 
by PC Magazine, and scored an impressive 
9.2 out of a possible 10 when tested by 
InfoWorld's Review Board! 

Fox Software l 

Nothing Runs Like a Fox. 

Fox Software, Inc. (419) 874-0162 Ext. 320 

118 W. South Boundary FAX: (419) 874-8G78 
Perrysburg, OH 43551 Telex: 6503040827 



Macintosh Special Edition 

Editorial: Microcomputing's Vanguard by Fred Langa 


Short Takes 


Twelve Ail-Time Favorites by Ezra Shapiro 


Macintosh Redux by Bruce Webster 


Take a Walk on the Mac Side by Jerry Pournelle 


MultiFinder Revealed by Phil Goldman 


The Weil-Connected Mac by Janet J. Barron and Robert L. Mitchell 


HyperCard: What Is It? by Brian L. Dear 


HyperCard: How Does It Work? by Laurence H. Loeb 


Using Color QuickDraw on the Mac II by Jan Eugenides 


Unix and the Mac Interface by Rick Daley 


Editorial Index by Company 


BYTE (ISSN 0360-5280) is published momhly wiili an additional issue in Oc- 
tober by McGraw-Hill Inc. Founder: James H. McGraw(l860-l948). Execu- 
tive, editorial, circulation, and advertising offices: One Phoenix Mill Lane. 
Peterborough. NH 03458, phone (603) 924-9281. Office hours: Monday 
through Thursday 8:30 AM-4:30 PM, Friday 8:30 AM- 1:00 PM, Eastern 
Time. Address subscriptions to BYTE Subscriptions, P.O. Box 7643, Tea- 
neck, NJ 07666-9866. Postmaster: Send address changes, USPS Form 3579, 
undcliverable copies, and fulfillment questions to BYTE Subscriptions, P.O. 
Box 7643, Teaneck, NJ 07666-9866. Second-class postage paid at Peterbor- 
ough, NH 03458 and additional mailing offices. Postage paid ai Winnipeg, 
Manitoba. Registration number 9321, Subscriptions are S22.95 for one year. 
$39.95 for two years, and S55.95 for three years in the U.S. and its posses- 
sions. In Canada and Mexico, S25.95 for one year, $45.95 for two years, 
$64.95 for three years. $75 for one-year air delivery to Europe. Y28.800 for 
one-year air delivery to Japan, Y 14,400 for one-year surface delivery to Ja- 
pan, $40 surface delivery elsewhere. Air delivery to selected areas at addition- 
al rates upon request. Single copy price is $3.50 in the U.S. and its posses- 
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subscriptions and sales should be remitted in U.S. funds drawn on a U.S. 
bank. Please allow six to eight weeks for delivery of first issue. Printed in the 
United States of America. 

Address editorial correspondence to: Editor. BYTE, One Phoenix Mill 
Lane, Peterborough. NH 03458. Unacceptable manuscripts will be returned if 
accompanied by sufficient postage. Not responsible for lost manuscripts or 
photos. Opinions expressed by the authors are not necessarily those of BYTE. 

Copyright © 1988 by McGraw-Hill Inc. All rights reserved. Trademark 
registered in the United States Patent and Trademark Office. Where neces- 
sary, permission is granted by the copyright owner for libraries and others 
registered with the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) to photocopy any arti- 
cle herein for the flat fee of $1.50 per copy of the article or any part thereof. 
Correspondence and payment should be sent directly to the CCC, 29 Congress 
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Ann Arbor. MI 48106 or 18 Bedford Row, Dept. PR. London WCIR 4EJ, 

Subscription questions or problems should be addressed to: 
BYTE Subscriber Service, P.O. Box 7643. Teaneck, NJ 



COVER PHOTOGRAPHY: PAUL AVIS © 1988 1988 Mac Special Edition 'BYTE 1 


of the safest deci 

The business computing world 
has recently undergone some fairly 
radical changes. 

Consequently, so has the entire 
concept of "safety." 

Because, at present, only one 
computer offers all the promise for 
the future, and delivers on it today: 
the Macintosh* II personal computer. 

First,we met 
your standards. 

Serious business has some seri- 
ous standards, and Macintosh n is 
prepared to meet every one. 

Like breakneck speed. Full ex- 
pandability. Vast memory A choice 
of monitors. A wide range of sophis- 
ticated programs for every business 
use. And the capacity to store even 
the most intimidating mountain of 

Its own power aside, Macintosh 
n is also more than prepared to meet 
the standards of other machines. 
Whether they speak MS-DOS, UNIX* 
or assorted dialects of mainframese, 
from IBM to DEC. 

So it can work with files from 
—and run— MS-DOS programs like 
Lotus 1-2-3 and WordPerfect. 

Connections are perfecdy pain- 
less via the AppleTalk® network sys- 
tem, using a wide variety of cabling, 
including Ethernet? 

Then,we raised them. 

Of course, there's more to busi- 
ness than simply meeting standards. 
Which is why we've put such effort 
into exceeding them. 

Macintosh n is an entirely new 
generation of computer, building 
on the graphical interface pioneered 
by Macintosh. Its working at full 
strength today, with an operating 
system that exploits every bit of its 
astonishing power. 

The latest part of that system, 
MultiFinder™ adds multitasking cap- 
abilities. The result being, you can 
switch effortlessly between applica- 
tions or do a number of different 
things at the same time. 

This higher standard leads to 
a new world of possibilities. 

For example,you can now use 
advanced programs for Apple* Desk- 
top Publishing — the standard we 
created over two years back— right 
alongside your business programs. 
So it's much easier to integrate differ- 

ent efforts into a single document. 

In the Macintosh tradition, 
what you see on screen is exacdy 
what you can expect on paper. And 
every program worksvery much the 
same way, helping to cut training 
costs drastically 

It's a technology that can actu- 
ally raise the standard of how you 
get all your information. Because 
with Macintosh, all your computers 
(including mainframes) can be ac- 
cessed in the same intuitive way 

Butwhy read about itwhen you 
can be an eyewitness. See the whole 
family of Macintosh computers and 
LaserWriter "II printers at an author- 
ized Apple dealer. Call 800-446-3000, 
est 300, for a location nearby 

Then you'll understand why so 
many business people feel the same 
way about getting a Macintosh II: 

Better safe than sorry 

The power to be your best: 

© 1988 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple, the Apple logo, Macintosh, AppleTalk and LaserWriter are 
registered trademark of Microsoft Corp. UNIX is a registered trademark oj AT&T IBM is a 
2 BYTE • 1988 Mac Special Edition 

of, and MultiFinder and HyperCard are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. MS-DOS is a 
of IBM Corp. DEC is a registered trademark of Digital Equipment Corp. WordPerfect is a trademark 


sions in business 

• fectaioabB 

Multitasking. It's a fact, not a promise. Our 
MultiFinder lets you run multiple programs 

Compatibility. Digests data from — and 
even runs— MS-DOS programs. Works with 
minis and mainframes, too. 

Applications. New-generation programs 
for every business use. Not next year. Today. 

Display. Choose any size or shape, includ- 
ing color and large-screen. 

Graphical Interface. We pioneered the 
intuitive graphics-based operating system 
others are only now beginning to imitate. 

HyperCard." A revolutionary way to 
customize your office's information— using 
associations instead of commands. 

Expandability. With six slots, Macintosh II 
is open to just about anything. 

oj WordPerfect Corp. Lotus and 1-2-3 are trademarks of Lotus Development Corp. Ethernet is a registered trademark of Xerox Corp. NuBus is a trademark of Texas Instruments. Macintosh 11 comes with a CPU 
■'■-bisnt shown here) and a mouse •(which is). For the sake oj "custom wnfgurrtion,monitorandkeyboardarepurcbasedseparalefy.Asareyourdesk,d>air, trashy 

1988 Mac Special Edition • BYTE 3 


Fred Langa 


More and more, it's a 
Blue and Red world out 
there. BYTE readers 
have seen it coming for 

nuick! Name the only maga- 
zine whose coverage of the 
Macintosh II won an award 
for editorial excellence in an 
international competition that was spon- 
sored by the Society for Technical 

Need a hint? It's a large publication, 
routinely reaching over 147,000 Macin- 
tosh users, far more than publications 
like MacWeek, Macazine, Macintosh To- 
day, and the like. 

Another hint: In addition to being one 
of the world's largest magazines for Mac 
users, it's one of the very few that has 
been there from day one back in 1984; it 
has covered every Mac in detail, from the 
first fledgling machine through the 
world-class power of today's Mac II. 

Still stumped? Well, it's about the 
only magazine for Mac users that doesn't 
have a "Mac" in its title. 

You're holding it in your hands: 

BYTE's readers were among the earli- 
est and most enthusiastic adopters of the 
Macintosh. Year by year, as the Mac's 
power and expandability have grown— as 
it has finally delivered on that early 
bright promise— the installed base of 
Mac users among BYTE readers has 
climbed steadily. Today, over 35 percent 
of BYTE's 420,000 readers use Macs, 
and that number is still growing fast. 

What amazes me is that almost all 
BYTE's Mac users are also IBM PC 
users. These readers are truly the van- 

guard of microcomputing— prof icient on 
more than one type of machine and com- 
pletely comfortable in the increasingly 
common office environment where Macs 
and PCs sit cheek by jowl . Like all BYTE 
readers, these folks are a versatile, prag- 
matic group, not at all locked into a sin- 
gle mold, or constrained by arbitrary 
philosophical blinders. Faced with a 
given task, they'll use whatever hardware 
and software will get the job done well, 
religious debates about microcomputing 
purity be damned. They're the corporate 
gurus who can assist any user on any ma- 
chine anywhere in their organization. 

But you already know this: It's you 
I'm talking about. 

For some 4 years now, BYTE has 
covered the Mac as part of our "regular" 
coverage. No, that won't change. For ex- 
ample, the August issue of BYTE carries 
a full review of A/UX— Apple's interest- 
ing implementation of a "semigraphical" 
Unix for the Mac II. 

But from time to time we want to do 
more, to concatenate our coverage and 
focus attention on the Mac in a major 

The result is the Mac supplement 
you're now reading. If you use a Mac, 
you'll find plenty of useful information 
on Mac technology and applications in 
BYTE's best tradition— information that 
no Mac-specific magazine gives you. 

If you're not currently a Mac user, 
you'll find a rich vein of interesting, 
perspective-building information that 

can broaden your microcomputing hori- 
zons and help prepare for the day when— 
count on it — you're called upon for ad- 
vice in a Macintosh matter. 

For example, "MultiFinder Re- 
vealed" isn't just a glossy list of features 
or a simplistic user's guide to Multi- 
Finder. Instead, Apple's Phil Gold- 
man—one of MultiFinder's creators- 
provides a true insider's look at how the 
Mac's multitasker works. 

Another Apple employee, Rick Daley, 
explains some of the design decisions un- 
derlying A/UX, and he offers insights 
that can help make your use of or pro- 
gramming for A/UX more effective. 

A very meaty piece on networking the 
Mac will fill you in on Mac-to-Mac, 
Mac-to-PC, Mac-to-VAX, and other 
connectivity options to allow the Mac to 
peacefully coexist with other hardware 
in almost any setting. 

Two articles on HyperCard explain its 
strengths and weaknesses (as one author 
points out, there are times, after all, 
when a word is worth a thousand pic- 
tures). They go on to show you how to 
build practical, workable stacks, and 
point to some of the best sources for ob- 
taining user-written stackware. 

Jerry Pournelle, Ezra Shapiro, and 
Bruce Webster all offer their own unique 
perspectives on how far the Mac has 
come, where it's going, and what it's like 
to make the switch from the DOS world 
to that of the Mac. 

A hands-on article on Color Quick- 
Draw shows you how to make use of the 
Mac II's color capabilities. 

And (of course) lots more. 

We're pleased to bring you this high- 
quality bonus reading, and we welcome 
your feedback by mail (Write to: Editor, 
One Phoenix Mill Lane, Peterborough, 
NH 03458), by BIX, by MCI Mail, or by 


—Fred Langa 

Editor in Chief 

(BIX name "f langa") 

4 BYTE • 1988 Mac Special Edition 

Borland's new 
Turbo Pascal Family 
makes programming 
fast and easy 

Turbo Pascal 8 code com- 
piles and runs at better 
than a sizzling 12,000 
lines per minute. Its clear, 
logical design makes, it easy 
to learn and use. 

Turbo Pascal is truly 
compatible with Inside 
Macintosh, which means 
that you're on familiar 
ground— that's why so many 
Mac users have made it 
their standard. Best of all, 
it's only $99.95! 

The Turbo Pascal Tutor 
is just for you! 

A companion to Turbo 
Pascal, Turbo Pascal Tutor 
quickly teaches you how to 
program your Mac in Pas- 
cal! This interactive tutorial 
on disk and 700-page man- 
ual really show you how— 
from the basics to advanced 
programming on the Mac— 
in Turbo Pascal, MPW Pas- 
cal or any version of the lan- 
guage you're using. 

You get . . . 

o A concise history of Pascal 
and step-by-step concepts for 
the beginning programmer. 

□ A Programmer's Guide taking 
you through all the specifics 
you'll need from Pascal pro- 
gram structure to data types, 
records and files. 

o An advanced programming 
section covering linked lists, 
stacks, sorting and searching 
algorithms and more. 

d A full guide to using the 
power of the Macintosh in 
Pascal, from use of the visual 
interface to memory manage- 
ment and debugging. 

□ Source code on disk you can 
use in your own programs 
without paying royalties. 

Only $69.95! 


Turbo Pascal Numerical 
Methods Tbolbox" 

Numerical analysis at 
your fingertips! This complete 
collection of state-of-the-art 
routines and programs solves 
all the most common prob- 
lems in science and engineer- 
ing. And you're free to 
include the source code in 
your own programs. Includes: 

□ Solutions to equations 
a Interpolations 

□ Matrix operations: inversions, 
determinants and eigenvalues 

a Differential equations 

□ Least squares approximations 

□ Fourier transforms 

Only $99.95! 


Turbo Pascal Database 

Provides you with the 
search and sort routines you 
need for your Pascal data- 
base applications. 

o Turbo Access locates, inserts 
or deletes records using B+ 
trees, and does it fast. 

□ Turbo Sort uses the Quick- 
sort method to sort data on 
single items or multiple 

Q You get source code on disk 
and a free sample database 
using the Mac interface that 
you can tailor to your spe- 
cific needs. 

Only $99.95! 

it Turbo Pascal is fast: 
12,000 lines of good, 
compiled Pascal code in 
60 seconds. 

Howard Kali, MACUSER 33 

All producls require a Macintosh with al leasl 51 2K. 

All Borland producls are trademarks or registered tradmarks of Borland 
Inlemalional, Inc. or Borland/Anaiytica, Inc. Other brand and producl 
names are trademarks or registered trademarks ol their respeclive 
holders Copyright ©1987 Borland International BI-1127B 



For the dealer nearest you 
or to order by phone 

Call (800) 543-7543 

Circle M9 on Reader Service Card (DEALERS: M10) 


Hav,. foil .4.HI.'. I II. 


When The Price Counts 
As Much As The Performance 

A picture is worth a thousand words. But should it cost you 
thousands of dollars to scan one into your Macintosh™ 
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VisionScan is easy to use. Our unique flat bed design will 
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the other lower priced scanner. In fact, VisionScan software 
operates as a desk accessory and will allow you to continue 
using the computer while scanning. VisionScan is shipped 
complete with all of the hardware, software and connecting 
cables needed to allow your Macintosh to begin scanning 
immediately. And it works in the ambient light found in 
most office environments. 


VisionScan is the perfect companion to your desktop 
publishing program. Included with every VisionScan is 
DeskPaint™, the graphics editor desk accessory. DeskPaint 
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For an additional $200.00 a specially developed version of 
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Call us! Mike and Lisa are ready to ship your VisionScan 


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IN MINNESOTA 612-633-3255 

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Circle M51 on Reader Service Card 

> Copyright Warp Nine Engineering, Inc. 

VisionScan is a trademark of Warp Nine Engineering, Inc. Macintosh and ImageWriter are trademarks of Apple Computer Company. 

DeskPaint is a trademark of Zedcor, Incorporated. Pagemaker and Freehand are trademarks of Aldus Corporation. 

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Read-It! is a trademark of OLDUVAI Corporation. Illustrator is a trademark of Adobe. 


BYTE editors offer hands-on views of new products 



PageMaker 3.0 


Gofer for the Mac 

The SuperMac Spectrum/24 Video Board 

I f you try to use a Macintosh 

II with a standard video 
board to do image processing, 
you'll soon discover that hav- 
ing only 256 colors available 
for a digitized picture is pretty 
limiting. No longer: Not only 
does SuperMac Technology's 
Spectrum/24 video board 
provide you with a 1024- by 
768-pixel display on a 19-inch 
monitor, but each pixel can 
have 24 bits of color informa- 
tion. Put another way, while 
standard video boards use 1 
byte per pixel for color infor- 
mation and give you a choice of 
only 256 colors out of a palette 
of 16,777,216 colors, the 
Spectrum/24 uses 3 bytes per 
pixel in a "chunky-planar" 
color format that lets you use 
the entire color palette. The 
Spectrum/24 also supports 
Apple's 13-inch AppleColor 
RGB monitor. Because Apple 
has recently announced 32-bit 
indexed and "chunky" direct 
color formats that are incompat- 
ible with the Spectrum/24 's 
color format, it's sold only to 
developers. When Apple issues 
its system using the new color 
formats, SuperMac plans to re- 
lease an INIT that will patch 
QuickDraw to properly drive 
the Spectrum/24. 

The Spectrum/24 comes 
with an adapter cable and a 
3^-inch floppy disk. The 
adapter cable matches the 
video board's DB-25 connec- 

tor to the DB-15 connector of 
either a 19-inch SuperMac 
Color Trinitron monitor cable 
or an AppleColor RGB moni- 
tor cable. On the disk, a Moni- 
tors CDEV file lets you set 
the display's depth (1, 2, 4, 8, 
or 24 bits) and size (640 by 480 
pixels, 1024 by 768 pixels, or 
in the 1-bit mode [4096 by 
1536 pixels]) from the Control 
Panel. The SMT- Images appli- 
cation displays 24-bit color 
images. Several digitized 
images are on the disk for use 
with SMT-Iraages and show off 
the board's capabilities. The 
source code for SMT is in- 
cluded, so a developer can 
write applications to use the 
board's color capabilities. 

Board installation is quick 
and easy: You simply turn off 
the Mac II, pop the hood, and 
plug the Spectrum/24 into a 
NuBus slot. Then close the 
hood, connect the cables, 
switch on the power, and drag 
the software files from the 
floppy disk to the hard disk, 


Spectrum/24 video board 

Macintosh II with 2 
megabytes of RAM and 
color monitor 

making sure to place Super- 
Mac's Monitors CDEV into 
the System Folder to replace 
Apple's Monitors file. 

In the 1-bit color (black- 
and-white) mode, you can 
configure the Spectrum/24 
for a 4096- by 1536-pixel 
display, which comfortably 
holds a MacDraw document 
that's two pages tall and seven 
pages wide. Hardware pan- 
ning, where the image auto- 
matically scrolls vertically or 
horizontally when the mouse 
pointer reaches the screen 
edge, is supported for this ex- 
tended display. This panning 
feature worked smoothly. 

If you find 8-bit color 
images breathtaking, 24-bit 
color images will knock you 
out. In this mode, digitized 
pictures retain their photo- 
graphic quality. There is no 
granularity to the image: You 
cannot see any fringing or 
"boundaries" in areas of 
subtle color changes at all. On 
the down side, you'll need 

SuperMac Technology 
295 North Bernardo Ave. 
Mountain View, CA 94043 
(415) 962-2900 
Inquiry M141. 

more memory: a minimum of 
2 megabytes of RAM is re- 
quired, and you'll do lots bet- 
ter with 5 megabytes or more. 
Screen updates are noticeably 
slower, if not downright se- 
date, but that's because there 
is 3 times as much color infor- 
mation to manage. However, 
you can set the display to the 
usual 8-bit color mode and 
work as before and use the 24- 
bit color mode only when your 
work requires it. Finally, 24- 
bit color image files are a lot 
larger than their 8-bit color 
counterparts: A typical 24-bit 
color file often fills an entire 
800K-byte floppy disk. Plan 
to budget for a large hard disk 
along with the extra memory . 
Although the Spectrum/24 
demands more memory and 
limits display performance, 
the results are well worth it. 
The ability to use a virtually 
unlimited choice of colors 
with this board makes the Mac 
II a serious image-processing 

—Tom Thompson 


Sound, Put It in 

MacRecorder is one of 
those great products that 
lets you be constructive and 
also have some fun. It's a 
hardware/software combina- 
tion for inputting sounds into a 
Macintosh and then manipu- 
lating them with a sound-edit- 
ing program. The package 
comes with a small recording 
device, the MacRecorder it- 
self, and the editing/enhanc- 
ing software, called Sound- 
Edit. And if that's not enough 
to justify paying out $199, 
Farallon has tossed in the 
neatest HyperCard applica- 

1988 Mac Special Edition -BYTE 7 

Circle M29 on Reader Service Card 

Save Big Bucks On 
Mac Hardware 



1 Megabyte CMOS SIMMs . Cull.' 
68020 Accelerator Boards . Call! 
Hardware House 

Internal 3 1/2" Drives for SE/I1: 
MAX 30 (30mb Seagate, 33ms) ...$477 
MAX 40 CiOmh Quantum. 12ms) ..647 
MAX 80 (80mb Quantum, 12ms) ..977 


30 MB "MacStack" $589 

60 MB "MacStack" 777 

60 MB Tape Backup 697 

Call for other CMS products: 
Prices too low to print! 

Microtech Inl'l (5-Year Warranty) 

Nova 20 MB External S597 

Nova 30 MB External 697 

Nova 50 MB External 997 

Nova 80 MB External 1397 


Mac-Bottom 21 MB SCSI ....$747 

MacBottom 32 MB SCSI 847 

Mac-Bottom 45 MB SCSI .... 1147 
Internal 1200 baud modems available 


Dataframe XP30 (w/Cabld ...S849 
Datai'rame XP60 (w/Cabte) ... 1197 
Dataframe XP150 Internal . 2097 

Classic II 

13" Mac II Color Monitor ..$399 


Viking 1 <i9"sr./ii> $1549 


Full Page Display CMacPlus) $1449 

Full Page Display (SE/TO 1549 


13" Multiscan color $677 

Sigma Designs 

Laserview 19" CSBTO $1695 


Mac SE 30mb System: 

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Mac II w/keyboarcl 3099 

LaserWriter II SC 2249 

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MC/VISA, You will not be charged until shipped. Prices subject to change without notice. 


If you are serious about your FORTRAN on the 
Macintosh, you should be using DCM's 

MACTRAN PLUS is a fully integrated 
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a native code optimising Compiler with the option 

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■ an on-line Symbolic, Source Level Debugger 

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simplified interface and full access to Mac Toolbox 
* full ANSI 77 standard with extensions from VAX and 

ANSI 8X for easy porting of mini and mainframe 

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Any Mac with at least 
512K bytes of memory; 
Farallon recommmends 
at least 1 megabyte and two 
800K-byte floppy disk 
drives for working with 
SoundEdit; HyperSound 
requires at least 1 
megabyte of memory, at 

tion yet— a program for put- 
ting recorded sounds into 
HyperCard stacks. 

The MacRecorder digi- 
tizer, about the size of a big 
mouse, has a built-in micro- 
phone, microphone-in and 
line-in jacks, and a volume 
knob. It plugs into either the 
modem or the printer port. If 
you've got an older Mac with 
DB-9 ports , you'll first have to 
find an adapter cable; the digi- 
tizer connector has an 8-pin 
male plug. You can record 
sound live or from an audio 
system. With two MacRe- 
corders, you can record two 
channels simultaneously. The 
built-in microphone isn't bad; 
I recorded live sounds and 
taped music with it, and the re- 
sults were free of distortion. 

The device samples sound 
at 22 kHz, but if you want to 
save space, you can set it as low 
as 5 kHz (where you can store 
as much as 3 minutes in a 
megabyte of RAM or disk 

least 128K bytes of ROM, a 
hard disk drive, and 
HyperCard; users of older 
Macs will need a cable 
with male DB-9 and female 
DIN-8 connectors. 

Farallon Computing 
Berkeley, CA 94704 
(415) 849-2331 
Inquiry M142. 

space; at 22 kHz, the maxi- 
mum is 45 seconds). When 
each second at 22 kHz takes up 
22K bytes of memory, you 
have to decide between sound 
quality and storage. Farallon 
says MacRecorder will "accu- 
rately" record frequencies of 
up to 10 kHz. 

After you've gotten the 
sounds into the Mac, you can 
work with them using Sound- 
Edit. The program displays a 
window of waveforms; below 
it are the function icons (e.g. , 
record, playback, and input 
level) and indicators (e.g., a 
box that shows the length of a 
waveform). You work with the 
waveform as you would a piece 
of text: selecting, editing, cut- 
ting and pasting, and changing 
characteristics. Sound strings 
can be stored in formats for 
other applications, such as 
Studio/Jam Session, Sound- 
Cap, and VideoWorks. 

The powerful editor has a 

8 BYTE • 1988 Mac Special Edition Circle M20 on Reader Service Card 

Affordable CADD. And it's 
only the beginning. 

The CADD stands for Com- 
puter Aided Design and Draft- 
ing. With a suggested retail 
price of just $99.95, Generic 
CADD Level 1 makes the power 
of real CADD affordable. And 
it's just part of a family of 
Generic CADD products that 
will make you more productive 
than ever before. 

Standard Mat interface for 
ease of use. 

Now you can produce accu- 
rate drawings with real world 
scale on the Mac Plus, Mac SE, 
or Mac II. You can edit multiple 
drawings in separate windows 
and cut and paste between 
them. CADD Level 1 is also 
multifinder compatible. 

Symbol Libraries boost 

From office furniture to spe- 
cialized electronics symbols, 
our Symbol Libraries save you 
the time of redrawing repeti- 
tive elements every time you 
need them. 

Add the power of real CADD 
to your Mac. 

Move your Macintosh draw- 
ings into the real world. Call us 
at 1-800-228-3601 for your free 
CADDalog or the name of your 
Generic dealer. And find out 
why we say the only thing 
generic about us is the price. 

© 1988 Generic Software, Inc. Generic CADD Level 1 
is not copy protected and comes with a 60-day money 
back guarantee. Registered users get free technical 
support from Generic. 

Level l,and Generic CADD ure trademarks of Generic 
Software, Inc. Macintosh is a trademark of the Apple 
Computer Corp. 

1 191 1 North Creek Parkway South, Bolhell, WA 9801 1 

Circle M27 on Reader Service Card 



Circle M53 on Reader Service Card 


• * 

Specialists ~With A 
Respected Family Tree! 

White Pine Software offers a complete family of products 
for total two-way Macintosh™ /VAX™ communication: 
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Mac240, VMacs, and Reggie are trademarks of While Pine Software, Inc., DEC, VT, VAX, are 
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Mac STUFF!! 

uue Buy , Sell & Horset rade 
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2421 Malcolm St. 
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Fax 318-865-2006 

good box of special effects 
that let you do all kinds of 
things to the sounds you've re- 
corded, including adding re- 
verb, changing pitch and vol- 
ume, filtering, and flanging. 
The program can also gener- 
ate frequency-modulated sig- 
nals and tones. 

One of my favorite effects 
turns recordings backward; 
we could have used something 
like this 20 years ago to run 
Beatles songs backward and 
find out if Paul was really 
dead, without ruining our 
record players. 

SoundEdit also has a mixer 
that lets you work with input 
from four different channels. I 
don't know if professional stu- 
dio engineers would use this 
program (and I'm sure Faral- 
lon doesn't expect them to), 
but you could use it at home to 
do some interesting things 
with music tracks. 

HyperSound is where you 
can get really constructive 
with this package. It' s an inno- 
vative program for recording 
mono sounds and then pain- 
lessly copying them into 
HyperCard stacks, from 
which you can play them back. 
The possibilities for develop- 
ers working on music instruc- 
tion or history stacks, for just 
one sample application, are in- 
triguing. And it really works. 

Getting graphics into Hyper- 

Card is simple; Farallon has 
made getting sound into it just 
as easy. You just record the 
sound or music or voice using 
MacRecorder and then copy it 
to the stack that you want it in; 
you don't have to do any 
HyperTalking. Due to Hyper- 
Card limitations, output has to 
be in mono. 

HyperSound' s interface 
looks like a cassette tape deck; 
you don't have to be a record- 
ing engineer to figure this 
thing out. The accompanying 
manual has a good section on 
sound and recording, explain- 
ing things like waveforms and 
frequencies, samples and 
cycles, and envelopes and 

This is one of the best Mac 
packages out there because 
it's innovative and inexpen- 
sive; it lets you work with 
sound and play with sound. 
For people developing stack- 
ware, it's a low-cost way to 
add sounds to stacks, which 
is no little feat. My one com- 
plaint is that I wish Farallon 
would sell a version that 
comes with the adapter (male 
DB-9 and female DIN-8 con- 
nectors) needed to hook 
MacRecorder to older Macs. 
Finding such a cable is not 
easy in some parts of the 
world, like New Hampshire, 
for example. 

— D. Barker 

Aldus Makes a Fine Program 
Even Finer: PageMaker 3.0 


Having done time in a 
newspaper production 
room, I'm partial to the paste- 
up approach to page makeup. 
You know: Take the typeset 
galley, run it through the hot 
wax, slap it down on the 
gridded layout sheet, and hack 
at it with an X-acto knife until 
it fits the design (or at least 
seems to fit). I took an instant 
liking to Aldus 's PageMaker 
because it uses the paste-up 
metaphor, an intuitive ap- 
proach that makes sense to 
me, and it means no more 
cranky typesetters, hot wax- 

ers, and deadly knives. 

But I had enough problems 
with the first version of the 
program to make me start 
shopping around for another 
desktop publishing package. 
The 1985 edition of Page- 
Maker sometimes just did 
weird things. Text wouldn't 
flow properly into the col- 
umns, chunks of type would 
disappear, and sometimes the 
program just wouldn't do what 
it was supposed to do. These 
inexplicable problems didn't 
occur consistently, which 

10 BYTE • 1988 Mac Special Edition Circle M45 on Reader Service Card 

Mac II/PC Workstation 

Recapture Valuable 
Desk Space! 

Everyone who needs the power of a 
Personal Computer or Mainframe also 
needs the space that the Monitor and 
Processor occupy. With no desk space 
to organize work and lay out projects, 
the computer's effectiveness is limited. 
The Mac II/PC Workstation by Ergotron 
takes a totally new approach to work- 
station ergonomics. It provides a unique 
arm suspension system and shelf area 
giving the operator the ultimate in ad- 
justability and space savings. 

The Radial Arm raises the monitor off 
the desk and an adjustable Shelf takes 
the Processor out of the way, but still 
within reach of the operator. 

The list of features includes: 

• A sturdy tubular frame that is 
positioned on the side of or 
behind your desk or work area. 

• 6" vertical Monitor adjustment 
with the simple touch of a hand. 

• 20" horizontal Radial Arm 
adjustment - the monitor can be 
pushed into a "park" position. 

• The Mechanism on the end of 
the Radial Arm provides 
unequalled 360° rotational and 
20° tilt adjustment for the CRT. 

• Adjustable Processor shelf. 

• Compatible with Macintosh, PC's 
& compatibles, Mainframes, and 
other CRT's and graphics systems 
that have monitors weighing up to 
65 lbs. 

• Ideal for Businessmen, Engineers, 
Graphics Designers, & Desktop 

For more information, contact Ergotron 
or your local Computer Dealer. 

e=R<3o i Hon 

3450 Yankee Drive, Suite 100 
Eagan, MN 55121 
612/452-8135 • 800/888-8458 


Circle M25 on Reader Service Card 

1988 Mac Special Edition 'BYTE 11 

Circle M50 on Reader Service Card 

Make Your Mac Into a 
Forecasting Wizard! 


Time Series/Econometrics 

RATS is your key to an integrated environment for analy- 
sis, forecasting and graphics with time series data. Gen- 
erate forecasts using Box -Jenkins (ARIMA), exponential 
smoothing, large model simulations, and others. Use the 
wide variety of regression procedures to analyze your 
data. Almost unlimited power is yours for only $300!! 
Call or write for more information today! 


Seasonal Adjustment 

With EZ-X11 and your Mac, seasonal adjustment has 
never been easier. It handles both quarterly and monthly 
adjustments, and includes trading day and holiday op- 
tions. You can adjust series singly or set up EZ-X11 to 
adjust hundreds at a time. The full Mac interface makes 
XI 1 comprehensible. At $150.00, it's a program you 
must have. (Works with or without RATS). 


VAR Econometrics 

P.O.Box 1818 
Evanston, IL 60204-1818 

(800) 822-8038 


Pack your Mac in seconds 

Padded Cordura case holds either Macintosh Plus or 
SE. Padded interior compartments protect and 
organize your Mac's keyboard, mouse and external 
drive. It's easy to carry with leather handle grip and 
adjustable non-slip shoulder strap. 
Six colors: Black, Burgundy, Charcoal, Navy, 

Royal and Platinum 
New version also holds extended keyboard. 

For a dealer near you call toll free 


West Ridge Designs 

1236 N.W. Flanders • Portland, OR 97209 


PageMaker 3.0 
$595 ($75 upgrade for 
registered owners of 2.0) 

Macintosh Plus, SE, or II 
with a hard disk drive; 
System 4. 1 and Finder 
5.5 or higher 

made them even more f rustrat- 
ing. But the fact that they 
weren't consistent makes me 
wonder if some Mac weird- 
ness was to blame. (I've seen 
Mac users with EE degrees 
shrug and say, "Well, the Mac 
just does screwy things some- 
times. ") I came close to being 
unemployed once when a long 
document was delayed be- 
cause of my problems with 

Aldus fixed all that with 
version 2.0. I've pushed that 
program hard and not run into 
any snags. With PageMaker 
3.0 for the Mac, PageMaker 
got even better. 

The biggest change to 3 .0 is 
a feature Aldus calls "auto- 
flow." In the older editions, 
you have to place text on the 
page column by column. You 
click the mouse, and the text 
pours onto the page, stopping 
when it gets to the bottom of 
the first column. You then 
click on a little thing that looks 
like a window-shade handle to 
get the rest of the text, move to 
the next column, and pour in 
some more text. You keep 
doing this clicking and load- 

Aldus Corp. 
411 First Ave. S 
Seattle, WA 98104 
(206) 622-5500 
Inquiry M143. 

ing/clicking and pouring, col- 
umn after column, until the 
whole story is on the page. 

Well, with autoflow, you 
have to click only to get the text 
pouring out; the program will 
then snake it into subsequent 
columns and not stop until the 
whole threaded file is down on 
the page. This automatic flow- 
ing of text doesn't work with 
complicated or fancy lay- 
outs—for that, you have to use 
the old manual approach or the 
new semiautomatic ap- 
proach—but it works swell 
with basic pages. This might 
not sound like a big deal, but if 
you're working on a long 
document that involves laying 
down lots of files on multi- 
column pages, autoflow can 
save you hours. 

If you need to wrap text 
around graphics, the semi- 
automatic text-flow mode is 
adequately fast and easy to 
use. In general, PageMaker is 
now considerably better at 
placing text in unusual ways 
and gives a designer more 
flexibility in laying out a page. 

Aldus has also added publi- 

12 BYTE • 1988 Mac Special Edition Circle M52 on Reader Service Card 






Developing scientific experiments takes creativity. 
Writing code to run them takes sweat. At least it used to. 
But no longer. Because we've just solved the scientific 
and engineering programming problem. 


| haxg ; j I }m cq" i , yj Transfer Function H<l) 

htlHHll Ws.} 


- 2 00— 


. • '- " ■. 



- J 

1 2 3 f 

-«ri»o» "i>i> S ' 


Picture the perfect programming language. 

Imagine software where diagrams are really executable 

Imagine running experiments and simulations through 
front panels that look and act just like instruments. On 

Imagine reusable software modules that can control 
your instruments, in any application. Programs for data 
acquisition, data reduction, signal processing, analysis, 
conversion, and display. 

Imagine a programming environment so powerful that 
productivity is measured in hours instead of days. 

The Macintosh made it possible . Lab VIEW made it 
happen. Automated testing, measurement, and simula- 
tion has never been easier or faster. 

Call for details. 800/531-4742. 





Circle M38 on Reader Service Card 


Austin. TX 78727 
800/531-4742 512/250-9119 

1988 Mac Special Edition • BYTE 13 

Computers For 
The Blind 

Talking computers give blind and visually 
impaired people access to electronic infor- 
mation. The question is how and how 

The answers can be found in "The Second 
Beginner's Guide to Personal Computers for 
the Blind and Visually Impaired" published 
by the National Braille Press. This compre- 
hensive book contains a Buyer's Guide to 
talking microcomputers and large print dis- 
play processors. More importantly it in- 
cludes reviews, written by blind users, of 
software that works with speech. 

Send orders to: 

National Braille Press Inc., 

88 St. Stephen Street, Boston, MA 02115 

(617) 266-6160 

NBP is a nonprofit braille printing and publishing house. 

Equations Made Easy 

Expressionist™ 2.0 

-*■ Thp Pprcnn^l Mat hcma. iral Knnallnn Editor 


The Personal Mathematical EquaLion Editor 

2 -Way TeX 

enample doc I 

— s r iw i na TTT LE g ansmis si fl i i eng m aen TB t a t ngn r wara- — 
propogatiitg" waves, 7^ . has the following asymptotic 
form for long wavelengths: 


g B 

no transmission 1 
in limit ^r-»0;i 

T-<2rW (2M *>"' 

r analysis for waves that impinge on 
black hole from outside ("leftward- 

IQtPaqe 1 

Paste into any Word Processor 
or Page Layout document as 
PICT or text format. 

All mathematical symbols available from an 
editable palette. 

Expressionist 2.0 is a powerful application and desk ac- 
cessory that enables mathematical equations to be quickly 
and easily placed into your word processor or page layout 
documents. If you use equations, and you have a Macin- 
tosh, you will find Expressionist very useful. All you do is 
create, copy, paste, and get results like this: 

, a,,...fl 

sin (x) - 







Send SI 29.95 to: 

allan bonadio associates 

814 Castro Street #54 

San Francisco, CA 941 14-2809 


=A i 


. I r, r„ 

"An excellent toolkit that all 
technical people should have...' 

- Jean Louis Gassee, Apple Computer Inc. 

cation templates to Page- 
Maker. These are predefined 
layouts for different kinds of 
documents, such as a newslet- 
ter, a brochure, a business re- 
port, or a product spec sheet. 
Chic designers wouldn't dare 
use such things, but if you're 
in a hurry to produce a docu- 
ment that looks clean and 
readable, these templates are 
useful . You just delete the text 
that's on the prefashioned 
pages and dump in your own 
from your word-processing 
package. Minor adjustments 
depend on how fussy you are, 
and you can make major ad- 
justments to these templates if 
you're so inclined. 

I can't do justice to Page- 
Maker's capabilities and fea- 
tures in this space. I've got 
enough room to say that 3 . is a 

better package and is worth 
every penny of the $75 up- 
grade from2.0. I've yet to find 
a bug. The manuals are some 
of the best I've read; Aldus 
does a fine job explaining how 
to use what could be a very 
complicated program. If you 
don't like reading manuals, 
you can work your way 
through this program just by 
jumping into it. But I wouldn't 
recommend that. 

Although I've got a list of 
things I'd love to see incorpo- 
rated in the next version, my 
only complaint with 3 . is that 
it requires a hard disk drive, 
which means another expense 
for some users and (here 
comes the bottom line) means 
I can't run it on my Mac at 

— D. Barker 

Push-Button Programming 
for HyperCard 

While you can use Hyper- 
Card without doing any 
programming, the HyperTalk 
scripting language allows you 
to customize HyperCard but- 
tons, cards, and fields. Unfor- 
tunately, Apple's HyperCard 
user manual provides little in- 
formation on how to use Hy- 
perTalk. So, to learn it, you 
must turn to other sources. 
One is scriptExpert, written 
by Dan Shafer and distributed 
by Hyperpress Publishing. 

The scriptExpert program 
is a push-button code genera- 
tor for HyperTalk. You can 



Requirements: Macintosh 
Plus, SE, or II with 1 
megabyte of memory and 

Hyperpress Publishing 
P.O. Box 8243 
Foster City, CA 94404 
(415) 345-4620 
Inquiry M144. 

write HyperTalk scripts by 
simply selecting commands 
and messages that are dis- 
played on the screen in the 
form of buttons. As you select 
commands, scriptExpert 
prompts you for appropriate 
messages, arguments, and 
loop constructs. For example, 
say you want to add a button to 
a card that beeps and displays a 
message. From the script- 
Expert command screen, you 
select the Beep command and 
enter the number of beeps you 
want. Then you select the 
Answer command and enter 
the message and user re- 
sponses desired. As you enter 
correct HyperTalk com- 
mands, the resulting script ap- 
pears in a window in the right 
corner of the screen. An on- 
line help library is included 
that provides help and exam- 
ples for any HyperTalk com- 
mand. You can also zoom into 
the script window for full- 
screen editing of your script. 
After saving your script, you 
can return to the appropriate 
stack and paste the script into a 


14 BYTE • 1988 Mac Special Edition Circle M3 on Reader Service Card 




It's about time. 

New features 
make Tempo II 
smarter, easier, 

Smart controls. Menu, dialog 
box, check box and window actions re- 
play as intended, even when conditions 

Play macros by name. It's your 
choice-play a macro by its key code or 
by typing its name in a popup dialog 
box. And, specify how many times to 
repeat the macro when you play it! 

Autopaste. Turn any selected text 
or graphics into a macro, to insert para- 
graphs, artwork, etc., with a keystroke. 

Universal macros. Macros you 
record in one program can play in all 

Popup menu. The Tempo II menu 
is always available, even when other 
menus cannot be selected. 

Plus features from 
Tempo 1.2... 

Pause for a given time, until a preset 
time, or for user entry. Include your 
own dialog box to guide a new user. 

Link macros together, either directly 
or conditionally, based on any text that 
may be copied via the Clipboard. Nest 
macros, too, virtually without limits. 

Repeat for any number of times, or 
repeat if or until a condition is met. 

Real Time— replay cursor move- 
ments and delays exactly as you record- 
ed them. 

Tempo 1.2 owners-Upgrade to Tempo II 
for only $49! Call us, or send check or 
credit card order today! 

For Macintosh Plus, SE and Mac II. Great 
with MultiFinder, works wonders with win- 
dows on large or multiple screens, ideal for 
hard-driven Macs (and their masters). 

©I988 Affinity Microsyslems, Lid. All rights reserved. 

Save time... 

"I couldn't use my 
Macintosh with- 
out Tempo." 

— V.P., Food Processing Industry 
Commerce, California 

Save effort. .. 

"Has made my 
medical reports a 
joy to compile!" 

—Consultant Obstetrician 

Save money... 

"Tempo saves us 
30 payroll hours 
a week." . - CPA 

San Francisco 

The next step in Macintosh automation. 

Simply record your actions for instant replay 

Tempo II watches and records while 
you work, then goes to work for you. 
In any program. Instantly. 

From a repetitive font and size 
change, to a series of complex data 
base entries, record them once, replay 
with a single command. Tempo II 
saves you time, which makes your 
work faster, easier, fun even. 

One click starts recording. Even mac- 
ros that automatically repeat and 
branch to others are recorded with 
point-and-click simplicity. 

New features make your work easier. 
Transfer instantly between programs 

and files. Autopaste text or graphics. 
Perform hundreds of search and move 
operations. All with a keystroke. 

See for yourself. Let Tempo II put all of 
your manual labors on automatic. 

$149.95 with a 90-day money-back guar- 
antee. Buy Tempo II today-you'll start sav- 
ing time and effort immediately, every time 
you use your Macintosh. Call us for the name 
of a Tempo II dealer nearest you. 

Call 800-367-6771 today 



Affinity Microsystems, Ltd. 

1050 Walnut Street, Suite 425 
Boulder, CO 80302 

Circle M2 on Reader Service Card 

1988 Mac Special Edition • BYTE 15 

Circle M43 on Reader Service Card 

for the Macintosh 


Large Screen Monitors 
Data Acquisition 

Second Wave expansion 
chassis come complete 
with an interface card, 
cables, and the chassis 
with SE or NuBus slots, 
a power supply and fan. 

ExpanSE, ExpanSE Plus, & 
Expanse II, expansion 
chassis from Second Wave, 
Inc., enable your Macintosh 
SE, Plus, & II to work with a 
full array of option boards. 

Users: Make your Macintosh a 
powerful personal workstation 
with a Second Wave expansion 
chassis full of option boards. 
Dealers: Increase add-on sales 
with option boards and a 
chassis. Demonstrate option 
boards in your store by using a 
chassis in your showroom. 
Developers: Use the chassis as 
a research & development tool 
for hardware design & debug. 
Manufacturers: Use the chassis 
as a burn-in rack or test bed. 

To order a 
chassis, contact: 
Second Wave, Inc. 
9430 Research Blvd. 
Echelon II, Suite 260 
Austin, TX 78759 
(512) 343-9661 



Protect Your Copies of BYTE 

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At first glance, scriptEx- 
pert seems very inflexible. 
When you start a script, you 
have to either finish it or start 
over. The scriptExpert pro- 
gram insists on correct syntax 
and won't let you add invalid 
commands to your script. You 
can't save partially completed 
scripts and then come back 
later and edit them. But the 
purpose of scriptExpert is to 
help you generate working 
scripts, and the inflexibility 
actually helps novice Hyper- 
Talk programmers avoid 
bugs. Experienced program- 
mers will find scriptExpert 
useful because it reduces the 
amount of typing you have to 
do. For example, say you want 
to create an IF . . . THEN . . . 
ELSE loop. The scriptExpert 
program sets up the If loop, 
and you just fill in the condi- 
tional statements and variable 
values. The program automat- 
ically indents the appropriate 
code within the loop to make 
your script easy to follow . 

If your script does have logi- 
cal bugs, you can edit the 
script using HyperCard's 
built-in editor. 

My only complaint is that 
scriptExpert does not recover 
well from user errors. I lost a 
couple of scripts by making 
mistakes when editing the 
script window on my own. 

The 50-page scriptExpert 
user manual is primarily a tu- 
torial that takes you step-by- 
step through the process of de- 
veloping a HyperCard stack 
application. Knowing virtu- 
ally nothing about HyperTalk 
programming, I found the tu- 
torial extremely helpful in un- 
derstanding the basic concepts 
of developing a HyperCard 
application on my own. Al- 
though experienced program- 
mers may find scriptExpert 
useful, it is really aimed at be- 
ginners learning HyperTalk. 
A good complement to the pro- 
gram is Dan Shafer's book, 
HyperTalk Programming . 

—Nick Baran 

Text Retriever Pops Up 
on the Mac 

Gofer, that handy little 
pop-up program for 
finding text buried in a file 
somewhere, has helped me out 
countless times on my MS- 
DOS machine. Because I also 
use a Macintosh, I was inter- 
ested when Microlytics 
brought out a Mac version of 
the search-and-retrieve pro- 
gram. We've got a densely 
populated 80-megabyte hard 
disk in the BYTE Lab Mac II; 
there are so many files and 
folders on it that it's tough to 
quickly find whatever it is 
you're looking for. 

The program works as a 
desk accessory. After you call 
it up, you tell Gofer what you 
want it (Microlytics insists on 
calling it "him") to find, 
where you want it to look, and 
how you want it to look. The 
program will search for any 
combination of characters or 
numbers, which you specify 
in a text-entry box. You then 

tell Gofer where to go, and it 
will look in any or every file or 
folder on any floppy or hard 
disk. The program goes on its 
search and keeps you posted in 
a window, in which you can 
see where Gofer is looking and 
how many finds it's hitting. 
The program will flash the 
finds on the screen as it flies 
through files or will stop at 
each find, depending on how 
you've set up the search. 

You can get very specific 
about what you send Gofer 
after; you can instruct it to 
find exact matches or "close" 
matches. Asking for close 
matches can be risky, though. 
On a search of document files 
for anything close to OS/2, for 
example, Gofer turned up 
hundreds of finds, including 
just about every word that be- 
gan with O. Microlytics says 
this approach will be fine- 
tuned for the next version. 

If you want to be really pre- 

16 BYTE • 1988 Mac Special Edition 





Microlytics, Inc. 
300 Main St. 

East Rochester, NY 14445 


Mac 512Ke with System 

4. 1 /Finder 5.5 or higher 

(800) 828-6293 
(716) 377-0130 
Inquiry M145. 

cise and thorough, you can set 
up Boolean searches using the 
logical operators AND, OR, 
NOT, or NEARBY; for exam- 
ple, you could tell Gofer to 
look for Shapiro NEARBY 
Pournelle, and it should find 
all the places where Shapiro 
and Pournelle are mentioned 
within a certain specified dis- 
tance of each other. 

Gofer will copy files to the 
Clipboard or write them to an 
application. If you want a hard 
copy of what you find, you can 
send the retrieved text to a 
printer. This capability wasn't 
implemented in the beta ver- 
sion I used, which was called 
1 .Oa33 , but Microlytics says it 
will be ready soon. The pro- 
gram can also work as a file 
browser, letting you scan se- 
lected files without having to 
set up a search. 

I used Gofer to look through 
tons of Word and PageMaker 
documents, scattered across 
hard and floppy disks. In its 
simple search mode, it almost 
always found what I asked it to 
look for. When I polished up 
the search using the operators, 
it always found the text I asked 
it to look for. The only odd- 
ness was the scrambling of 

PageMaker files. In Gofer's 
display window, they were 
readable but filled with gib- 
berish text and hieroglyphics. 
This should be corrected when 
Microlytics (or developer Mil- 
lennium Computer Corp.) 
adds new "handlers" for dif- 
ferent storage formats. 

It's asking for trouble to 
compare the MS-DOS version 
of a program with the Mac ver- 
sion, but I'll do it anyway. 
While both programs are 
good, reliable, fast text re- 
trievers, the Mac version is 
easier to use. The whole Mac 
approach— windows, menus, 
and dialog boxes— makes it 
easier to set up a search. On 
the other hand, it took me a 
while to get comfortable with 
the MS-DOS version. 

After Microlytics imple- 
ments the features mentioned 
in the prerelease documenta- 
tion (such as letting you be 
more specific as to which files 
to look in) and makes the 
"close match" unit more dis- 
criminating as to what it turns 
up, Gofer will be a fine desk 
accessory for anyone who has 
to go through lots of crowded 
places to find something. 

— D. Barker 

A T H A N A 

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Order in 50s. Add $3 per 
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Brand new. I 
reinked. Imagewriter I 
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1 Macintosh Typeface/ 1 

■ Clip Art Encyclopedia ■ 

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See what they're offering before you buy. 
The encyclopedia is FREE, but there is a 

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Circle M31 on Reader Service Card 1988 Mac Special Edition 'BYTE 17 

People who deal with'baud 
of McGraw-Hill information. 

Nobody understands the value of good informa- 
tion better than the people who work in computers 
and communications. 

And for those people, no information carries more 
weight than McGraw-Hill's. We provide the databases, 
analyses and news that computer and communications 
professionals rely on to illuminate the workings of 
their industries. 

Everyone in the business keeps up with the 
latest developments by reading McGraw-Hill maga- 

zines. BYTE, Electronics and Data Communications 
are all required reading in the field. So are books from 

For MIS/EDP and communications professionals, 
Datapro's print and on-line directories and reports 
cover every aspect of computer hardware and software 
from mainframes to micros, as well as communications 
and office automation. 

For people who manufacture or sell microcom- 
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andbyte use every bit 

number one information source for product tests, 
analyses and comparisons. 

People who specialize in communications are 
wired into CCMI/McGraw-Hill, to receive not only the 
hard facts on communications tariffs, but also in-depth 
analyses and bottom-line recommendations via print, 
software and on-line products. 

And when telecommunications and computer 
companies plan for the future, they rely on DRI 
Communications to provide them with forecasts 

of economic forces and industry trends. 

When it comes to turning megabytes into mega- 
bucks, nothing computes like McGraw-Hill information. 

McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1221 Avenue of the Americas, 
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Information that leads to action. 

Enter The New Age of Electronic CAD 

The wait is over for a powerful, easy to use electronic design workstation. 

With the new Douglas CAD/CAM 
Professional System, you can now experience 
computer-aided design without going over 
hudget and without sitting through months of 
tedious training. Running on the Apple 
Macintosh Plus, SE and II, the Professional 
System from Douglas Electronics excels 
in price/ performance, short learning curves 
and ease of use. 

As the newest addition to the Douglas 
CAD/CAM line of printed circuit board design 
and manufacturing systems, the Profes- 
sional System is a fully integrated engineering 
tool that will take you from the schematic 
drawing to the final routed board. The soft- 
ware features full color, unlimited multi- 

Circle M22 on Reader Service Card 

©1988 Douglas Electronics Photography: ©1987 Ted Jew 

layers and .001" control which makes surface 
mount technology (SMT) and other difficult 
tasks a snap. Professional Layout includes a 
parts placement facility. Schematic includes 
fully interactive digital simulation and net list 
generation. A flexible, multi-pass router 
completes the design cycle with a 16 layer 
routing capability. 

The new age of electronic CAD has come 
with the high resolution and speed of a 
Macintosh engineering workstation. You'll be 
designing your first circuit board just 
minutes after the Professional System software 
has been loaded into your computer. 
In addition, the Macintosh's graphics capa- 

Macintosh is a trademark ol Apple Computer, Inc. 

bilities allow for powerful features such 
as the ability to transfer Professional 
System drawings into final engineering 

Computer-aided design wasn't meant to be 
time consuming and complicated. If your 
present CAD system has got the best of you, 
it may be time you enter the new age of 
electronic CAD with the powerful, easy to use 
Douglas CAD/CAM Professional System. 

Take your first step by ordering a full- 
feature Demo. All three programs are 
included for just $25. 

Call or write for more information and to 
place your order. 



718 Marina Blvd. 

San Leandro, CA 94577 

(415) 483-8770 



Ail-Time Favorites 

Ezra Shapiro 

Let's say you were going to be ship- 
wrecked on a desert island for the rest of 
your life, and someone offered you a 
twist on the classic question. Instead of 
the traditional 10 favorite books or 
records, you would be allowed to bring 
your 10 most prized software packages 
for your Macintosh (yes, it's a very re- 
fined desert island, with three-pronged 
electrical outlets all over the place). 
What would you choose, and why? 

The above is a therapeutic exercise that 
was suggested to me by Bruce Webster as 
a way to help me narrow my focus when I 
was beginning to work on this article. I 
dutifully sweated over my list, cheated a 
little ("Does it have to be 10? How about 
14?"), and came up with my own per- 
sonal Mac favorites. Some of the choices 
were predictable— and some were a little 
weird— but I had concocted my list. 

I proceeded to put it away and ignore it 
for a week; when I returned to it, I no- 
ticed that it made a pretty good assess- 
ment of the state of refinement, or lack 
thereof, in the Macintosh universe. It 
also recapitulated my history with the 
Mac, a long story of alternately falling in 
and out of love with the machine. 

In the Beginning 

These days, it's not very fashionable to 
advocate a computing environment based 
on a closed system architecture. In many 
ways, however, today's open Macintosh 
owes its rich universe of software— if not 
its very existence— to the authoritarian 
nature of its initial design. Ask any mem- 
ber of the original Macintosh design 
team, from Jef Raskin on down, and 
you'll get the same answer: The Mac se- 
duced developers into using a standard- 
ized interface. 

The difficulty of writing meaningful 
code in the limited memory space of the 
first 128K-byte Mac made the interface 
routines provided in the machine's ROM 
so attractive to programmers that they 
adopted the standard Macintosh "look" 
without too much grumbling. The Tool- 

Ezra recounts the 

Mac 's history 

and names his dozen 

top programs 

box ROM turned out to be far more than a 
collection of shortcuts for programmers; 
it became the guiding force in all Mac 
software. The combination of the Tool- 
box, a modular program structure, and 
extensive use of bit-mapped graphics 
proved to be a fertile ground indeed for 
the development of new software. 

And it was new software, too, built 
around graphics rather than text. The 
Mac was the first successful personal 
computer that pumped out pixels rather 
than characters (though characters could 
be made from pixels easily enough). 
Looking back, it's not surprising that 
MacPaint was the program that propelled 
the Mac into consumers' hearts, while 
MacWrite evoked little enthusiasm, par- 
ticularly from business buyers. But as the 
Mac slowly matured, the software base 
grew with it. The gaps began to be filled 
with spreadsheets, database managers, 
and other prosaic applications. It took a 
few years, but the Mac became a "real" 
computer at last. 

But in the beginning, the Mac was 
something of a dog. Intriguing, yes. 
Easy to use, yes. But boy, was it frustrat- 
ing to do any serious computing on the 

When I first joined the staff of BYTE 
in 1983, 1 found a Lisa on my desk. After 
playing with it for a few days, noting its 
slowness and inflexibility, I embarked 
on a serious project to unload the ma- 
chine on anyone in the office who would 

take it off my hands. I worked out a trade 
and was relieved to replace the Lisa with 
a stock IBM PC. Nothing fancy, but soft- 
ware availability alone made the ex- 
change worthwhile. 

The Lisa spawned the Macintosh, and 
in 1984 a few Macs began filtering into 
the office. What caught my fancy— and 
indeed made everyone take notice of this 
new machine— was MacPaint. On a 
character-oriented machine like the IBM 
PC, I pushed words and numbers. On the 
Mac, I could doodle or even produce le- 
gitimate artwork. I was enchanted. So 
here we have the first program category 
for one of my Mac favorites— design. 

Today, I vote for SuperPaint from Sili- 
con Beach Software. It's a direct descen- 
dant of MacPaint, but it allows for much 
greater refinement. You can create with 
all the MacPaint tools, perform distor- 
tions, swap graphics with a wide range of 
other programs, edit at laser-printer res- 
olution, magnify and shrink your work 
area with pinpoint control, and, in gen- 
eral, have a real good time. SuperPaint 
also lets you work on a second plane of 
draw-type artwork, so you also get much 
of the functionality of MacDraw. 

I have to give a nod of appreciation to 
GraphicWorks, which is equal in many 
respects to SuperPaint, though more con- 
fusing and tougher to learn. Graphic- 
Works was originally named Comic- 
Works, and it's designed to integrate text 
and graphics into the sort of panels you'd 
have in a comic strip. The airbrush tool is 
more adjustable than SuperPaint's, and 
you can work on multiple layers. Another 
nod goes to Adobe Illustrator, Aldus 
FreeHand, and Cricket Draw, all excel- 
lent programs at the higher end of profes- 
sionalism for the serious artist. But the 
all-around winner is SuperPaint. 

One aside: I have to promote one other 
art program to my list, Fontographer 
from Altsys. With it, you can create your 
own laser fonts. It predates any other 
program that manipulates the Bezier 


1988 Mac Special Edition -BYTE 21 


curves that make up PostScript outlines, 
and it contains the germ of the technol- 
ogy on which they're all based. If you're 
patient, you can do wonderful things 
with this product. 

Back to the Story 

Even though I fell in love with MacPaint, 
I did not fall in love with Mac Write, 
Apple's companion word-processing 
program. The typefaces were nice, but I 
could run rings around it with grubby old 
WordStar on the IBM PC. So I held back; 
I was not yet ready to become a Mac 

The program that started to convince 
me that the Macintosh might be a tool for 
more than creative doodling was Think- 
Tank 128 from Living Videotext. This 
gem of an outliner ran perfectly well on 
those early memory -poor Macs. Writing 
an outline, then moving branches of it 
from place to place, made perfect sense 
as a mouse operation. It was exciting to 
realize that text manipulation could, in 
fact, be a very visual process. 

ThinkTank 128 was rudimentary 
compared to the version for MS-DOS 
machines; many of the spiffier editing 
features were nixed due to memory con- 
straints. But as soon as the Macintosh 
was fattened to 512K bytes, there was 
ThinkTank 512, which was more than 
enough to fulfill the promise of its prede- 
cessor. ThinkTank 512 had a host of new 
features, including a convenient text edi- 
tor that let you create long text sections as 
part of an outline, and the ability to im- 
port graphics. ThinkTank 512 was sud- 
denly far more than an outliner; it was a 
word processor, a database for artwork, 
and a spectacular tool for constructing 
tightly organized reports. 

The reigning heir is called More 
(though Living Videotext has become 
part of Symantec), and it defines the 
state of the art in outline processing. 
More remains true to the visual outliner 
from which it grew, but it's almost an op- 
erating system in and of itself— an oper- 
ating system within the context of in- 
dented outlines. You can use the program 
to sketch ideas, flesh them out with the 
word-processing functions in the editor, 
create databases with installable outline 
templates, dial phone numbers, convert 
your outlines to tree diagrams or bullet 
charts, and on and on and on. 

More was one of the first programs to 
launch the discipline of desktop presenta- 
tion, and it is so good a program that I 
almost forgot to include it in my list. It's 
such a natural, I assume everyone has it; 
I have to remind myself that it isn't sold 
as a part of the Mac package. 

The Next Phase 

Shortly after the arrival of the 5 12K-byte 
machine, dubbed the Fat Mac, my head 
was turned even farther by PageMaker 
from Aldus and Microsoft's Excel 
spreadsheet. PageMaker was responsible 
for that all-consuming concept of desk- 
top publishing. It lets you gather text and 
artwork created with other programs and 
pull them into finished layouts. It's 
based on the metaphor of the paste-up 
artist's drawing board, and you cut and 
paste on the screen as you would in a 
graphics studio, only you can dispense 
with the scissors and the rubber cement. 
PageMaker began as a sophisticated 
piece of program design, and Aldus has 
continued to improve it. We're now up to 
version 3.0, which finally lets you create 
humongously long publications without 
having to perform every little design op- 
eration one at a time. It fully supports 
style sheets (in fact, it can exchange 
named styles with Microsoft Word 3.01), 
and it is a pleasure to use. 

I have to nod at Quark XPress and 
Ready-Set-Go! 4.0, PageMaker's 
worthy competitors, but PageMaker was 
my first love in this category. Also, 
PageMaker was the program that con- 
vinced me that the Mac was a real ma- 
chine, one that I could both use and love. 
Excel proved that the Macintosh inter- 
face was ideal for spreadsheets. Though I 
wouldn't have thought so before, it 
turned out that zooming around on a grid 
of numbers was made easier with a 
mouse. And Excel allowed linked work- 
sheets to avoid the bloat of large work- 
sheets fenced into smaller regions for 
printing. The program also has an excep- 
tionally powerful macro language. Excel 
was the spreadsheet that finally began to 
get the Mac into business workplaces. 

However, I haven't included Excel as 
one of my top choices, but only due to my 
personal habits. Though I like spread- 
sheets, I'm not a number cruncher by 
trade. I vote for Microsoft Works, a nice 
integrated package with spreadsheet, 
word processor, database, and telecom- 
munications modules. Nothing spectacu- 
lar, but solid and reliable. With the addi- 
tion of two add-in programs from Tim 
Lundeen, WorksPlus Spell (one of the 
slickest spelling correctors I've ever 
used) and WorksPlus Command (an awe- 
inspiring macro package that completes 
the job of integration), Works handles 
just about everything I need to do. Need- 
less to say, it's also my winner in the 
word-processing category. 

If you need super power in any of 
Works' areas, I'd recommend going with 
a stand-alone program (Works is a mite 

slow), but for overall flexibility, Works 
with the Lundeen additions is my pick. 

This Year's Craze 

"Hypertext," the current buzzword in 
Macintosh application design, has come 
to be a term that's at least as ill-defined 
as desktop publishing, the former title- 
holder in the ambiguity department. As 
near as I can figure, hypertext means 
"interrelated text and graphics organized 
by the creator into a structure not neces- 
sarily bound by the limits of hard-copy 
output." In other words, hypertext is an 
attempt to exploit the abilities of the com- 
puter itself as a presentation device. 
Typically, hypertext programs let you 
link screen areas (called buttons) that 
can be clicked with a mouse to reveal 
new regions of data. 

Rather than nominating HyperCard, 
Apple's hypertext Erector-Set-in-a-box, 
or Guide, a solid implementation of the 
concept, I find myself leaning toward 
TeleRobotics' Course Builder, a pro- 
gram that lets instructors manufacture 
self-contained teaching programs that 
implement many of the core ideas of 
hypertext. Written by the prolific Bill 
Appleton, Course Builder lets you link 
artwork, sound, text, and animation into 
the framework of a teaching system. A 
student can move from item to item at his 
or her own pace, answer multiple-choice 
or specific-answer quizzes, and refer to 
related materials in a neatly structured 

What's so beautiful about Course 
Builder is that you don't have any need to 
program; you define the course using a 
straightforward "logic editor" (that's my 
phrase, not Appleton's). You simply link 
blocks representing elements of your 
course in a kind of flowchart, and then 
Course Builder does the rest for you. 

The other prong in my mild attack on 
HyperCard is provided by 4th Dimen- 
sion, the database development system 
from Acius. If you're going to have to 
program, you might as well go for top 
power. This is a full-featured relational 
database that gives the developer abso- 
lute control of the interface. You want 
your own menus, click boxes, entry 
forms, whatever? Fine, you got 'em. You 
can program and debug in a program- 
merish way, or you can build a flowchart 
(much like Course Builder), and away 
you go. This is my choice for databases. 

My third hypertext-like favorite is a 
game, Chris Crawford's Balance of 
Power. Working with maps, menus, 
graphs, and descriptions, Balance of 
Power lets you play out a global political 


22 BYTE • 1988 Mac Special Edition 

Circle M13 on Reader Service Card — ♦ 


r / 



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J .*r ^ .«■ aS »? <$> <S* > .» .«. 

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Our radically new design 

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It will forever change 

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OHttMail. WBm ijgo & CC Softmi lofo an tidaroa/to u< C£ Sonwra. to. Mrenra & UsstWriter arc regttcrnj 
trademarks* Ape*^ 

Here's why. 

Want to draw a picture without 
ever leaving the program? Easy. 
Want to wrap text all the way 
around it or let the text flow right 
through? Easy. 
Want to see it all 
in glorious color? 

Need a particular 
word or phrase by 
searching through 
all files, open or 
not? Easy. 
Need to use our 
superior diction- 
ary, thesaurus, 
hyphenation or 
Want to undo what you just did 

or any number of things you 

did before? Easy 

Want to use the fastest word 

processor on the market? Easy. 

Line numbers? Envelopes? 
Auto-save? Col- 
umn selection? 
Adjustable page 
preview? Ten clip- 
boards that can 
be edited and 
printed? Your 
favorite page lay- 
out ready when 
you open a new 
file? Easy. 
It's all easy when 
you have Nisus. 

concepts, inc. 

Nisus is a trademark of Paragon Concepts. Inc. 


confrontation between the U.S. and the 
USSR. Click your mouse on Mexico on 
the map, and you get a display of the sta- 
tus of your relations with that country. 
Select menu items to adjust your policies, 
read newspaper reports, or dig for his- 
torical or quantitative analysis. Very 
hyper, and one hell of a game. 

Finally, Some Fun 

VideoWorks II from MacroMind is an- 
other impressive example of pushing the 
Mac interface to its limits. It's an anima- 
tion package that lets you mix sound and 
graphics into your own Macintosh 
movies. You have to write a script (called 
a "score"), which takes some time to 
learn, but once you get the hang of it, 
you're in the motion picture business. 
VideoWorks II even provides a nice 
shortcut if you're pressed: You can place 
an object on the screen in one position, 
place it again in a second spot, and 
VideoWorks II animates the transition. 

It could very well be next year's hyper- 
text; if not, it still represents a great area 
for creative exploitation. Even if you 
don't want to make your own cartoons, 
you can use it to animate your bar-graph 
or pie-chart presentations. Imagine an 
exploded diagram that actually explodes! 

Not All Roses 

Of course, depending on whom you talk 
to, the Macintosh interface is far from 
perfect. It lacks a number of the ameni- 
ties we've come to associate with more 
traditional computer systems. The icon- 
based environment is certainly easy to 
learn, but some users eventually resent 
the way the Mac's simplicity gets in the 
way of real operating speed. I have 
rounded out my set of favorite programs 
with three utilities that extend the power 
of the Macintosh's operating system to 
cover some of the gaps. 

One of the Mac's most lamented defi- 
ciencies is the absence of a good key- 
board macro facility. Fast touch-typists 
find the constant interruption of mouse 
movements to be both distracting and 
time-consuming, particularly during 
text entry. Though most menu functions 
can be abbreviated to a combination of 
shortcut keystrokes, mouse actions (e.g., 
scrolling and selecting) are not usually 
automated from the keyboard. Enter 
QuicKeys from CE Software, a keyboard 
enhancing utility that lets you attach any 
single Mac operation to a one-keystroke 
combination command. You can still 
mouse along if you want to, but judicious 
assignment of functions to keystrokes 
will keep your fingers on the keyboard 


(619) 481-1477 Outside CA (800) 922-2993 4954 Sun Valley Rd., Del Mar, CA 92014 
24 BYTE • 1988 Mac Special Edition Circle M40 on Reader Service Card 


The First Family of Macintosh Programming 

Getting the most from your Macintosh 
means taking control — programming! 
Creating full-featured Mac programs 
used to be difficult. Not any more! 
Programming a Mac is as easy as using 

Visual Programming 

The idea is to use the visual power and 
intelligence of the Mac to make it easy to 
program. You program visually and the 
Mac interacts with you, preventing 
mistakes. Thus the name Visual Interac- 
tive Programming™ or V.I. P. for short. 

V.I. P. is a new type of language where 
a graphic interface replaces a text 
editor. Traditionally, programming is 
done by typing program statements into 
an editor following the rigid rules of a 
language's arcane syntax. 

Visual programming, on the other 
hand, is done by pointing, clicking icons 
and entering expressions and arguments 
into an on-screen diagram. 

A V.I. P. program is composed of 
graphic elements which can be cut, 
copied and pasted. The program is auto- 
matically structured with classical logic 
forms such as if. . .then. . .else or loops 
such as while. . .do and for. . .next. These 
are presented graphically. The program 
becomes visual! 

V.I. P. provides more than 220 pre- 
compiled procedures, greatly simplifying 
programming. On-line help is always 
there, keeping you on track. 

V.I. P. 's Graphic Editor 

Beginners Love It 

V.I. P. , an interpreter, provides quick 
feedback. It's ideal for learning. Create 
programs with full Mac features thirty 
minutes after opening the package. A 
separate tutorial, Macintosh Introductory 
Programming, explains the basics. 

V.I. P. is also great for experienced 
programmers who are seeking a painless 
introduction to the Mac. 

Experts Are Amazed 

V.I. P. forms the nucleus of a powerful 
development system. A family of 
products offers amazing versatility. 

Managers, sold separately, add new 
procedures facilitating spreadsheets, 
databases and vertical applications. 

Translators, also sold separately, turn 
a V.I. P. program into "C" or "Pascal" 
source code, ready for compilation. 

Imagine the benefits of developing in a 
friendly, interactive environment and 
with a few mouse clicks, having a stand- 
alone application. 

Extend HyperCard & 4D 

V.I. P. programs, translated to "C", can 
be automatically compiled to HyperCard 
XCMDs or XFCNs or Fourth Dimension 
external procedures. These can offer 
added features such as multiple windows 
or full color on a Macintosh II . 

Write Programs Faster 

V.I. P. improves productivity. In tests 
at Fortune 500 corporations, programs 
were finished ten times faster. V.I. P. 
also means linear progress; the last 10% 
of a project won't take 50% of the time. 
Other benefits are structured programs 
and automatically documented modules. 

The Press Agrees 
V.I. P. received overwhelmingly positive 
reviews. MacUser called it "the wave of 
the future", while MacWorld described 
it as a "Very Important Program". 

MacTutor characterized V.I. P. as "The 

Next Generation" . 


Icon-based programming. Simplified 
interface to Mac toolbox. Visual, source 
level debugger. Fast, interpreted with 
many pre-compiled routines. 200 page 
tutorial/reference manual. 20 example 
programs (2 disks). Run-time package. 
No license fees. Not copy-protected. 

V.I.P. only $149.95 

Managers: Speech $49.95, Grid $59.95, 
Matrix $95, Advanced I $95, Advanced 
II $125, Communications $125, Data- 
base/Form $295. Translators: to Light- 
speed C or Pascal, MPW C or Pascal, or 
to Turbo Pascal $89.95 each. Tutorial: 
Macintosh Introductory Programming 
Book (2 disks/275 pages) $49.95 
Order V.I.P. Today 

To order, see your dealer or call 
Mainstay at (818) 991-6540. Master- 
card, VISA, AMEX and COD are OK. 
Add $5 for shipping/handling. CA 
residents add 6.5% sales tax. 

For more information, write or call 
Mainstay, 531 1-B Derry Ave. Agoura 
Hills, CA 91301 (818)991-6540. 

In Europe, contact Mainstay at 
71 rue des Atrebates, Brussels, Belgium 
(02) 733 97 91, Telex 62239. 


Visual Interactive Programming is a trademark of Mainstay. Uglnspced is a trademark of Symantec. MPW and 1 lyperCard are trademarks of Apple computer. Fourth Dimension is a trademark of ACIUS. 

Circle M33 on Reader Service Card 

1988 Mac Special Edition -BYTE 25 


Items Discussed 

Balance of Power 



Software Supply 



3444 Dundee Rd. 

599 North Mathilda Ave. 

Northbrook, IL 60062 

Sunnyvale, CA 94086 



Inquiry M241. 

Inquiry M248. 

Course Builder 




TeleRobotics International 

Solutions International 

8410 Oak Ridge Hwy. 

29 Main St. 

Knoxville.TN 37931 

P.O. Box 989 

(615) 690-5600 

Montpelier, VT 05602 

Inquiry M242. 

(802) 229-9146 
Inquiry M249. 



Altsys Corp. 



720 Avenue F, Suite 108 

Silicon Beach Software 

Piano, TX 75074 

9770 Carroll Canyon Center, 

Suite J 

(214) 424-4888 

San Diego, CA 92126 

Inquiry M243. 

(619) 695-6956 
Inquiry M2S0. 

4th Dimension 





20300 Stevens Creek Blvd. , Suite 495 


Cupertino, CA 95014 

1028 West Wolfram St. 

(408) 252-4444 

Chicago, IL 60657 

Inquiry M244. 

Inquiry M251. 



Living Videotext 

Works 1.1 


1 17 Easy St. 



Mountain View, CA 94043 


(800) 441-7234 

1601 1 Northeast 36th Way 

(800) 626-8847 in California 

P.O. Box 97017 

Inquiry M245. 

Redmond, WA 98073 
(206) 882-8080 



Inquiry M252. 


411 First Ave. S 

WorksPlus Command 


Seattle, WA 98104 

WorksPlus Spell 


(206) 622-5500 

Lundeen & Associates 

Inquiry M246. 

P.O. Box 30038 
Oakland, CA 94604 



(800) 233-6851 

CE Software 

(800) 922-7587 in California 

801 73rd St. 

Inquiry M253. 

Des Moines, I A 50312 


Inquiry M247. 

and your train of thought intact. You can 
even chain keyboard macros into long se- 
quences, thus automating a whole string 
of commands. 

My second utility, one that is fast be- 
coming everyone's favorite, is a little 
program from Steve Brecher of Software 
Supply called Suitcase. The original 
Mac design allows for only 16 desk ac- 
cessories and a limited number of fonts 

(the maximum varies from program to 
program). If you like to have a large col- 
lection of memory-resident desk accesso- 
ries, or if you want wider access to the 
growing panoply of Mac typefaces, you 
need Suitcase. Though there are theoreti- 
cal limits, installing Suitcase gives you 
as many accessories and typefaces as any 
mortal normally needs. You're more 
likely to run out of RAM and/or disk 

space before you make Suitcase choke. 

The third utility, Solutions' Super- 
Glue, is a print-to-disk driver that lets 
you look at formatted output on the 
screen without requiring the originating 
program. If you send a file to disk using 
SuperGlue, the saved image can then be 
manipulated by any other program as if it 
were a graphic. Thus, you can capture a 
page of a spreadsheet, drop the image 
into a layout program, shrink it, and 
make marginal notes before printing it 
out. You can build a report with a word 
processor that uses the output of any so- 
phisticated analytical tool you have. 

In many cases, the SuperGlue image is 
smaller than the original file, which is 
handy for data transfer and true elec- 
tronic publishing. The program lets you 
crop, resize, reposition, and extract text 
from images to your heart's content. 
Why Apple didn't see a need for such a 
utility built into the operating system is 
beyond me, but this little gem is an essen- 
tial addition to the Mac arsenal. 

I wish I could add one more capability 
to this list of remedial utilities— batch 
files, some sort of concise language to 
pipeline a series of operations that in- 
volves a number of programs and a num- 
ber of files. I'd settle for the ability to 
add a shell to the Mac interface that could 
give me (dare I say it) a command line 
with batch handling that is not based on 
icons. I realize that this flies in the face 
of the icon-and-mouse dogma, but the 
more you work with computers, the more 
you appreciate ways to slice off a few sec- 
onds, even if it involves procedures that 
are not quite so easy to learn. 

The Wrap-Up 

There you have it, an even dozen recom- 
mendations spanning the range of Mac- 
intosh applications: SuperPaint, Fontog- 
rapher, More, Works (with WorksPlus 
Spell and WorksPlus Command), Page- 
Maker, Course Builder, 4th Dimension, 
Balance of Power, VideoWorks II, 
QuicKeys, Suitcase, and SuperGlue. If 
you ask another Mac aficionado for his or 
her top dozen selections, you probably 
won't get the same list, but I guarantee 
you'll get several duplicates. The Mac is 
getting its share of excellent software. ■ 

Ezra Shapiro is a consulting editor for 
BYTE. You can contact him on BIX as 
"ezra. " Because of the volume of mail he 
receives, Ezra, regretfully, cannot re- 
spond to each inquiry. 

Your questions and comments are wel- 
come. Write to: Editor, BYTE, One 
Phoenix Mill Lane, Peterborough, NH 

26 BYTE • 1988 Mac Special Edition 



And Macs InThe 

Same Room. 


InThe Same 


i(l!-_i_flil ]l|r-ll> Ml.'U.rt I ulul 


Macintosh II 

I. / 


fc . fc fc ,| /L ;\ . lit 


It was getting pretty crowded. As more and 
more Macintoshes started showing up at 
work, the duplication of computers, monitors, 
printers and keyboards was simply getting out 
of hand. 

And while there was still a need to use vital 
programs like Lotus® 1-2-3® anddBASE® there 
was also an ever increasing demand for the 
Macintosh. Would the two computer environ- 
ments be able to work together? 

Times have changed. Now Macintosh™ lis 
can run MS-DOS® software just as easily as 
Macintosh applications. With AST's Mac286; u 
the AT-compatible, 80286 computer-on-a- 
board that runs inside the Macintosh II. Its 
advanced hardware design actually runs 
faster than an IBM® PC AT. 

With Mac286, familiar MS-DOS programs 
take advantage of many of the elements of the 
Macintosh environment. Copy and paste text, 
print on an Apple® LaserWriter® store your 
files on the Mac hard disk and share DOS files 
with other users. It's that easy. 

Of course, the future is built in, too. By 
installing an advanced hardware solution for 
MS-DOS compatibility, you're insuring a home 
for the best of today's, and tomorrow's, soft- 
ware programs. 

Because there's one thing you can always 
count on in the world of personal computers. 
Times will change. 

If you're interested in putting an AT-com- 
patible computer inside your Mac II, call AST 
at (714) 863-0181 or fill out the coupon, and 
we'll tell you ho w you can have the best of 
both worlds. 

m ■ "Improved Video 
fortnarice. / 

D Yes, send me information on the Mac286 
□ Yes, have an AST representative call me. 



Company . 


Phone . 

. State . 


Send to: AST Research, Inc. 2121 Alton Ave. 

Irvine, CA 9271 4-4992. Attn: M.C. 





Times Have Changed. 

AST markets products worldwide— In Europe and the Middle 
East call: 44 1 568 4350; in the Far East call: 852 5 717223. 

AST and AST logo registered and Mac286 trademark of AST 

Research, Inc. IBM and AT registered trademarks Internationa] 

Business Machines Corp. Apple and LaserWriter registered and 

Macintosh trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. MS-DOS registered 

trademark Microsoft Corp. Lotus and 1 -2-3 registered trademarks of 

Lotus Development Corp. dBASE registered trademark Ashton-Tate. 

Copyright ? 1988 AST Research, Inc. All rights reserved. 

■icro Diskette 
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rotection against 
a hostile world. 

You're covered. BASF molds 
the rigid plastic jacket of its 
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The Spirit of Innovate 

# • ♦ 



Macintosh Redux 

Bruce F. Webster 

It's mid- April as I write this, and a lot of 
water has gone under the bridge since last 
I wrote for BYTE. I've moved back to 
California, penned a number of articles 
for other publications, written some 
manuals for a certain unnamed software 
firm, and have even started work on my 
first honest-to-goodness book. So, why 
am I here? Because, in light of my exten- 
sive and consistent coverage of the Mac- 
intosh from 1984 to 1987, BYTE has gra- 
ciously invited me back for the first-ever 
BYTE Macintosh supplement. They fig- 
ured I might have a few things to say, and, 
true to form, I am not at a loss for words. 
The still- warm (but cooling) news is, 
of course, the lawsuit by Apple against 
Microsoft and Hewlett-Packard for "vio- 
lation of audiovisual display copyright," 
because Apple thought that the New 
Wave user interface from HP looked too 
much like the Mac Finder. And, of course, 
Microsoft has filed a countersuit. The 
merits and issues of this case are best dis- 
cussed elsewhere (and, in fact, I think I 
will), but it indicates the direction Apple's 
attitude has taken since the Mac burst 
upon a skeptical world 4'/2 years ago. 

Evolution in Action 

I first saw the Macintosh in Guy Kawasa- 
ki's office at Apple, in December of 
1983, a month or so before its announce- 
ment. Wayne Holder and I were there, 
representing Oasis Systems/FTL Games 
as president and vice president, respec- 
tively. Our ostensible purpose was to 
consider porting our word-processing 
utilities (spelling, punctuation, and style 
checkers) to the Mac. Our real purpose 
was to see the Mac ahead of time. I was 
initially disappointed at the lack of slots, 
but Guy assured me that schemes were 
underway to use the high-speed RS-422 
ports as "virtual slots." 

Three weeks after the Mac was an- 
nounced (February, 1984), I bought one, 
off the shelf, with money out of my own 
pocket. It had 128K bytes of RAM, 64K 
bytes of ROM, a 512- by 342-pixel mono- 

The path from 

then to now 

was anything but 

easy for the Mac 

chrome display, a single 400K-byte flop- 
py disk drive, no slots (virtual or other- 
wise), and an 8-MHz 68000 processor. It 
was slow, crashed a lot, required multi- 
ple disk swaps to copy a file, and had lit- 
tle software available. But it was mine, 
and I was thrilled to have it. 

The Macintosh I use today is a Mac II, 
with 5 megabytes of RAM, 256K bytes of 
ROM, two displays (AppleColor high- 
resolution RGB monitor with a fully ex- 
panded Mac II video card, and a Sony 
GDM-1952 19-inch Trinitron RGB 
monitor with the SuperMac Spectrum 
video card), a 40-megabyte hard disk 
drive, an 800K-byte floppy disk drive, 
six NuBus slots, a 16-MHz 68020 pro- 
cessor, and a 16-MHz 68881 math co- 
processor. It's fast, seldom crashes, has 
thousands of software titles available, 
and copies files with no extra disk swap- 
ping. Unfortunately, it's not mine, and 
I'm not sure when I'll be able to come up 
with the money to buy such a system. 

Apple has come a long, long way in the 
past 4 years, as has the Macintosh. The 
Mac was initially derided as a toy or dis- 
missed as a curiosity. And through the 
last 4 years, it's always been a major 
source of controversy and contention. 
The Mac versus IBM debates have been 
hot and heavy, reaching a level of inten- 
sity reserved for such classic issues as 
calculators (RPN vs. algebraic notation), 
languages (Pascal vs. C, BASIC vs. Pas- 
cal, and assembly vs. high-level), and 

operating systems (Unix vs. anything 

Now, the Macintosh is the system that 
everyone either wants or wants to imi- 
tate, IBM included. That's something of 
an amazing feat. 

How Apple Got There 

The path from then to now was anything 
but easy for the Mac. It's hard to remem- 
ber now, and seems incredible in retro- 
spect, but it was several months after the 
Mac's introduction before external disk 
drives (much less hard disk drives) were 
generally available. After an initial spurt 
of sales, fueled by technophiles like me, 
the Mac went into a slump for almost a 
year, a slump that many believed was not 
only the end of the Mac but the end of 
Apple as well. Some of Apple's decisions 
along the way (anyone remember the 
$1000 RAM upgrade from 128K to 5 12K 
bytes?) did little to help things. Even the 
emergence of the "Fat" Mac with 512K 
bytes didn't help that much; software and 
operating system alike were space hogs, 
and the memory and disk configurations 
of the Macintosh just weren't sufficient 
to handle their demands. 

The real breakthrough, in retrospect, 
was the Mac Plus. With 1 megabyte of 
RAM and an 800K-byte floppy disk 
drive as standard, plus a small-com- 
puter-system-interface port for hard disk 
drives and significant speed improve- 
ments in the operating system and ROM, 
it was the first Mac system that had the 
resources and horsepower to do serious 
work. Sales took off, surprising every- 
one (including, I suspect, Apple); for a 
while there, the Mac Plus was the single 
best-selling model of computer in the 
U.S. The enlarged basic configuration 
and improved sales drew in a lot of soft- 
ware development firms that had been 
watching from the sidelines. 

The final steps toward success were 
the introductions of the Mac SE and the 
Mac II. Like a lot of other folks, I fo- 


Circle Ml on Reader Service Card 

1988 Mac Special Edition -BYTE 29 


cused mostly on the Mac II (an open 
Macintosh, at last!) and dismissed the 
Mac SE as just another "toaster," in a 
platinum case instead of beige. However, 
it was the SE that shot off in sales this 
time, displacing the Mac Plus. The key 
was the capacity for an internal hard disk 
drive. Sales reports I've seen indicate 
that about 80 percent of all Mac SEs are 
sold with a hard disk drive. 

Meanwhile, the Mac II established an 
open architecture for the Mac family. 
Hardware developers now had a standard 
upon which to base their efforts, and 
owners had a machine that could be ex- 
panded with special tools and bizarre 
cables. And, despite the hefty price tag, 
Mac II sales have been strong. 

What Apple Does Right 

Given its strong financial condition and 
growth of market shar